The Viperidae is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica, Hawaii, New Zealand, various other isolated islands, north of the Arctic Circle. All have long, hinged fangs that permit deep penetration and injection of snake venom. Four subfamilies are recognised, they are known as viperids. The name "viper" is derived from the Latin word vipera, -ae meaning viper from vivus and parere, referring to the trait viviparity common in vipers but not in snakes at large. All viperids have a pair of long solenoglyphous fangs that are used to inject venom from glands located towards the rear of the upper jaws, just behind the eyes; each of the two fangs is at the front of the mouth on a short maxillary bone that can rotate back and forth. When not in use, the fangs fold back against the roof of the mouth and are enclosed in a membranous sheath; this rotating mechanism allows for long fangs to be contained in a small mouth. The left and right fangs can be rotated independently.
During a strike, the mouth can open nearly 180° and the maxilla rotates forward, erecting the fangs as late as possible so that the fangs do not become damaged, as they are brittle. The jaws close upon impact and the muscular sheaths encapsulating the venom glands contract, injecting the venom as the fangs penetrate the target; this action is fast. Viperids use this mechanism for immobilization and digestion of prey. Pre-digestion occurs. Secondarily, it is used for self-defense, though in cases with nonprey, such as humans, they may give a dry bite. A dry bite allows the snake to conserve their precious reserve of venom, because once it has been depleted, it takes time to replenish, leaving the snake vulnerable. In addition to being able to deliver dry bites, vipers can inject larger quantities of venom into larger prey targets, smaller amounts into small prey; this causes the ideal amount of pre-digestion for the lowest amount of venom. All vipers have keeled scales, a stocky build with a short tail, due to the location of the venom glands, a triangle-shaped head distinct from the neck.
The great majority have vertically elliptical, or slit-shaped, pupils that can open wide to cover most of the eye or close completely, which helps them to see in a wide range of light levels. Vipers are nocturnal and ambush their prey. Compared to many other snakes, vipers appear rather sluggish. Most are holding eggs inside their bodies, where they hatch inside and emerge living. However, a few lay eggs in nests; the number of young in a clutch remains constant, but as the weight of the mother increases, larger eggs are produced, yielding larger young. Viperid snakes are found in the Americas and Eurasia. In the Americas, they are native from south of the 48th parallel, through the United States, Central America, into South America. In the old world, viperids are located everywhere except Siberia and the continent of Australia; the adder, a viperid, is the only venomous snake found in Great Britain, is found north of the Arctic Circle in Norway and Sweden. Viperid venoms contain an abundance of protein-degrading enzymes, called proteases, that produce symptoms such as pain, strong local swelling and necrosis, blood loss from cardiovascular damage complicated by coagulopathy, disruption of the blood-clotting system.
Death is caused by collapse in blood pressure. This is in contrast to elapid venoms that contain neurotoxins that disable muscle contraction and cause paralysis. Death from elapid bites results from asphyxiation because the diaphragm can no longer contract. However, this rule does not always apply. Proteolytic venom is dual-purpose: firstly, it is used for defense and to immobilize prey, as with neurotoxic venoms; this is an important adaptation. Due to the nature of proteolytic venom, a viperid bite is a painful experience and should always be taken though it may not prove fatal. With prompt and proper treatment, a bite can still result in a permanent scar, in the worst cases, the affected limb may have to be amputated. A victim's fate is impossible to predict, as this depends on many factors, including the species and size of the snake involved, how much venom was injected, the size and condition of the patient before being bitten. Viper bite victims may be allergic to the venom and/or the antivenom.
These snakes can decide. The most important determinant of venom expenditure is the size of the snake; the species is important, since some are to inject more venom than others, may have more venom available, strike more or deliver a number of bites in a short time. In predatory bites, factors that influence the amount of venom injected include the size of the prey, the species of prey, whether the prey item is held or released; the need to label prey for chemosensory relocation after a bite and release may play a role. In defensive bites, the amount of venom injected may be determined by the
Addition is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic. The addition of two whole numbers is the total amount of those values combined. For example, in the adjacent picture, there is a combination of three apples and two apples together, making a total of five apples; this observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression "3 + 2 = 5" i.e. "3 add 2 is equal to 5". Besides counting items, addition can be defined on other types of numbers, such as integers, real numbers and complex numbers; this is part of a branch of mathematics. In algebra, another area of mathematics, addition can be performed on abstract objects such as vectors and matrices. Addition has several important properties, it is commutative, meaning that order does not matter, it is associative, meaning that when one adds more than two numbers, the order in which addition is performed does not matter. Repeated addition of 1 is the same as counting. Addition obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as subtraction and multiplication.
