The Cape of Good Hope known as the Cape Colony, was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Dutch colony of the same name, the Kaap de Goede Hoop, established in 1652 by the Dutch East India Company; the Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. The Dutch lost the colony to Great Britain following the 1795 Battle of Muizenberg, but had it returned following the 1802 Peace of Amiens, it was re-occupied by the UK following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The Cape of Good Hope remained in the British Empire, becoming self-governing in 1872, uniting with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa in 1910, it was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope. South Africa became a sovereign state in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. In 1961 it obtained its own monetary unit called the Rand. Following the 1994 creation of the present-day South African provinces, the Cape Province was partitioned into the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Western Cape, with smaller parts in North West province.
The Cape of Good Hope was coextensive with the Cape Province, stretching from the Atlantic coast inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish River. In the north, the Orange River known as the Gariep River, served as the boundary for some time, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was added to it. From 1878, the colony included the enclave of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, both in what is now Namibia. An expedition of the Dutch East India Company led by Jan van Riebeeck established a trading post and naval victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Van Riebeeck's objective was to secure a harbour of refuge for Dutch ships during the long voyages between Europe and Asia. Within about three decades, the Cape had become home to a large community of "vrijlieden" known as "vrijburgers", former VOC employees who settled in Dutch colonies overseas after completing their service contracts.
Vrijburgers were married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years farming the land within the fledgling colony's borders. Reflecting the multi-national nature of the early trading companies, the Dutch granted vrijburger status to a number of former Scandinavian and German employees as well. In 1688 they sponsored the immigration of nearly two hundred French Huguenot refugees who had fled to the Netherlands upon the Edict of Fontainebleau. There was a degree of cultural assimilation due to intermarriage, the universal adoption of the Dutch language. Many of the colonists who settled directly on the frontier became independent and localised in their loyalties. Known as Boers, they migrated westwards beyond the Cape Colony's initial borders and had soon penetrated a thousand kilometres inland; some Boers adopted a nomadic lifestyle permanently and were denoted as trekboers. The Dutch colonial period was marred by a number of bitter conflicts between the colonists and the Khoisan, followed by the Xhosa, both of which they perceived as unwanted competitors for prime farmland.
Dutch traders imported thousands of slaves to the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East Indies and other parts of Africa. By the end of the eighteenth century the Cape's population swelled to about 26,000 people of European descent and 30,000 slaves. In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India Company; this prompted Great Britain to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order to stop any potential French attempt to reach India. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory; the Dutch East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic in 1798, ceased to exist in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape of Good Hope over to the Batavian Republic in 1803, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens.
In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The temporary peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic; the British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, to control the Far East trade routes. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London; the British started to settle the eastern border of the colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. They began to introduce the first rudimentary rights for the Cape's black African population and, in 1834, abolished slavery; the resentment that the Dutch farmers felt against this social change, as well as the imposition of English language and culture, caused them to trek inland en masse. This was known as the Great Trek, the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
British immigration con
Mount Frere is a town located in the Eastern Cape province known as the Transkei region, of South Africa. Its name in Xhosa is kwaBhaca, or "place of the Bhaca people", who settled here while fleeing the advance of Shaka Zulu. Mount Frere is situated between Kokstad and Mthatha along the N2 road about 100 km north east of Mthatha, it is administered by the Alfred Nzo District Municipality and the villages are ruled by the Tribal chief with intermediary borders. Mount Frere was named after Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere. There is one major street in Mount Frere and it is the Main street on the N2 road, it has many restaurants and public services including the Police Station, Post Office, Municipal offices and the newly built Madzikane Ka Zulu Memorial Hospital. Most of the businesses and shops are situated along the Main street, there are only a few outside this area. There are a lot of farmers in and around Mount Frere and most of the people rely on subsistence farming for their basic needs. Peaches, pears and maize meal are the most popular fruits and vegetables in Mount Frere and there has been involvement from the Municipal to change these Subsistence farmers into Commercial farmers.
Mount Frere has a population of over 5,000 although this might appear as crowded, the town in fact, has the smallest population, as most people are from the surrounding rural villages. The closest village is Lubhacweni, located north of the town. Rural villages surrounding the own still lack basic services like proper roads and water. Villages include Dangwana, Mbondleni, Mtshazi, Toleni, Qoqa and others. Local tribes living in Mount Frere are the amaBhaca, amaHlubi, amaZizi, AmaMpondo and AmaMpondomise people, divisions of the Xhosa speaking people. Mount Frere is underdeveloped in terms of sanitation. There are few proper public roads and most of the roads are gravel roads. Most people who do not have water tanks still make use river water, most of the villages are still without electricity. There is any skills development in the area and as a result most of the youth have moved to the cities and more developed towns like Mthatha, Cape Town and Kokstad. Most of the people in Mount Frere are the elderly as this is accelerated by the staggering unemployment rate and lack of essential services, like proper infrastructure and skills development.
The majority of Mount Frere's inhabitants are of Traditional African religion. There are minute populations of Islamic and Buddhists religions the foreign shopkeepers in rural villages; the most prominent churches are the Assemblies of God. Most of the people who live in Mount Frere are black people, there is a small percentage of white and foreign populations in Mount Frere. There are Primary and Secondary Schools known as Jolobe Junior Secondary School, Mount Frere High School and Ingwe Further Education and a Training College; the Madzikane Ka Zulu Memorial Hospital is situated along the N2 main road, a few kilometer east out of town. It is one of a landmark in the area. Bhaca| AmaBhaca
Philippolis is a small town in the Free State province of South Africa. The writer and intellectual Sir Laurens van der Post was born here, it is regarded as one of the first colonial period settlements in the Free State. The London Missionary Society founded Philippolis in 1823 as a mission station for the local Griqua people. At first, the area was referred to as Southern Transorangia; the town takes its name from Dr John Philip, the superintendent of the LMS from 1819 to 1849. Adam Kok II, a Griqua leader, settled here with his people in 1826 and became the protector of the mission station. Kok II and some of his followers moved to Philippolis from Griquatown after there had been factional disputes in the area; when Adam Kok II was given possession of the mission station it was on condition that he promised to protect the San against the aggression of the Boers and the LMS hoped that the Griqua would promote peace in the region. However, Philippolis became a base from which a number of deadly commandos against the San people were organised within a year of the Griqua arrival.
