Midway International Airport
Chicago Midway International Airport is a major commercial airport on the southwest side of Chicago, located eight miles from the Loop. Established in 1927, Midway served as Chicago's primary airport until the opening of O'Hare International Airport in 1955. Today, Midway is the second-largest airport in Chicago metropolitan area and the state of Illinois, serving 22,027,737 passengers in 2018. Traffic is dominated by low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines. Named Chicago Municipal Airport, it was renamed to honor the Battle of Midway; the airfield is located in a square mile bounded by 55th and 63rd Streets, Central and Cicero Avenues. The current terminal complex was completed in 2001; the terminal bridges Cicero Avenue and contains 43 gates with facilities for international passengers. Stevenson Expressway and the CTA Orange Line provide freeway and rapid transit access to The Loop. Named Chicago Air Park, Midway Airport was built on a 320-acre plot in 1923 with one cinder runway for airmail flights.
In 1926 the city leased the airport and named it Chicago Municipal Airport on December 12, 1927. By 1928, the airport lit for night operations. A major fire early on June 25, 1930, destroyed two hangars and 27 aircraft, "12 of them tri-motor passenger planes." The loss was estimated at more than two million dollars. The hangars destroyed were of the Universal Air Lines, Inc. and the Grey Goose Airlines, the latter under lease to Stout Air Lines. The fire followed an explosion of undetermined cause in the Universal hangar. In 1931 a new passenger terminal opened at 62nd St. More construction was funded in part by $1 million from the Works Progress Administration; the March 1939 OAG shows 47 weekday departures: 13 on United, 13 American, 9 TWA, 4 Northwest, two each on Eastern, Pennsylvania Central, C&S. New York's airport was the busiest airline airport in the United States, but Midway passed LaGuardia in 1948 and kept the title until 1960; the record-breaking 1945 Japan–Washington flight of B-29s refueled at the airport on their way to Washington DC.
In July 1949 the airport was renamed after the Battle of Midway. That year Midway saw 3.2 million passengers. The diagram on the January 1951 C&GS approach chart shows four parallel pairs of runways, all 4240 ft or less except for 5730-ft runway 13R and 5230-ft runway 4R. Airport diagram for 1959 The April 1957 OAG shows 414 weekday fixed-wing departures from Midway: 83 American, 83 United, 56 TWA, 40 Capital, 35 North Central, 28 Delta, 27 Eastern, 22 Northwest, 19 Ozark, 11 Braniff, 5 Trans-Canada, 5 Lake Central. Air France, REAL had a few flights per week. Midway was running out of room and in any case could not handle the 707 and DC-8 jets that appeared in 1959. Electras and Viscounts could have continued to fly out of Midway, but O'Hare's new terminal opened in 1962, allowing airlines to consolidate their flights. From July 1962 until United returned in July 1964, Midway's only scheduled airline was Chicago Helicopter. In August 1966 a total of four fixed-wing arrivals were scheduled, all United 727s.
By 1967 reconstruction began at the airport, adding three new concourses with 28 gates and three ticket counters, in 1968 the city invested $10 million in renovation funds. The funds supported construction of the Stevenson Expressway, Midway saw the return of major airlines that year, with 1,663,074 passengers on smaller-capacity, shorter range twin-jet and trijet airliners such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9, BAC One-Eleven, Boeing 727, Boeing 737 that could use Midway's runways, which the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 could not. In May 1968 there were 22 scheduled departures: six United 727s to MSP, DCA and LGA, 12 Northwest 727s to MSP and CLE, one Delta DC-9 to STL and three Ozark FH227s; the December 1970 OAG shows 86 weekday arrivals on 13 fixed-wing airlines from 31 airports, but the August 1974 shows 14 arrivals on four airlines, in 1976–79 Midway had only the two or three Delta DC-9s from St Louis. Midway Airlines arrived on October 31, 1979 with DC-9 nonstops to Kansas City and Cleveland Lakefront.
