Adam Smith

Adam Smith was a Scottish economist and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment known as"The Father of Economics" or"The Father of Capitalism". Smith wrote two classic works, The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations; the latter abbreviated as The Wealth of Nations, is considered his magnum opus and the first modern work of economics. In his work, Adam Smith introduced his theory of absolute advantage. Smith studied social philosophy at the University of Glasgow and at Balliol College, where he was one of the first students to benefit from scholarships set up by fellow Scot John Snell. After graduating, he delivered a successful series of public lectures at the University of Edinburgh, leading him to collaborate with David Hume during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith obtained a professorship at Glasgow, teaching moral philosophy and during this time and published The Theory of Moral Sentiments.

In his life, he took a tutoring position that allowed him to travel throughout Europe, where he met other intellectual leaders of his day. Smith laid the foundations of classical free market economic theory; the Wealth of Nations was a precursor to the modern academic discipline of economics. In this and other works, he developed the concept of division of labour and expounded upon how rational self-interest and competition can lead to economic prosperity. Smith was controversial in his own day and his general approach and writing style were satirised by writers such as Horace Walpole. Smith was born in the Kingdom of Fife, Scotland, his father Adam Smith, was a Scottish Writer to the Signet and prosecutor and served as comptroller of the customs in Kirkcaldy. Smith's mother was born Margaret Douglas, daughter of the landed Robert Douglas of Strathendry in Fife. Two months before Smith was born, his father died; the date of Smith's baptism into the Church of Scotland at Kirkcaldy was 5 June 1723 and this has been treated as if it were his date of birth, unknown.

Although few events in Smith's early childhood are known, the Scottish journalist John Rae, Smith's biographer, recorded that Smith was abducted by Romas at the age of three and released when others went to rescue him. Smith was close to his mother, who encouraged him to pursue his scholarly ambitions, he attended the Burgh School of Kirkcaldy—characterised by Rae as "one of the best secondary schools of Scotland at that period"—from 1729 to 1737, he learned Latin, mathematics and writing. Smith entered the University of Glasgow when he was 14 and studied moral philosophy under Francis Hutcheson. Here, Smith developed his passion for liberty and free speech. In 1740, Smith was the graduate scholar presented to undertake postgraduate studies at Balliol College, under the Snell Exhibition. Smith considered the teaching at Glasgow to be far superior to that at Oxford, which he found intellectually stifling. In Book V, Chapter II of The Wealth of Nations, Smith wrote: "In the University of Oxford, the greater part of the public professors have, for these many years, given up altogether the pretence of teaching."

Smith is reported to have complained to friends that Oxford officials once discovered him reading a copy of David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature, they subsequently confiscated his book and punished him for reading it. According to William Robert Scott, "The Oxford of time gave little if any help towards what was to be his lifework." Smith took the opportunity while at Oxford to teach himself several subjects by reading many books from the shelves of the large Bodleian Library. When Smith was not studying on his own, his time at Oxford was not a happy one, according to his letters. Near the end of his time there, Smith began suffering from shaking fits the symptoms of a nervous breakdown, he left Oxford University in 1746. In Book V of The Wealth of Nations, Smith comments on the low quality of instruction and the meager intellectual activity at English universities, when compared to their Scottish counterparts, he attributes this both to the rich endowments of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, which made the income of professors independent of their ability to attract students, to the fact that distinguished men of letters could make an more comfortable living as ministers of the Church of England.

Smith's discontent at Oxford might be in part due to the absence of his beloved teacher in Glasgow, Francis Hutcheson, well regarded as one of the most prominent lecturers at the University of Glasgow in his day and earned the approbation of students and ordinary residents with the fervor and earnestness of his orations. His lectures endeavoured not to teach philosophy, but to make his students embody that philosophy in their lives, appropriately acquiring the epithet, the preacher of philosophy. Unlike Smith, Hutcheson was not a system builder. Smith began delivering public lectures in 1748 at the University of Edinburgh, sponsored by the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh under the patronag


Sakal is a Marathi-language daily newspaper by Sakal Media Group with its headquarters in Pune, India. Sakal is the flagship newspaper of Sakal Media Group, it is the largest circulated Marathi newspaper. Pratap Govindrao Pawar has been in the board of Sakal since 1985 and is the chairman of the Group. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulation’s latest report, Sakal is the highest circulated and the most sold newspaper in Maharashtra with a daily circulation of 1.3 million. Dr. N. P. a.k.a. Nanasaheb Parulekar was the founder of Sakal, it is published in the cities of Pune, Kolhapur, Nashik, Nanded, Solapur, Satara and Jalgaon. The group’s other operations consist of regional newspapers and Internet publishing, together employing over 3000 people, it hosts one of the largest Marathi websites, eSakal, which reaches to 300,000 Internet users across the globe Sakal was a classic newspaper of the pre-independence nationalist period. Its idealistic founder, Dr. N. P. alias Nanasaheb Parulekar had been influenced by American newspapers during his years at Columbia University.