Performing addition is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Addition of small numbers is accessible to toddlers. In primary education, students are taught to add numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems. Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer, where research on the most efficient implementations of addition continues to this day. Addition is written using the plus sign "+" between the terms; the result is expressed with an equals sign. For example, 1 + 1 = 2 2 + 2 = 4 1 + 2 = 3 5 + 4 + 2 = 11 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 There are situations where addition is "understood" though no symbol appears: A whole number followed by a fraction indicates the sum of the two, called a mixed number. For example, 3½ = 3 + ½ = 3.5. This notation can cause confusion since in most other contexts juxtaposition denotes multiplication instead; the sum of a series of related numbers can be expressed through capital sigma notation, which compactly denotes iteration.
For example, ∑ k = 1 5 k 2 = 1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 4 2 + 5 2 = 55. The numbers or the objects to be added in general addition are collectively referred to as the terms, the addends or the summands; this is to be distinguished from factors. Some authors call. In fact, during the Renaissance, many authors did not consider the first addend an "addend" at all. Today, due to the commutative property of addition, "augend" is used, both terms are called addends. All of the above terminology derives from Latin. "Addition" and "add" are English words derived from the Latin verb addere, in turn a compound of ad "to" and dare "to give", from the Proto-Indo-European root *deh₃- "to give". Using the gerundive suffix -nd results in "addend", "thing to be added". From augere "to increase", one gets "augend", "thing to be increased". "Sum" and "summand" derive from the Latin noun summa "the highest, the top" and associated verb summare. This is appropriate not only because the sum of two positive numbers is greater than either, but because it was common for the ancient Greeks and Romans to add upward, contrary to the modern practice of adding downward, so that a sum was higher than the addends.
Addere and summare date back at least to Boethius, if not to earlier Roman writers such as Vitruvius and Frontinus. The Middle English terms "adden" and "adding" were popularized by Chaucer; the plus sign "+" is an abbreviation of the Latin word et, meaning "and". It appears in mathematical works dating back to at least 1489. Addition is used to model many physical processes. For the simple case of adding natural numbers, there are many possible interpretations and more visual representations; the most fundamental interpretation of addition lies in combining sets: When two or more disjoint collections are combined into a single collection, the number of objects in the single collection is the sum of the number of objects in the original collections. This interpretation is easy to visualize, with little danger of ambiguity, it is useful in higher mathematics. However, it is not obvious how one should extend this version of addition to include fractional numbers or negative numbers. One possible fix is to consider collections of objects that can be divided, such as pies or, still bet
Vipera berus, the common European adder or common European viper, is a venomous snake, widespread and can be found throughout most of Western Europe and as far as East Asia. Known by a host of common names including common adder and common viper, adders have been the subject of much folklore in Britain and other European countries, they are not regarded as dangerous. Bites can be painful, but are fatal; the specific name, berus, is New Latin and was at one time used to refer to a snake the grass snake, Natrix natrix. The common adder is found in different terrains, habitat complexity being essential for different aspects of its behaviour, it feeds on small mammals, birds and amphibians, in some cases on spiders and insects. The common adder, like most other vipers, is ovoviviparous. Females breed once every two or three years, with litters being born in late summer to early autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Litters range in size from three to 20 with young staying with their mothers for a few days.
Adults grow to a mass of 50 to 180 g. Three subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies, Vipera berus berus described here; the snake is not considered to be threatened. The name'adder' is derived from nædre, an Old English word that had the generic meaning of serpent in the older forms of many Germanic languages, it was used in the Old English version of the Christian Scriptures for the devil and the serpent in the Book of Genesis. In the 14th century,'a nadder' in Middle English was rebracketed to'an adder'. In keeping with its wide distribution and familiarity through the ages, Vipera berus has a large number of common names in English, which include: Common European adder, common European viper, European viper, northern viper, common adder, crossed viper, European adder, common viper, European common viper, cross adder, or common cross adder. In Denmark and Sweden, the snake is known as hugorm and huggorm translated as'striking snake'. In Finland, it is known as kyykäärme or kyy, in Estonia it is known as rästik, while in Lithuania it is known as angis.