Their September 1989 timetable shows 117 weekday departures to 29 cities, plus 108 departures on their commuter affiliates to 22 more cities. Midway quit flying in 1991. In 1982, the city of Chicago purchased Midway Airport from the Chicago Board of Education for $16 million. Three years Southwest Airlines began operations at Midway. Midway was a focus city for Vanguard Airlines from 1997 to 2000; the Chicago Transit Authority displaced the Carlton Midway Inn to open a new CTA terminal at the airport on October 31, 1993, for the new Chicago'L' Orange Line that connected Midway to Chicago's Loop. Midway Airport is the end of the line, which crosses the southwest part of the city before ending at the Loop
Pink Line (CTA)
The Pink Line is an 11.2 mi rapid transit line in Chicago, run by the Chicago Transit Authority as part of the Chicago "L" system. It is CTA's newest rail line and began operation for a 180-day trial period on June 25, 2006, running between 54th/Cermak Station in Cicero and the Loop in downtown Chicago; the route to the Loop follows tracks shared with Green Line trains on Lake Street, connected by the non-revenue Paulina Connector. In September 2012, the average weekday boardings on the Pink Line was 33,737; the Pink Line does not make any'L' train transfers on the Douglas Branch. The Pink Line operates between 54th/Cermak and the Loop, weekdays from 4:05 a.m. to 1:25 a.m. and Saturdays and Sundays from 5:05 a.m. to 1:25 a.m. In January 2006, the CTA held hearings on its proposal to reroute trains from 54th/Cermak via the rebuilt Paulina Connector to the Lake Street Green Line tracks operating around the Loop clockwise for the first time since Douglas trains began using the Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway in downtown Chicago on June 22, 1958.
This would allow a doubling of Blue Line trains to Forest Park on the Congress Branch, since service would no longer be divided between the Forest Park and 54th/Cermak terminals. The CTA has promised that service to/from 54th/Cermak would be increased 100% during weekday rush hours. At the initial time of proposal, this plan was referred to as the "Silver Line," as the original idea was to use gray as the line color on printed materials and give it the friendlier route name of "Silver." On February 15, 2006, the CTA approved the separate plan. Non-rush hour trains would be routed via Green Line tracks and Paulina Connector. During weekday rush hours, service would be available on this routing as well as the original route via the Dearborn Street Subway every half hour; these changes went into effect beginning June 25, 2006, with the trial period scheduled to end 180 days on December 22, 2006. Douglas trains were operated by the Metropolitan West Side Elevated directly into the Loop by means of the Metropolitan's main line.
Construction of the Congress Street Superhighway in the 1950s required the removal of the Metropolitan's main line, resulting in Douglas trains being routed to the Loop via the Paulina Connector and the Lake Street "L" similar to the current service. Upon completion of the new Congress branch in the median of the expressway, all trains of the Douglas branch were operated via the Milwaukee-Dearborn Subway to the city's Northwest Side and to O'Hare International Airport; the entire Douglas Branch is ADA accessible. On March 30, 2006, the Chicago Transit Authority announced that of the top three colors, Pink and Silver, Pink had received the most votes in a write-in essay contest for Chicago-area schoolchildren in kindergarten through 8th grade—a $1,000 savings bond was awarded to a selected essay writer who advocated the color pink; the Pink Line began operation on June 25, 2006, using the rebuilt Paulina Connector which had not been used in regular revenue service for 48 years. The service, set up as a temporary service to be run for a trial period of 180 days, doubles service on both the Douglas branch and the Forest Park branch of the Blue Line.