By introducing Sakal to advance Mahatma Gandhi’s movement for independence, he showed the path to genuine daily journalism in Marathi. Though it was started as a part of the nationalist cause, after Indian independence, Sakal newspaper established itself as a successful business by reporting on day-to-day concerns, not just of Pune but of its rural neighborhoods. By the 1960s, Sakal appointed full-time correspondents, each with a telephone, in every town in its neighborhood, it ran training camps for its journalists and cultural events for its readers and letters to the editor on its front page. Under Nanasaheb Parulekar, the paper maintained strict political neutrality and endorsed candidates for local, state or National elections purely on the basis of their merit; when Dr. Parulekar died in 1973, he left the paper with rich traditions, it survived the first shocks of India’s revolution in newspaper technology and carried on for more than 10 years. Pratap Pawar took over Sakal in 1985; the Pawar family turned the paper into a public limited company in 1989, Pratap Pawar became the Managing Director.

N. B. Parulekar – 1 Jan 1932 to 31 Dec 1943 Ramchandra Balawant a.k.a. Babasaheb Ghorpade – 1 Jan 1944 to 20 Feb 1951 N. B. Parulekar – 21 Feb 1951 to 8 Jan 1973 Shridhar a.k.a. S. G. Mungekar – 9 Jan 1973 to 9 Feb 1985 V. D. Ranade – 10 Feb 1985 to 30 Apr 1987 S. K. Kulkarni – 1 May 1987 to 31 Jul 1987 Vijay Kuwalekar – 1 Aug 1987 to 7 Aug 2000 Anant Dixit – 8 Aug 2000 to 15 Jul 2005 Yamaji Malkar – 16 Jul 2005 to 9 May 2009 Uttam Kamble – 10 May 2009 to 31 July 2012 Shriram Pawar - 1 Aug 2012 to 28 Feb 2018 Rahul Gadpale - 1 March 2018 - till date Abhijit Pawar is the managing director of the group. Under his leadership, group has launched the first and only agriculture daily, Agrowon; the official website states that it is "first media company to organize events & exhibitions as well as the first media group to implement 6-sigma processes across the company." In 2005, the Supreme Court of India directed Sakal Papers Pvt Ltd to pay Rs 3 crore to one of its directors, Claude-Lila Parulekar for illegal transfer of 3,510 of her shares in the company to Pratap Pawar's group.

Today - Sakal started a separate pull out for local content. A traditional Marathi newspaper, Sakal adopted ‘Today’, an English title of the pullout. In 2006 - 2007, ‘Today’ was launched across all major cities of Maharashtra. Pune edition initiated the pull out on 14 August 2006, it opened new avenues for local content as well local advertisers. Garcia Design - It concentrated on multimedia activities and emerged as a Multimedia House. Newspaper designer Mario Garcia redesigned Sakal newspaper in year 2007-2008; the new look of Sakal was flashy and colorful. The masthead of Sakal changed to blue reverse. Garcia Design was implemented across the Maharashtra. Newzine - In 2010 Sakal adopted Newzine style of presenting the news. Newzine is the newly coined word derived from the News In The Form of Magazine; the word Newzine is in use since 2008 - 2009. This style gives detailed view focusing future insights for the readers, besides including contents that give an edge in their quest for better practices and prosperity.

It took initiatives in solving key issues affecting the people. Features - It has weekly supplements for the targeted sectors. Saptrang for family, Jobz for employment, Pratibimb for hyper-local content, Family Doctor for holistic and ayurvedic approach to health and Balmitra for children. Masthead - Its masthead is dark blue in color. Earlier the masthead was black; each Sunday it used to publish red masthead. In year 2008 the masthead was changed to blue reverse. Masthead undergone many changes from style to typography. Tagline - Present tagline of Daily Sakal is ‘Uday Bhavishyapatracha’, its meaning is "rise of the future newspaper". The ideology behind the tag line is that the content is to consolidate its readers' awareness about the future. Earlier the tag line was ‘Mitra Navya Shatkacha’, its meaning is ‘A friend of the New Century.’Sakal's multimedia platforms are as follows. Mobile app - Sakal news was made available on smart mobiles through native apps. For Apple and Android—Website, adopted new design designed by Mario Garcia.

It added interactivit

Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group

Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group is a Charlotte, North Carolina company founded in 2002 that owns four North Carolina-based regional newspapers. The Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group delivers to businesses. In 2015 it was acquired by the McElvy Media Group. Alain Lillie founded the Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group in Charlotte, NC in 2002 at which time he created the South Charlotte Weekly, the Union County Weekly, the Matthews-Mint Hill Weekly newspapers. Known as the Charlotte Weekly, it grew to include four community newspapers, adding the Pineville Pilot. Together, these newspapers were delivered weekly or monthly to 60,000 residential and commercial addresses. In July 2015, the Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group announced that it had been acquired by the Charlotte Media Group, a subsidiary of the McElvy Media Group based out of Houston, Texas. Johnathan McElvy, owner of the McElvy Media Group, is the new publisher for the newspaper group, the new editor is Hannah Chronis, who will manage all four newspapers.

In 2011, the Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group raised concerns with two local United States Postal Service branches regarding unfair mass mailing procedures offered to a competing newspaper group. A meeting at the Huntersville Post Office to discuss the concerns lead to Lillie being temporarily banned from the post office for trespassing. Lillie stated it was a misunderstanding and the ban was lifted. Carolina Weekly Newspaper Group Website