Thick-bodied, adults grow to 60 cm in total length, with an average of 55 cm. Maximum size varies by region; the largest, at over 90 cm, are found in Scandinavia. In France and Great Britain, the maximum size is 80–87 cm. Mass ranges from 50 g to about 180 grams; the head is large and distinct and its sides are flat and vertical. The edge of the snout is raised into a low ridge. Seen from above, the rostral scale is not visible, or only just. Behind the rostral, there are two small scales. Dorsally, there are five large plates: a squarish frontal, two parietals, two long and narrow supraoculars; the latter are distinct, each separated from the frontal by one to four small scales. The nostril is situated in a shallow depression within a large nasal scale; the eye is large—equal in size or larger than the nasal scale—but smaller in females. Below the supraoculars are six to 13 small circumorbital scales; the temporal scales are smooth. There are 10 -- six to 10 supralabials. Of the latter, the numbers 3 and 4 are the largest, while 4 and 5 are separated from the eye by a single row of small scales.
Midbody there are 21 dorsal scales rows. These are keeled scales, except for those bordering the ventral scales; these scales seem loosely attached to the skin and lower rows become wide. The ventral scales number 132–150 in males and 132–158 in females; the anal plate is single. The subcaudals are paired, numbering 32–46 in males and 23–38 in females; the colour pattern varies, ranging from light-coloured specimens with small, dark dorsal crossbars to brown ones with faint or clear, darker brown markings, on to melanistic individuals that are dark and lack any apparent dorsal pattern. However, most have some kind of zigzag dorsal pattern down the entire length of their bodies and tails; the head has a distinctive dark V or X on the back. A dark streak runs from the eye to the neck and continues as a longitudinal series of spots along the flanks. Unusually for snakes, the sexes are possible to tell apart by the colour. Females are brownish in hue with dark-brown markings, the males are pure grey with black markings.
The basal colour of males will be lighter than that of the females, making the black zigzag pattern stand out. The melanistic individuals are females. Vipera berus has a wide range, it can be found across the Eurasian land-mass.
Heterodon is a genus of harmless colubrid snakes endemic to North America. They are stout with upturned snouts and are best known for their characteristic threat displays. Three species are recognized. Members of the genus are known as hog-nosed snakes, North American hog-nosed snakes, sometimes puff adders. Adults grow to 30–120 cm in total length; the body is stout and the head is distinct from the neck. The latter is expandable, the anterior ribs being capable of spreading to flatten that portion of the body, similar to a cobra; the tail is short and the anal scale divided. The dorsal scales are keeled with apical pits in 23-25 rows; the rostral scale is projecting, upturned and keeled dorsally. There are 1-20 accessory scales that separate the internasals and the prefrontals. A subocular ring is present with 8-12 ocular scales. There are 9-13 lower labials; the ventrals number 114-152 and the subcaudals 27-60. The color pattern is variable. H. nasicus tends to be sandy-colored with black and white markings, while H. platirhinos varies from reds, oranges, browns, to black depending on locality.
They are sometimes solid-colored. Members of this genus have enlarged rear maxillary teeth, two on each side, possess a toxic saliva. In a few cases involving bites from H. nasicus, the symptoms reported have ranged from none at all to mild tingling and itchy skin. They are considered to be harmless to humans; when threatened, the hognose snake will flatten its neck and raise its head off the ground, similar to a cobra, hiss. It may sometimes feign strikes, but is reluctant to bite; this behavior has earned the hognose several nicknames, such as "blowing adder," "flathead," "spreading adder," or "hissing adder." If this threat display does not work to deter a would-be predator, the hognose snake will roll onto its back and play dead with its mouth open and tongue lolling, going as far as to emit a foul musk from the cloaca. Emission of cloacal musk is less than in many other species. If the snake is rolled upright while in this state, it will roll over again as if to insist that it is dead. Hognose snakes' most distinguishing characteristic is their upturned snout, believed to aid in digging in sandy soils.
Due to their appearance and impressive defensive display, hognose snakes are mistaken to be copperheads and subsequently killed. This is true in the south-eastern regions of the United States; the bulk of Heterodon diet is made up of rodents, lizards. H. platirhinos is an exception, specializes in feeding on toads, having an immunity to the toxins toads secrete. Hognose snakes are found in the exotic pet trade. H. nasicus are considered to be the easiest to care for, captive bred stock is found. H. platirhinos is found, but their dietary requirements can be a challenge for some keepers. *) Not including the nominate subspecies. Heterodon at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 14 September 2007. Goin, Coleman J.. Goin. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4. Latreille, P. A. In Sonnini, C. S. and P. A. Latreille.. Histoire naturelle des reptiles, avec figures dessinées d'apres nature. Seconde Partie. Serpens. Paris: Crapelet. 410 pp. Schmidt, K.