This is accomplished by routing all but 12 trains per day coming from O'Hare to Forest Park and adding new service from the 54th/Cermak terminal in Cicero to the Loop via the Paulina Connector and the Lake Street branch of the Green Line. Pink Line trains operate clockwise on the Inner Loop track via Lake-Wabash-Van Buren-Wells before returning to 54th/Cermak. On December 12, 2006, the CTA board approved a six-month extension to the trial period before making a decision on whether or not to make the changes permanent, another 180-day extension was added to the trial in June 2007. On December 4, 2008, CTA announced its decision to make the Pink Line permanent. On the Pink Line, what was once the Blue Line's Douglas branch begins at 54th Avenue and Cermak Road in Cicero; the line runs on at-grade tracks parallel to Cermak Road from the terminal to about a quarter-mile east of Cicero Avenue diagonals northeast until it reaches a corridor parallel and adjacent to 21st Street at Kostner Avenue. It continues east between 21st Street and Cullerton Street, climbing up from at-grade tracks to elevated tracks, through the North Lawndale, Little Village and Pilsen neighborhoods of Chicago, with stops at Kostner, Central Park, California and Damen.
The line turns north near Paulina Street stopping at 18th and Polk stations crosses over the Eisenhower Expressway. Here, a two track non-revenue branch diverges that descends to the expressway to provide a non-revenue track connection to the Blue Line, it continues on the Paulina Connector to share tracks with the Green Line on Lake Street with stops at Ashland and Clinton, before operating around the Loop clockwise. The Pink Line operates between 54th/Cermak and the Loop weekdays from 4 a.m. to 1:25 a.m. and weekends from 5 a.m. to 1:25 a.m. On weekdays, service runs every eight to ten minutes during rush hour, 12 minutes during midday, 12-15 minutes at night. On Saturdays and Sundays, early minute service runs every 15 minutes, increasing to 12 minutes the rest of the day, with night service running every 15 minutes. Service after midnight runs every 20 minutes; the Pink Line is operated with the Bombardier-built 5000-series railcars. Trains operate using four cars on weekends; the Pink and Green Lines borrow each other's cars when either line is short on cars.
Since September 17, 2018, two cars sets assigned to the Pink Line make weekda
54th/Cermak is a station on the Chicago Transit Authority's'L' system, serving the Pink Line, is the western terminus of this line. It was the terminus of the former Cermak branch of the Blue Line, it is located at Laramie Avenues in Cicero, Illinois. It is the only terminal with only one track used for service. Trains board on the eastern half of 54th/Cermak station and unload on the western half. Known as the Cicero-Berwyn Terminal, it is located about 1 mile from the city of Berwyn. Tracks continue westward to the maintenance and storage yard for Pink Line trains. CTA 21 Cermak N60 Blue Island/26th Pace 316 Laramie Avenue 322 Cermak Road/22nd Street 771 Brookfield Zoo Express/CTA Pink Line Media related to 54th/Cermak at Wikimedia Commons 54th/Cermak Station Page at Chicago-L.org CTA Pink Line 54th/Cermak Station Page CTA - Train schedule: PinkRidership figures, 2009 Laramie Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View
Harold Washington Library – State/Van Buren station
Harold Washington Library-State/Van Buren is an'L' station serving the CTA's Brown, Orange and Purple Lines. The station was to have direct access to the second floor of the Harold Washington Library building, but this direct connection was never built. Farecard transfers are available at the station for the Blue and Red Lines via the Jackson/Dearborn and Jackson/State subway stations, respectively, it was known as State/Van Buren when it first opened in 1897. The original station closed on September 2, 1973, along with six other stations, due to low ridership, demolished in 1975; the new station was rebuilt and reopened on June 22, 1997 in order to serve the Harold Washington Library. The Chicago Transit Authority board voted unanimously on Wednesday, October 6, 2010, to rename the station to its current name. CTA 2 Hyde Park Express 6 Jackson Park Express 10 Museum of Science and Industry 22 Clark 24 Wentworth 29 State 36 Broadway 62 Archer 146 Inner Drive/Michigan Express 147 Outer Drive Express Media related to Harold Washington Library-State/Van Buren at Wikimedia Commons Harold Washington Library-State/Van Buren Station Page Historic American Engineering Record No.
