Archduke Ernest of Austria
Archduke Ernest of Austria was an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain. Born in Vienna, he was educated with his brother Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1573 and 1587, he was a candidate for the throne of Poland. From 1576 onwards, he was governor in the Archduchy of Austria, in 1590, he became governor of Inner Austria as regent for his young cousin Ferdinand, and from 1594 to 1595 he served as governor of the Spanish Netherlands. He died in Brussels in 1595
The most recent Joyous Entries took place in 2013 in honour of the Belgian king. The custom began in the Middle Ages and continued until the French Revolution, one of the functions of the Council of Brabant was to ensure that new legislation did not contravene or abrogate the liberties established in the Joyous Entry. In Belgium this ceremonial reception of the new sovereign has continued since 1830, ceremonial entries are performed by the new royal couple in the capitals of the provinces after the installation of the King. The same goes for the Duke of Brabant, who after his marriage presents the new duchess of Brabant to the public, the most recent Joyous Entries were organised in honour of King Philippe and Queen Mathilde in 2013. In 1356, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Joanna and her husband Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg, a Joyous Entry, by John the Fearless. A Joyous Entry, by Philip the Good, in 1464, the Joyous Entry into Sopron, by King Matthias of Hungary — atypically mainly celebrating the return of the object of the Crown.
In 1467, the Joyous Entry into Ghent, by Charles the Bold, in 1468, the Joyous Entry into Bruges, by Charles the Bold and Margaret of York. In 1478, the Joyous Entry into Antwerp, by Maximilian of Austria, the Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Maximilian of Austria In 1496, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Joanna the Mad. In 1507, the Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Philiberts widow Margarete, in 1515, the Joyous Entries into Bruges, Ghent and Leiden, by young Prince Charles. In 1520, the Joyous Entry into Bruges, by young King Charles In 1548, in 1549, a series of Joyous Entries into the Low Countries by Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain in Antwerp and Bruges. In 1550, the Joyous Entry into Rouen, by Henri II of Valois, the Joyous Entry into Mechelen, by Granvelle, as Archbishop. In 1577, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Don John, in 1578, the Joyous Entry into Brussels, by Prince Matthias, the Magnificent. In 1582, the Joyous Entry into Antwerp and Ghent, by François, in 1635, the Joyous Entry by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand into Antwerp and Ghent.
In 1891, the Joyous Entry into Luxembourg, by Grand Duke Adolphe, Festival Books online from the British Museum – records of these and similar occasions Festival books, mostly German from HAB Wolfenbüttel
Hendrick van Balen
Hendrick van Balen or Hendrick van Balen I was a Flemish Baroque painter and stained glass designer. Hendrick van Balen specialised in cabinet pictures often painted on a copper support. His favourite themes were mythological and allegorical scenes and, to a lesser extent, the artist played an important role in the renewal of Flemish painting in the early 17th century and was one of the teachers of Anthony van Dyck. Hendrick van Balen was born in Antwerp, the date of his birth is not known but was likely 1573 as the birth records of the St George Church of Antwerp for that year are missing. His parents were the merchant Willem van Balen and Machteld van Alten and his family was well-off and thus able to let Hendrick have a good training which included the study of a number of languages. Van Balen was a pupil of Adam van Noort and possibly of Maerten de Vos and he became a member of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1592-1593 at the age of 17. In 1608-1609 he was the dean of the Guild and in 1609-1610 he was the first dean.
From about 1595 to 1602 he studied art while traveling in Italy, although there is no record of his Italian journey, on his return to Antwerp, he became a member of the Guild of Romanists. It was a condition of membership that the member had visited Rome, in the year 1613 the Guild chose him as its dean. In 1605 Hendrick van Balen married Margriet Briers in Antwerp, the couple had 11 children and three of their sons became painters, Jan van Balen, Gaspard van Balen and Hendrick van Balen the Younger. His daughter Maria married the painter Theodoor van Thulden, in 1613 he accompanied Rubens and Jan on a diplomatic mission to the Dutch Republic. Here they met Hendrick Goltzius and other Haarlem artists, van Balen led for over 30 years a successful workshop and had many pupils. He was the teacher of his son Jan van Balen as well as of leading Flemish painters Anthony van Dyck and he was a contemporary of some of the best-known Flemish artists, such as Rubens and Jan Brueghel the Elder. Hendrick van Balen specialised in cabinet pictures often painted on a copper support.