P. and D. D. Davis. 1941. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York. 365 pp. Zim, H. S. and H. M. Smith. 1956. Reptiles and Amphibians: A Guide to Familiar Species. A Golden Nature Guide. Simon and Schuster. New York. 160 pp
The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile. It is known by its export designation RVV-AE, it is intended as the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile. The R-77 was marked by a protracted development. Work was not completed before the Soviet Union fell. For many years, only the RVV-AE model was produced for export customers. Production was further disrupted when the Russian intervention in Ukraine resulted in a Ukrainian arms embargo against Russia, severing supply chains; the Russian Air Force entered the R-77-1 into service in 2015. It was subsequently deployed by Su-35S fighters in Syria on combat air patrols. Work on the R-77 began in 1982, it represented Russia's first multi-purpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft for fire-and-forget use against a range of aircraft from hovering helicopters to high-speed, low-altitude aircraft. Gennadiy Sokolovski, general designer of the Vympel Design Bureau, said that the R-77 missile can be used against medium and long range air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-54 Phoenix, as well as SAMs such as the Patriot.
The munition has a laser-triggered proximity fuze and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy variable sized targets. It can be used against precision-guided munitions. First seen in 1992 at the Moscow Airshow 1992, the R-77 was nicknamed Amraamski by Western journalists; the basic R-77 is known as the izdeliye 170, while the export variant is known as the izdeliye 190, or RVV-AE. The R-77 and RVV-AE have a range of 80 km. Vympel did not have adequate funding during the 1990s and the first part of the following decade to support further evolution of the R-77, either for the Russian air force or the export market; the basic version of the R-77 is not thought to have entered the Russian air force inventory in significant numbers. The R-77 can be used by upgraded Su-27, MiG-31 variants in Russian Air Force service; some variants of the Su-27 in China's People's Liberation Army Air Force, including the domestically produced J-11 variants, can employ the missile. The newer Su-30MKK has a N001 with a digital bypass channel incorporating a mode allowing it to use R-77s.
The export RVV-AE has been sold with China and India placing significant orders for the munition, as was the case for the R-73. The baseline R-77 was designed in the 1980s, with development complete by around 1994. India was the first export customer for the export variant, known as the RVV-AE, with the final batch delivered in 2002. There are other variants under development. One has an upgraded motor; this variant uses a solid-fuel ramjet engine. Its range is equivalent in range to the AIM-54 Phoenix. In another version of the R-77, a terminal infrared; this is in line with the Russian practice of attacking targets by firing pairs of missiles with different homing systems. This complicates end-game defensive actions for the target aircraft, as it needs to defeat two homing systems. If a radar-guided medium-range missile is fired at an enemy jet aircraft outside the non-escape attack zone, the target aircraft may be able to escape through emergency maneuver, but at this moment, in fact, the infrared guidance has an advantage: once the jet aircraft turns to escape, the engine nozzle is exposed, the infrared characteristics are exposed.
This method of attack may not always be available as IR seekers have less range and less resistance to poor weather than radar seekers, which may limit the successful use of mixed seeker attacks unless the IR missile is directed by radar or some other means. Another improvement program was designated the R-77M, which made the missile longer and heavier, making use of a two-stage motor as well as an improved seeker. A further product-improvement of the R-77, designated the R-77M1 and the R-77-PD, was to feature a ramjet propulsion device; this missile was destined for the MiG 1.44 that for the MFI program. The munition has a laser fuse and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy the variable sized targets. However, due to funding shortage and eventual cancellation of the MiG 1.44, development of this model may have stopped by 1999. Tactical Missile Weapons Corporation known as TRV, unveiled the RVV-SD and RVV-MD missiles for the first time at the Moscow Air Show in August 2009; the RVV-SD is an improved version of the R-77, while the RVV-MD is a variant of the R-73.