IL-1-B, "Union Elevated Railroad, State Street Station" CTA - Train schedules: Brown Purple Orange PinkRidership figures, 2009 Dearborn Street exit-only stairs from Google Maps Street View State Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
The Loop (CTA)
The Loop is the 1.79-mile long circuit of elevated rail that forms the hub of the Chicago "L" system in Chicago, Illinois. As of 2012, the branch has served 74,651 passengers every weekday; the Loop is so named because the elevated tracks loop around a rectangle formed by Lake Street, Wabash Avenue, Van Buren Street, Wells Street. The railway loop has given its name to Chicago's downtown, known as the Loop. Numerous accounts assert that the use of this term predates the elevated rail, deriving from the multiple cable car turntables, or loops, that terminated in the district, those of two lines that shared a loop, constructed in 1882, bounded by Madison, Wabash and Lake. However, transportation historian Bruce Moffat has concluded that "The Loop" was not used as a proper noun until after Charles Yerkes' 1895–97 construction of the elevated structure; the Loop includes eight stations: Clark/Lake and State/Lake are on the northern leg. In 2011 20,896,612 passengers entered the'L' via these stations.
Five of the eight'L' lines use the Loop tracks: The Purple Line Express and the Brown Line enter from the north at the northwestern corner. The Purple Line Express makes a full circuit in the clockwise direction while the Brown Line makes a full circuit traveling counterclockwise; the Orange Line enters from the south at the southeastern corner and the Pink Line enters from the west at the northwestern corner. Following the completion of a full circuit in their directions, trains of these four lines return to their terminals making stops in the reverse order they made when heading to the Loop; the Green Line runs in both directions but does not make a full circuit, using only the north and eastern sides of the Loop to move between the Lake Street branch and the South Side Elevated. Two of the remaining three lines, the Blue Line and the Red Line, run underground through the center of the Loop, connecting to Loop stations; the Yellow Line is the only CTA line that does not connect to the loop.
Two towers exit from the Loop. Tower 12 stands at the southeastern corner. Tower 18 stands watch over the three-quarter union located at the northwestern corner, which at one time was billed as the busiest railroad interlocking in the world; the current Tower 18 was placed into service on May 19, 2010, replacing the former modern tower on that site, built in 1969. Prior to construction of the Union Loop, Chicago's three elevated railway lines—the South Side Elevated Railroad, the Lake Street Elevated Railroad, the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad—each had their own terminal on the edges of downtown Chicago. Charles Tyson Yerkes masterminded the linking of these railroads; the Union Loop was constructed in separate sections: the Lake Street'L' was extended along the north side in 1895. There were 12 stations, with three stations on each side; the construction of the west-leg of the Union Loop over Wells Street required the removal of the southern platform of the Fifth/Lake station. The addition of the Northwestern Elevated Railroad caused the removal of the rest of the station as the remaining platform sat across the new road's entry point.
This left two on the north leg of the loop and three on each other leg. The Loop was born in political scandal: upon completion, all the rail lines running downtown had to pay Yerkes's operation a fee, which raised fares for commuters; this lists each station beginning at the northwest corner and moving counterclockwise around the loop: south along Wells Street, east along Van Buren Street, north along Wabash Avenue, west along Lake Street. History of the Loop 1977 Chicago Loop derailment Chicago Central Area Transit Plan Wells Street Terminal Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-1, "Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop" Loop Elevated at Chicago-L.org
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
Chicago Symphony Orchestra
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891. The ensemble makes its home at Orchestra Hall in Chicago and plays a summer season at the Ravinia Festival; the music director is Riccardo Muti, who began his tenure in 2010. The CSO is one of five American orchestras referred to as the "Big Five". In 1890, Charles Norman Fay, a Chicago businessman, invited Theodore Thomas to establish an orchestra in Chicago. Under the name "Chicago Orchestra," the orchestra played its first concert October 16, 1891 at the Auditorium Theater, it is one of the oldest orchestras in the United States, along with the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra. Orchestra Hall, now a component of the Symphony Center complex, was designed by Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham and completed in 1904. Maestro Thomas served as music director for thirteen years until his death shortly after the orchestra's newly built residence was dedicated December 14, 1904.
