Lincoln County, Washington
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,570, making it the fifth-least populous county in Washington; the county seat and largest city is Davenport. The county was created out of Whitman County in November 1883 and is named for Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States. In 1883, Lincoln County was created from a portion of Spokane County, four days a portion of its area was peeled off to create Douglas County. There have been no further alterations to its boundary since that time.. Its 2,317 square miles make it #8 in size in the state. Centuries ago, the area now covered by Lincoln County contained an east-west passageway used by indigenous peoples. A spring near the present-day Davenport created a large overnight camping place; the early exploration of the Northwest Territory by Lewis and Clark did not reach as far north as the Lincoln County expanses. The first recorded entry by European explorers was of David Thompson, a scout for the North West Company, who traversed the area in 1811.
He noted physical locations in present-day Lincoln County. He described Hell Gate Rapid; that stretch of the Columbia River is now tame, because of the presence of Grand Coulee Dam. After this, there was considerable exploration by fur trappers and others, including famed Scotch botanist David Douglas in 1826; the first permanent non-indigenous resident of the area was R. M. Bacon from Boston, who began raising cattle around Crab Creek in 1871; when the first post office was established in the county, Bacon was its postmaster. Emigration into the area accelerated in the late 1870s. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1883, construction of Fort Spokane hastened settlement. Lincoln County lies on the channelled Scablands, known as the Big Bend Plateau, it lies 1,500-2,500 feet above sea level, with a system of channels eroded into bedrock by glacial rivers and streams, flowing from northeastern Washington. Lincoln County climate is hot/dry in the summer, cold/moderately humid in the winter.
Due to the level terrain, temperatures tend to vary little from east to west. Precipitation varies from an arid condition in the western part of the county to semi-arid in the northeast; the entire area lies in the dry intermontane basin between the Cascades and the Rocky Mountain System. Precipitation is a major controlling factor in agriculture. Precipitation in the Big Bend region is variable. Monthly temperature averages range from below freezing in mid-winter to high of 65-71°F in mid-summer. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,339 square miles, of which 2,310 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water. Columbia River Lilienthal Mountain, county high point Interstate 90 U. S. Route 2 U. S. Route 395 Ferry County – north Stevens County – northeast Spokane County – east Whitman County – southeast Adams County – south Grant County – west Okanogan County – northwest Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area As of the census of 2000, there were 10,184 people, 4,151 households, 2,914 families in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 5,298 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.64% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 1.63% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. 1.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 36.6% were of German, 10.5% English, 9.3% United States or American and 5.8% Irish ancestry. There were 4,151 households out of which 29.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 6.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.80% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 5.20% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 27.40% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,255, the median income for a family was $41,269. Males had a median income of $31,086 versus $22,444 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,888. About 8.40% of families and 12.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.60% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,570 people, 4,422 households, 3,059 families residing in the county; the population density was 4.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,776 housing units at an average density of 2.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.0% white, 1.6% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.5% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 42.3% were German, 14.6% were Irish, 13.9% were English, 5.5% were Norwegian, 5.3% were Scotch-Irish, 3.6% were American.
Of the 4,422 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families, 27.1% of all households were made
Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural techniques for the non-irrigated cultivation of crops. Dryland farming is associated with drylands, areas characterized by a cool wet season, followed by a warm dry season, they are associated with arid conditions or areas prone to drought or having scarce water resources. Additionally, arid-zone agriculture is being developed for this purpose. Dryland farming is used in the Great Plains, the Palouse plateau of Eastern Washington, other arid regions of North America such as in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, the Middle East and in other grain growing regions such as the steppes of Eurasia and Argentina. Dryland farming was introduced to southern Russia and Ukraine by Ukrainian Mennonites under the influence of Johann Cornies, making the region the breadbasket of Europe. In Australia, it is practiced in all states but the Northern Territory. Dryland farmed crops may include winter wheat, beans, sunflowers or watermelon.
Successful dryland farming is possible with as little as 230 millimetres of precipitation a year. Native American tribes in the arid Southwest survived for hundreds of years on dryland farming in areas with less than 250 millimetres of rain; the choice of crop is influenced by the timing of the predominant rainfall in relation to the seasons. For example, winter wheat is more suited to regions with higher winter rainfall while areas with summer wet seasons may be more suited to summer growing crops such as sorghum, sunflowers or cotton. Dryland farming has evolved as a set of techniques and management practices used by farmers to continually adapt to the presence or lack of moisture in a given crop cycle. In marginal regions, a farmer should be financially able to survive occasional crop failures for several years in succession. Survival as a dryland farmer requires careful husbandry of the moisture available for the crop and aggressive management of expenses to minimize losses in poor years.
Dryland farming involves the constant assessing of the amount of moisture present or lacking for any given crop cycle and planning accordingly. Dryland farmers know that to be financially successful they have to be aggressive during the good years in order to offset the dry years. Dryland farming is dependent on natural rainfall, which can leave the ground vulnerable to dust storms if poor farming techniques are used or if the storms strike at a vulnerable time; the fact that a fallow period must be included in the crop rotation means that fields cannot always be protected by a cover crop, which might otherwise offer protection against erosion. Some of the theories of dryland farming developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries claimed to be scientific but were in reality pseudoscientific and did not stand up to empirical testing. For example, it was alleged that tillage would seal in moisture, but such "dust mulching" ideas are based on what people imagine should happen, or have been told, rather than what testing confirms.