The RVV-SD includes the upgrades associated with the izdeliye 170-1, or R-77-1. The RVV-SD, along with the RVV-MD, seem to be part of Russia's bid for India's medium multirole combat aircraft competition. Both designations were included by MiG on a presentation covering MiG-35 Fulcrum armament during Aero India Air Show in February; the initial RVV-SD offering is no more than a stopgap to try to maintain its position, to provide a credible radar-guided weapon to offer as part of fighter export packages and upgrade programs. According to specifications, the R-77-1 and its export variant RVV-SD is 15 kg heavier than the basic R-77 / RVV-AE, weighing 190 kg rather than 175 kg. Maximum range is increased to 110 km from 80 km; the missile is slightly longer at 3.71 m, rather than the 3.6 m of the basic variant. Additional improvemen
Blackadder is a series of four BBC1 pseudohistorical British sitcoms, plus several one-off instalments, which aired in the 1980s. All television episodes starred Rowan Atkinson as the anti-hero Edmund Blackadder, Tony Robinson as Blackadder's dogsbody, Baldrick; each series was set in a different historical period, with the two protagonists accompanied by different characters, though several reappear in one series or another, for example Melchett and Lord Flashheart. The first series, The Black Adder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, while subsequent episodes were written by Curtis and Ben Elton; the shows were produced by John Lloyd. In 2000, the fourth series, Blackadder Goes Forth, ranked at 16 in the "100 Greatest British Television Programmes", a list created by the British Film Institute. In the 2004 TV poll to find "Britain's Best Sitcom", Blackadder was voted the second-best British sitcom of all time, topped by Only Fools and Horses, it was ranked as the 9th-best TV show of all time by Empire magazine.
Although each series is set in a different era, all follow the misfortunes of Edmund Blackadder, who in each is a member of a British family dynasty present at many significant periods and places in British history. It is implied in each series that the Blackadder character is a descendant of the previous one, although it is never specified how or when any of the Blackadders managed to father children. In series one, Edmund Blackadder is not bright, is much the intellectual inferior of his servant, Baldrick. However, in subsequent series, the positions are reversed; each incarnation of Blackadder and Baldrick is saddled with tolerating the presence of a dim-witted aristocrat. This role was taken in the first two series by Lord Percy Percy, played by Tim McInnerny; each series was set in a different period of British history, beginning in 1485 and ending in 1917, comprised six half-hour episodes. The first series, made in 1983, was called The Black Adder and was set in the fictional reign of "Richard IV".
The second series, Blackadder II, was set during the reign of Elizabeth I. Blackadder the Third was set during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the reign of George III, Blackadder Goes Forth was set in 1917 in the trenches of the Great War; the Black Adder, the first series of Blackadder, was written by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson and produced by John Lloyd. It aired on BBC1 from 15 June 1983 to 20 July 1983, was a joint production with the Australian Seven Network. Set in 1485 at the end of the British Middle Ages, the series is written as an alternative history in which King Richard III won the Battle of Bosworth Field only to be mistaken for someone else and murdered, is succeeded by Richard IV, one of the Princes in the Tower; the series follows the exploits of Richard IV's unfavoured second son Edmund, the Duke of Edinburgh in his various attempts to increase his standing with his father and his eventual quest to overthrow him. Conceived while Atkinson and Curtis were working on Not the Nine O'Clock News, the series dealt comically with a number of aspects of medieval life in Britain: witchcraft, Royal succession, European relations, the Crusades, the conflict between the Church and the Crown.
Along with the secret history, many historical events portrayed in the series were anachronistic. The filming of the series was ambitious, with a large cast and much location shooting; the series featured Shakespearean dialogue adapted for comic effect. Blackadder II is set in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, portrayed by Miranda Richardson; the principal character is Lord Blackadder, the great-grandson of the original Black Adder. During the series, he deals with the Queen, her obsequious Lord Chamberlain Lord Melchett – his rival – and the Queen's demented former nanny Nursie. Following the BBC's request for improvements, several changes were made; the second series was the first to establish the familiar Blackadder character: cunning and witty, in sharp contrast to the first series' bumbling Prince Edmund. To reduce the cost of production, it was shot with no outdoor scenes and several used indoor sets, such as the Queen's throne room and Blackadder's front room. A quote from this series ranked number three in a list of the top 25 television "putdowns" of the last 40 years by the Radio Times magazine: "The eyes are open, the mouth moves, but Mr. Brain has long since departed, hasn't he, Percy?"