His favourite themes were mythological and allegorical scenes and, to a lesser extent and he created a number of stained glass designs. While he had a preference for the smaller scale in his career. These show the influence of his teacher Adam van Noort and his altarpieces, with their rich and subtle palette, appear to have been painted after van Dycks arrival in his studio. Hendrick van Balens mythological and biblical scenes were painted on small plates or copper plates
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
Anthony van Dyck
Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, the Van Dyke beard is named after him. Antoon van Dyck was born to parents in Antwerp. By the age of fifteen he was already an accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14. He was admitted to the Antwerp painters Guild of Saint Luke as a master by February 1618. His influence on the young artist was immense, Rubens referred to the nineteen-year-old van Dyck as the best of my pupils. At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the small and declining city of Antwerp probably explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad. In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100. After about four months he returned to Flanders, but moved on in late 1621 to Italy and he was already presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artists colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with the pomp of Zeuxis.
He was mostly based in Genoa, although he travelled extensively to other cities. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp where he remained for five years, a life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councillors of Brussels he painted for the council-chamber was destroyed in 1695. He was evidently very charming to his patrons, like Rubens, well able to mix in aristocratic and court circles, by 1630 he was described as the court painter of the Habsburg Governor of Flanders, the Archduchess Isabella. In this period he produced many religious works, including large altarpieces. King Charles I was the most passionate and generous collector of art among the British monarchs, and saw art as a way of promoting his elevated view of the monarchy. In 1628, he bought the collection that the Gonzagas of Mantua were forced to dispose of. In 1626, he was able to persuade Orazio Gentileschi to settle in England, to be joined by his daughter Artemisia and some of his sons. Rubens was a target, who eventually came on a diplomatic mission, which included painting, in 1630.
He was very well-treated during his visit, during which he was knighted
Willem Adriaensz Key was a Flemish renaissance painter. Key was born in Breda, Netherlands, in 1529 he was know to be a pupil of Pieter Coecke van Aelst in Antwerp. Later, together with Frans Floris, he took lessons from Lambert Lombardus in Liège and he became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in Antwerp in 1540. He was a man who lived in a large house in the center of town near the exchange. He became specialized in flattering portraits and made a living from theatrically posed group portraits. In van Manders biography, he mentions several pieces by his hand that were burned during the Beeldenstorm. In particular he mentions a group portrait of the market-sellers on an altar of the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal in Antwerp. When these men were executed on the square in Brussels on 5 June 1568, he was so upset that he died on the same day. This story was accepted as the truth, but van Mander found it hard to believe. In any case it is interesting to note that many of his paintings were destroyed, while he is best known today for his portrait of the Duke of Alva, that was copied many times.
And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined, and they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. — Luke 22, 21-23 KJV According to the Rijksmuseum, Adriaen Thomasz Key was a distant relation, media related to Willem Key at Wikimedia Commons
Romanism is a term used by art historians to refer to painters from the Low Countries who had travelled in the 16th century to Rome. In Rome they had absorbed the influence of leading Italian artists of the such as Michelangelo and Raphael. Upon their return home, these Northern artists created a Renaissance style, the style continued its influence until the early 17th century when it was swept aside by the Baroque. By drawing on mythological subject matter, the Romanists introduced new themes in Northern art that corresponded with the interests, the Romanists painted mainly religious and mythological works, often using complex compositions and depicting naked human bodies in an anatomically correct way but with contrived poses. Their style often appears forced and artificial to the modern viewer, the artists saw their efforts as an intellectual challenge to render difficult subjects through a struggle with form. The term Romanist was coined by 19th-century art historians such as Alfred Michiels and they attributed the shift to the influence of artists who had visited Italy, an in particular Rome, and called them Romanists.
Jan Gossaert was one of the first Netherlandish artists to make the Rome trip in 1508/9 and after his return to the northern Netherlands, jan van Scorel worked in Rome in the years 1522 and 1523 where he was particularly impressed by Michelangelo and Raphael. Pieter Coecke van Aelst was probably in Italy before 1527, jan Sanders van Hemessen traveled to Italy early in his career, around 1520. Here he studied both models from antiquity, such as the Laocoön as well as the contemporary works of Michelangelo. Michiel Coxie of Mechelen was in Rome for a period of time roughly between 1529 and 1538. He was most influenced by Raphael and worked in a completely Italianized style upon his return, maarten van Heemskerck travelled to Rome around 1532 where he produced many paintings and drawings after Classical sculpture. After his return to the north, his work helped spread a very Italianizing style, lambert Lombard of Liège travelled to Rome in 1537 and developed influential theories about classicism.
