Adam Mickiewicz

Adam Bernard Mickiewicz was a Polish poet, essayist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted as one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is regarded as Poland's greatest poet, he is considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Europe to Byron and Goethe, he is known chiefly for the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. His other influential works include Konrad Grażyna. All these served as inspiration for uprisings against the three imperial powers that had partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth out of existence. Mickiewicz was born in the Russian-partitioned territories of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, was active in the struggle to win independence for his home region. After, as a consequence, spending five years exiled to central Russia, in 1829 he succeeded in leaving the Russian Empire and, like many of his compatriots, lived out the rest of his life abroad.

He settled first in Rome in Paris, where for a little over three years he lectured on Slavic literature at the Collège de France. He died of cholera, at Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire, where he had gone to help organize Polish and Jewish forces to fight Russia in the Crimean War. In 1890, his remains were repatriated from Montmorency, Val-d'Oise, in France, to Wawel Cathedral in Kraków, Poland. Adam Mickiewicz was born on 24 December 1798, either at his paternal uncle's estate in Zaosie near Navahrudak or in Navahrudak itself in what was part of the Russian Empire and is now Belarus; the region was on the periphery of Lithuania proper and had been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Its upper class, including Mickiewicz's family, were either Polonized; the poet's father, Mikołaj Mickiewicz, a lawyer, was a member of the Polish nobility and bore the hereditary Poraj coat-of-arms. Adam was the second-born son in the family.

Mickiewicz spent his childhood in Navahrudak taught by his mother and private tutors. From 1807 to 1815 he attended a Dominican school following a curriculum, designed by the now-defunct Polish Commission for National Education, the world's first ministry of education, he was a mediocre student, although active in games and the like. In September 1815, Mickiewicz enrolled at the Imperial University of Vilnius, studying to be a teacher. After graduating, under the terms of his government scholarship, he taught secondary school at Kaunas from 1819 to 1823. In 1818, in the Polish-language Tygodnik Wileński, he published his first poem, "Zima miejska"; the next few years would see a maturing of his style from sentimentalism/neoclassicism to romanticism, first in his poetry anthologies published in Vilnius in 1822 and 1823. By 1820 he had finished another major romantic poem, "Oda do młodości", but it was considered to be too patriotic and revolutionary for publication and would not appear for many years.

About the summer of 1820, Mickiewicz met the love of Maryla Wereszczakówna. They were unable to marry due to his family's poverty and low social status. In 1817, while still a student, Tomasz Zan and other friends had created a secret organization, the Philomaths; the group focused on self-education but had ties to a more radical pro-Polish-independence student group, the Filaret Association. An investigation of secret student organizations by Nikolay Novosiltsev, begun in early 1823, led to the arrests of a number of students and ex-student activists including Mickiewicz, taken into custody and imprisoned at Vilnius' Basilian monastery in late 1823 or early 1824. After investigation into his political activities his membership in the Philomaths, in 1824 Mickiewicz was banished to central Russia. Within a few hours of receiving the decree on 22 October 1824, he penned a poem into an album belonging to Salomea Bécu, the mother of Juliusz Słowacki. Mickiewicz crossed the border into Russia about 11 November 1824, arriving in Saint Petersburg that month.

He would spend most of the next five years in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, except for a notable 1824 to 1825 excursion to Odessa on to Crimea. That visit, from February to November 1825, inspired a notable collection of sonnets. Mickiewicz was welcomed into the leading literary circles of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, where he became a great favorite for his agreeable manners and extraordinary talent for poetic improvisation; the year 1828 saw the publication of his poem Konrad Wallenrod. Novosiltsev, who recognized its patriotic and subversive message, missed by the Moscow censors, unsuccessfully attempted to sabotage its publication and to damage Mickiewicz's reputation. In Moscow, Mickiewicz met the Polish journalist


The therm is a non-SI unit of heat energy equal to 100000 British thermal units. It is the energy equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet – referred to as 1 CCF – of natural gas. Since natural gas meters measure volume and not energy content, a therm factor is used by natural gas companies to convert the volume of gas used to its heat equivalent, thus calculate the actual energy use; the therm factor is expressed in units of therms per CCF. It will vary with the mix of hydrocarbons in the natural gas. Natural gas with a higher than average concentration of ethane, propane or butane will have a higher therm factor. Impurities, such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen, lower the therm factor; the volume of the gas is calculated as if pressure. One therm is equal to 25200 kilocalories, or 29.3 kilowatt-hours. One therm can be provided by about 96.7 cubic feet of natural gas. The therm sometimes has been confused with the thermie; the names of both units come from the Greek word for heat. Therm ≡ 100000 BTUISO= 105506000 joules ≈ 29.3072 kWh The therm is used by engineers in the US.

Therm ≡ 100000 BTU59 °F= 105480400 joules ≈ 29.3001111111111 kWh. Therm ≡ 105505585.257348 joules≡ 29.3071070159300 kWh10 therms are known as a decatherm, 1000000 Btu. Further common abbreviations are MDth for a 1000 decatherms, MMDth for 1000000 decatherms. United Kingdom regulations were amended to replace therms with joules with effect from 1999, with natural gas retailed in the derived unit, kilowatt-hours. Despite this, the wholesale UK gas market trades in therms. In the United States, natural gas is billed in CCFs or therms. According to the EPA burning one therm of natural gas produces on average 5.3 kg of carbon dioxide. Barrel of oil equivalent Conversion of units § Energy, work, or amount of heat Cubic mile of oil

Tirumala limniace

Tirumala limniace, the blue tiger, is a butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia that belongs to the crows and tigers, that is, the danaid group of the brush-footed butterfly family. This butterfly shows gregarious migratory behaviour in southern India. In general, all butterflies can directly absorb heat from the sun via their wings to facilitate autonomous flight. Studies on blue tiger butterflies show that high-intensity light increased flight activity. Blue tiger butterflies have a wing surface color, composed of both light and dark colors; the dark areas on the wing surfaces are the heat absorption areas that allow for the facilitation of autonomous flight. The butterfly larva feed on plants of family Asclepiadaceae; the recorded host plants are: Asclepias Calotropis Heterostemma Marsdenia Dregea volubilis Heterostemma cuspidatum Hoya viridiflora Marsdenia tenacissima Crotalaria spp. Epibaterium spp. Soya Yellowish white; the larva is around 1.21 centimetres in length and weighs around 5 milligrams but grows double that size and four times that weight within 48 hours.

"Green with golden scattered spots and beaded dorsal crescent". The species is distributed in Southeast Asia. In 2019, a single adult specimen was reported from the Balearic Islands, marking it the first record of the species in Europe. Listed alphabetically: T. l. bentenga – Selajar T. l. conjuncta Moore, 1883 – Java, Kangean, Lesser Sunda Islands T. l. exoticaUnited Arab Emirates T. l. ino – Sula T. l. leopardusCeylon, India - southern Burma T. l. limniace – southern China, Hainan, Taiwan T. l. makassara – southern Sulawesi T. l. orestilla – Philippines T. l. vaneeckeni – Timor, Wetar This species migrates extensively during the monsoons in southern India. The migratory populations have been observed to consist nearly of males, it is known to mud-puddle during migration. List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Sri Lanka Wild Life Information Database