The orchestra was renamed "Theodore Thomas Orchestra" in 1905 and today, Orchestra Hall still has "Theodore Thomas Orchestra Hall" inscribed in its façade. In 1905, Frederick Stock became music director, a post he held until his death in 1942; the orchestra was renamed the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1913. Subsequent music directors have included Désiré Defauw, Artur Rodziński, Rafael Kubelík, Fritz Reiner, Jean Martinon, Georg Solti, Daniel Barenboim. On May 5, 2008, the CSO Association's president Deborah Rutter announced that the orchestra had named Riccardo Muti as its 10th music director, starting with the 2010–2011 season, for an initial contract of 5 years, his contract has been renewed through the 2020 season. The orchestra has hosted many distinguished guest conductors, including Thomas Beecham, Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Edward Elgar, Morton Gould, Paul Hindemith, Erich Kunzel, Erich Leinsdorf, Charles Munch, Eugene Ormandy, André Previn, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Leonard Slatkin, Leopold Stokowski, Richard Strauss, George Szell, Klaus Tennstedt, Michael Tilson Thomas, Bruno Walter, John Williams.
Many of these guests have recorded with the orchestra. Carlos Kleiber made his only symphonic guest appearances in America with the CSO in October 1978 and June 1983; the three principal guest conductors of the orchestra have been Carlo Maria Giulini, Claudio Abbado, Pierre Boulez. The CSO holds an annual fundraiser known as the Chicago Symphony Marathon, more as "Radiothon" and "Symphonython," in conjunction with Chicago radio station WFMT; as part of the event, from 1986 through 2008, the orchestra released tracks from their broadcast archives on double LP/CD collections, as well as two larger sets of broadcasts and rarities. On March 10, 2019, CSO musicians went on strike, claiming that management wanted to cut their pension benefits in addition to reducing overall salary; the players picketed outside of Orchestra Hall for 12 hours the next day, stating that they would continue to do so daily until "a contract, fair to the musicians is reached". On March 12, it was announced. On March 22, the musicians announced.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra maintains a summer home at the Ravinia Festival in Highland Park, Illinois. The CSO first performed there during Ravinia Park's second season in November 1905 and continued to appear there on and off through August 1931, after which the Park fell dark due to the Great Depression; the CSO helped to inaugurate the first season of the Ravinia Festival in August 1936 and has been in residence at the Festival every summer since. Many conductors have made their debut with the Chicago Symphony at Ravinia, several have gone on to become Music Director at Ravinia, including Seiji Ozawa, James Levine, Christoph Eschenbach; the position of Music Director of the Ravinia Festival is unfilled. The Ravinia Festival created an honorific title for James Levine—"Conductor Laureate"—and signed him to a five-year renewable contract beginning in 2018. On December 4, 2017, after Levine was accused of sexually abusing four males, the Ravinia Festival severed all ties with Levine, terminated his five-year contract to lead the Chicago Symphony there.
The Chicago Symphony has amassed an extensive discography. Recordings by the CSO have earned 62 Grammy Awards from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences; these include several Classical Album of the Year awards, awards in Best Classical Performance in vocal soloist, instrumental and orchestral categories. On May 1, 1916, Frederick Stock and the orchestra recorded the Wedding March from Felix Mendelssohn's music to A Midsummer Night's Dream for Columbia Records. Stock and the CSO made numerous recordings for Columbia and the Victor Talking Machine Company/RCA Victor; the Chicago Symphony's first electrical recordings were made for Victor in December 1925, including a performance of Karl Goldmark's In Springtime overture. These early electrical recordings were made in Victor's Chicago studios. Stock continued recording for Columbia and RCA Victor until his death in 1942. In 1948, three versions of Aram Khachaturian's "Sabre Dance" reached number one in the Billboard Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists: a CSO version conducted by Artur Rodziński, as well as a New York Philharmonic version conducted by Efrem Kurtz and a version by Oscar L