He may have encouraged his pupil Frans Floris to study in Rome as well, Floris was in Rome from about 1640 and was influenced mainly by Michelangelo and Giulio Romano. A second group of Northern artists who travelled to Rome in the half of the 16th century included Dirck Barendsz, Adriaen de Weerdt. The last two artists did not return home although Spranger exerted an important influence through other Northern artists who spent time at the Prague court where he worked and this generation of artists are usually referred to as Mannerists. They showed a greater feeling for proportion and used a formal language the first generation of Romanists. The most important influences on the Romanists were works by Michelangelo and Raphael’s students such as Giulio Romano, Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Classical monuments and artefacts in Rome were an important object of study and inspiration for Netherlandish artists in Rome. In a phase other Italian cities exercised an important appeal in particular Venice, rosso Fiorentino and various sculptors were the Florentine artists that appealed to the Northern artists while in Emilia and his followers were the preferred models
Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba.
Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga.
The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters
Guild of Saint Luke
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the saint of artists. One of the most famous such organizations was founded in Antwerp and it continued to function until 1795, although by it had lost its monopoly and therefore most of its power. In most cities, including Antwerp, the government had given the Guild the power to regulate defined types of trade within the city. Guild membership, as a master, was required for an artist to take on apprentices or to sell paintings to the public. Similar rules existed in Delft, where members could sell paintings in the city or have a shop. The guild of Saint Luke not only represented painters and other artists, but also—especially in the seventeenth century—dealers, amateurs. In traditional guild structures, house-painters and decorators were often in the same guild, however, as artists formed under their own specific guild of St.
Luke, particularly in the Netherlands, distinctions were increasingly made. In general, guilds made judgments on disputes between artists and other artists or their clients, in such ways, it controlled the economic career of an artist working in a specific city, while in different cities they were wholly independent and often competitive against each other. Although it did not become an artistic center until the sixteenth century, Antwerp was one of, if not the first. It is first mentioned in 1382, and was given privileges by the city in 1442. The registers, or Liggeren, from the guild exist, cataloging when artists became masters, who the dean for each year was, what their specialities were, and the names of any students. Perhaps because of this link, for a period they had a rule that all miniatures needed a tiny mark to identify the artist, only under special privileges, such as court artist, could an artist effectively practice their craft without holding membership in the guild. Membership allowed members to sell works at the guild-owned showroom, for example, opened a market stall for selling paintings in front of the cathedral in 1460, and Bruges followed in 1482.
Guilds of St. Luke in the Dutch Republic began to reinvent themselves as cities there changed over to Protestant rule, many St. Luke guilds reissued charters to protect the interests of local painters from the influx of southern talent from places like Antwerp and Bruges. Many cities in the republic became more important artistic centres in the late sixteenth. Amsterdam was the first city to reissue a St. Lukes charter after the reformation in 1579, and it included painters, engravers, for example, Gouda and Delft, all founded guilds between 1609 and 1611. On the other hand, these distinctions did not take effect at that time in Amsterdam or Haarlem, in the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, however, a strict hierarchy was attempted in 1631 with panel painters at the top, though this hierarchy was eventually rejected
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium
The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are a group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. In 1845 it is decided by royal Decree that a museum is to be founded with works of art of deceswed and this is accorded by Minister Sylvain van de Weyer a national Commission is founded to select important works of art. This commission is presided by the First president Count de Beaufort, other members are, Gustaf Wappers, President of the Royal Museum of Antwerpen. François-Joseph Navez, President of the Académie royale des beaux-arts de Bruxelles, guillaume Geefs Eugène Simonis Tilman-François Suys, professor at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Much of the members were active in the Royal Academy of Science and Fine Arts of Belgium. The museums are situated in the capital Brussels in the area on the Coudenberg. There are six museums connected with the Royal Museum, and two of them, are in the main building, the Royal Museum contains over 20,000 drawings and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present.
The museum has a collection of Flemish painting, among them paintings by Bruegel and Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck. The museum is proud of its Rubens Room, which more than 20 paintings by the artist. The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, long-attributed to Brueghel, is located here and forms the subject of W. H. Audens famous poem Musée des Beaux Arts, named after the museum. The chief curators of the museum have been or are, from 1961 till 1984, balat was the kings principal architect, and this was one part of the kings vast building program for Belgium. The building was completed in 1887, and stands as an example of the Beaux-Arts architecture use of themed statuary to assert the identity, the finial, gilded Genius of Art was designed by de Groot. The two bas-relief panels are Music by Thomas Vincotte and Industrial Arts by Charles Brunin, the two bronze groups on pedestals represent The Crowning of Art by Paul de Vigne, and The Teaching of Art by Charles van der Stappen.
On the side of the building, a memorial commemorates five members of the Mouvement National Royaliste, a resistance group, killed during the liberation of Brussels on 3–4 September 1944