The book Bad Land: An American Romance explores the effects that this had on people who were encouraged to homestead in an area with little rainfall. Capturing and conservation of moisture – In regions such as Eastern Washington, the average annual precipitation available to a dryland farm may be as little as 220 millimetres. Moisture must be captured until the crop can utilize it. Techniques include summer fallow rotation, preventing runoff by terracing fields. "Terracing" is practiced by farmers on a smaller scale by laying out the direction of furrows to slow water runoff downhill by plowing along either contours or keylines. Moisture can be conserved by leaving crop residue to shade the soil. Effective use of available moisture – Once moisture is available for the crop to use, it must be used as as possible. Seed planting depth and timing are considered to place the seed at a depth at which sufficient moisture exists, or where it will exist when seasonal precipitation falls. Farmers tend to use crop varieties which are heat-stress tolerant.
Thus the likelihood of a successful crop is hedged. Soil conservation – The nature of dryland farming makes it susceptible to erosion wind erosion; some techniques for conserving soil moisture are at odds with techniques for conserving topsoil. Since healthy topsoil is critical to sustainable dryland agriculture, its preservation is considered the most important long-term goal of a dryland farming operation. Erosion control techniques such as windbreaks, reduced tillage or no-till, spreading straw, strip farming are used to minimize topsoil loss. Control of input costs – Dryland farming is practiced in regions inherently marginal for non-irrigated agriculture; because of this, there is an increased risk of crop failure and poor yields which may occur in a dry year. Dryland farmers must evaluate the potential yield of a crop throughout the growing season and be prepared to decrease inputs to the crop such as fertilizer and weed control if it appears that it is to have a poor yield due to insufficient moisture.
Conversely, in years when moisture is abundant, farmers may increase their inpu
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Grant County, Washington
Grant County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the population was 89,120; the county seat is Ephrata, the largest city is Moses Lake. The county was formed out of Douglas County in February 1909 and is named for U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant. Grant County comprises the Moses Lake, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Moses Lake-Othello, WA Combined Statistical Area. Native American cultures in the area included the Interior Salish and Okanagan; the first white settlers began to arrive in the mid-to-late-19th century with the goal of raising livestock. One government official described the area in 1879 as, "…a desolation where the most hopeful can find nothing in its future prospects to cheer."When railroads arrived they brought new settlers, the economy began a shift from ranching to dryland farming. This transition required the people to have ready access to water, irrigation became a necessity; the first large-scale irrigation attempts began in 1898.
With the influx of dryland farming, the county soon boasted access to three major railway systems. In addition, the Columbia River in this area was navigable; this allowed crops to be transported out of the area easily. Towns like Wilson Creek and Ephrata began to thrive; the Washington State Legislature created Grant County on February 24, 1909, naming it in the memory of Ulysses S. Grant, the 18th president of the United States, a major contributor to the Union victory in the American Civil War; the county seat was located in Ephrata. The area's population at the time stood at around 8700 people; the Columbia Basin Project, which produced the Grand Coulee Dam with its associated irrigation and hydroelectric generating grid, was an outgrowth of the 1902 creation of the United States Bureau of Reclamation. When that agency began studying feasibility of projects in the Northwestern United States, competing groups from Spokane, Wenatchee and elsewhere advanced competing possibilities. One idea was to dam the Columbia River at Grand Coulee.
This concept was approved in 1933, construction continued in the following decades. The project would fundamentally change the region forever. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,791 square miles, of which 2,680 square miles is land and 112 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest county in Washington by area. The environmental climate of Grant County is characterized by cold winters. Rainshadow caused by the Cascade mountains separates eastern Washington, including Grant County, from western Washington's more temperate and oceanic climate. A sign alongside Interstate Highway I-90 where it enters Grant County welcomes travelers to Grant County and says the county is "The nation's leading potato producing county". Columbia River Moses Lake Potholes Reservoir Grand Coulee Ulysses S. Peak, unofficial name of county high point I-90 I‑90 Bus. U. S. Route 2 State Route 17 State Route 28 Columbia National Wildlife Refuge Hanford Reach National Monument Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 74,698 people, 25,204 households and 18,676 families residing in the county.
The population density was 28 per square mile. There were 29,081 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.54% White, 0.99% Black or African American, 1.16% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 17.36% from other races, 3.01% from two or more races. 30.09% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.1% were of German, 8.1% United States or American, 8.0% English and 5.4% Irish ancestry. 72.0% spoke English and 25.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 25,204 households of which 39.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 9.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.90% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.38. 32.00% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 19.70% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 104.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.40 males. The median household income $35,276, the median family income was $38,938. Males had a median income of $32,414 versus $24,310 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,037. About 13.10% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.30% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 89,120 people, 30,041 households, 21,800 families residing in the county; the population density was 33.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 35,083 housing units at an average density of 13.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.8% white, 1.2% American Indian, 1.1% black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 20.4% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 38.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 15.5% were German, 8.9% were English, 7.1% were Irish, 3.9% were American.
Of the 30,041 households, 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married coupl
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government