This violated the agreement made between the LMS and Adam Kok II and the San were driven out of the area. Kok's son, Adam Kok III and his followers migrated across the Drakensberg mountains to settle in Kokstad in Griqualand East; the town has a number of declared heritage sites including an historical jail, turned into a bed and breakfast guest house. Two naval cannons stand on top of a small hill which were presented by the Cape colonial government in 1840 to Adam Kok III, the Griqua chief at that time; the cannons are fired during the town’s Witblits festival held in April. These cannons may have been used during the various wars between the Griqua and the Boers; this memorial commemorates Emily Hobhouse who helped improve the lives of the Boers during the South African War. After the war, she established a spinning and weaving school in Philippolis in 1905; this museum was opened on 2 March 1982. It focuses on the London Missionary Society, Adam Kok III and the Griqua as well as Emily Hobhouse and her weaving school.
The town jail was served as a jail for 70 years. It was subsequently converted into a police station and several changes were made such as the repurposing of jail cells into charge offices; the SANDF used the jail as an army barracks from 1972 to 1982. The jail was abandoned from 1982 until 1998 when it was restored and turned into a bed and breakfast guest house; the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa in Philippolis was opened in 1871. The church is famous for its pulpit, carved from wild olive and erected with no nails, screws or bolts; this site is a declared Provincial Heritage Site. The property with the Old Victorian Library building thereon, Voortrekker StreetThe property with the Dwelling-house thereon, 24 Tobie Muller StreetThe property with the Dwelling-house thereon, being certain Portion “C” of Erf 97, Tobie Muller StreetThe property with the Dwelling-house and adjoining building thereon, 26 Kok StreetThe property, together with the Karoo styled Dwelling-house thereon, 4 Justisie StreetThe Old Pound, together with a portion of surrounding land, being 5 metres on the northern and western side of the structure, the land on the eastern site to and bordered by Justisie Street and the land on the southern side thereof to and bordered by Erf 129, Philippolis.
The property, together with the Victorian House thereon, 7 Colin Fraser Street (Amended declared in 1990. The historic Old Power Magazine, together with 10 metres of surrounding land, situated on Subdivision 20 of the Town Lands of Philippolis 143,declared in 1991; the wagon house adjacent the Victorian House together with the property on which they are situated, at 6 and 7 Colin Fraser Street.declared in 1990. Http://www.foodwithastory.co.za/Food-Event/172/Philippolis-Witblits-Festival http://www.philippolisinfo.co.za/historical.htm%7Ctitle=Philippolis http://www.starrynights.co.za/philippolis.htm] http://www.southafrica.com/free-state/philippolis/
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Hlubi are an ethnic group who originate from the Samburu people of Kenya and the Shubi, an ethnic and linguistic group based in the Kagera Region of Tanzania. The amaHlubi took part in the southward migration of the eMbo group/nation or amaLala from central Africa. After settling along the Lubombo mountains, a mountain range which extends from northern Zululand northwards along the Swaziland-Mozambique border, they migrated still further south and settled in what today is known as KwaZulu-Natal as long ago as the 13th century, leaving behind a section of their group which became the amaSwazi nation. For at least two centuries they have been a part of the Mbo or Lala nation. At present they live in Mozambique and the Republic of South Africa in the KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and North West provinces, they now are predominantly agriculturalists. The amaHlubi are the oldest in origin and are a much older tribe than either the amaZulu or amaXhosa. Little is documented about this tribe, as most of the literature concerns the time of King Langalibalele, which offers little in terms of the roots of the amaHlubi nation.
Below is a traditional estimation of the Hlubi kings. Note that Hlubi history comes from oral sources and the earlier estimated dates may be inaccurate; the amaHlubi speak a dialect of Swazi, one of the Tekela languages in the Nguni branch of the Niger–Congo language family. The Hlubi dialect is endangered, most Hlubi speakers are elderly and illiterate. There are attempts by Hlubi intellectuals to revive the language and make it one of the eleven recognised languages in South Africa. Matiwane Henry Masila Ndawo. Iziduko zama-Hlubi. Lovedale Press. Retrieved 31 July 2011. Henry Masila Ndawo. Ibali lamaHlubi. Lovedale Press. Andrew Hayden Manson; the Hlubi and Ngwe in a colonial society, 1848–1877. S.n. Retrieved 31 July 2011. Alfred T. Bryant. Olden times in Zululand and Natal: containing earlier political history of the Eastern-Nguni clans. C. Struik. Retrieved 31 July 2011. John Henderson Soga; the south-eastern Bantu:. The Witwatersrand university press. Retrieved 31 July 2011. John Britten Wright; the Hlubi chiefdom in Zululand-Natal: a history.
Ladysmith Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-620-06178-0. Retrieved 31 July 2011. John William Colenso. Langalibalele and the amahlubi tribe: being remarks upon the official record of the trials of the Chief, his sons and Induna, other members of the amahlubi tribe. Retrieved 31 July 2011. Paul Maylam. A history of the African people of South Africa: from the early Iron Age to the 1970s. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37511-9. Retrieved 31 July 2011