Blackadder the Third is set in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a period known as the Regency. In the series, Edmund Blackadder Esquire is the butler to the Prince of Wales. Despite Edmund's respected intelligence and abilities, he has no personal fortune to speak of, apart from his fluctuating wage packet (as well
Acanthophis is a genus of elapid snakes. Called death adders, they are native to Australia, New Guinea and nearby islands, are among the most venomous snakes in the world; the name of the genus derives from the Ancient Greek acanthos/ἄκανθος and ophis/ὄφις, referring to the spine on the death adder's tail. Seven species are listed by ITIS, though it remains unclear how many species this genus includes, with figures ranging from 4 to 15 species being quoted. Although the death adders resemble vipers of the family Viperidae, they are members of the family Elapidae, being more related to cobras and coral snakes, it remains unclear. Traditionally, only A. antarcticus, A. praelongus and A. pyrrhus have been recognized. In 1998 five new species were described and in 2002 an additional three were described; these were received with scepticism, only A. wellsi, where an extended description has been published, has been recognized. Further confusion exists over the death adders from Indonesia, they have variously been placed in A. antarcticus or A. praelongus.
In 2005 it was shown that neither is appropriate, the New Guinea death adders fall into two main clades: The rather smooth-scaled A. laevis complex, the rough-scaled A. rugosus complex. The latter can be divided into two sub-clades, it is some of these include more than one species, as populations included in e.g. A. laevis show extensive variation in both pattern and scalation. * Not including the nominate subspecies. TType species. Death adders are viper-like in appearance, having a short, robust body, triangular shaped heads and small subocular scales, they have vertical pupils and many small scales on the top of the head. Their fangs are longer and more mobile than for most other elapids, although still far from the size seen in some of the true vipers. Despite their name, they are not related to adders, which are members of the family Viperidae, their similar appearance is due to convergent evolution, they take 2–3 years to reach adult size. Females are slightly larger than the males, they can be distinguished from other Australian snakes because of a small, worm like lure on the end of their tail, used to attract prey.
Most have large bands around their bodies, though the color itself is variable, depending on their locality. Colours are black, grey or red and yellow, but include brown and greenish-grey. Death adders were called'deaf adders' by early settlers of Australia. Unlike other snakes that tend to run away from human disturbance, the death adder is inclined to hold its ground, leading to the notion that the death adder cannot hear. However, death adders, like other snakes, perceive ground vibrations. Unlike most snakes, death adders do not hunt, but rather lie in ambush and draw their prey to them; when hungry, death adders bury themselves among the substrate. This may be leaf soil or sand, depending on their environment; the only part of themselves they expose are their head and their tail, both very well camouflaged. The end of the tail is used for caudal luring and when wiggled, it is mistaken for a grub or worm. An unsuspecting bird or mammal will notice the'easy lunch' and attempt to seize it. Only will the death adder move, lashing out with the quickest strike of any snake in the world.
A death adder can go from a strike position, to strike and envenoming their prey, back to strike position again, in less than 0.15 seconds. Death adders can inject on average 40–100 mg of toxic venom with a bite; the LD50 of the venom was reported as 0.4–0.5 mg/kg subcutaneous and it is neurotoxic, containing neither haemotoxins nor myotoxins, unlike most venomous snakes. A bite from a death adder can cause paralysis which seems minor at first but can cause death from a complete respiratory shutdown in six hours. Symptoms of envenomation can be reversed through the use of death adder antivenom, or using anticholinesterases, which break the synaptic blockade by making acetylcholine more available to the parasympathetic nervous system, thus mitigating the effects of the venom. Before antivenom was introduced, it is reported. Deaths are much rarer nowadays as the anti-venom is available and the progression of envenomation symptoms is slow. Wells, R. W. Taxonomy of the Genus Acanthophis in Australia.
Australian Biodiversity Record 2002 ISSN 1325-2992, March, 2002 Hoser, R. T. Tidying up Death Adder taxonomy: including descriptions of new subspecies and the first key to identify all recognized species and subspecies within the genus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 23, 22-34. 30 August 2014 Wellington, R. Acanthophis cryptamydros Maddock, Doughty, Smith & Wüster, 2015 is an invalid junior synonym of Acanthophis lancasteri Wells & Wellington, 1985 Bionomina 10: 74-75 http://www.mapress.com/j/bn/article/view/bionomina.10.1.5 Daudin FM. 1803. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs Sociétés savantes. Tome Cinquième. Paris: F. Dufart. 365 pp... The Reptilian Magazine.