Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. The term is modern, as such was used to refer to smallsword fencing, but by extension it can be applied to any martial art involving the use of a sword; the formation of the English word "swordsman" is parallel to the Latin word gladiator, a term for the professional fighters who fought against each other and a variety of other foes for the entertainment of spectators in the Roman Empire. The word gladiator itself comes from the Latin word gladius, meaning "sword"; the sword in ancient Egypt was known by several names, but most are variations of the words sfet, seft or nakhtui. The earliest bronze swords in the country date back 4000 years. Four types of sword are known to have been used: the ma or boomerang-sword based on the hunting stick, the kat or knife-sword, the khopesh or falchion based on the sickle, a fourth form of straight longsword; the khopesh is depicted as early as the Sixth Dynasty.
It was thick-backed and weighted with bronze, sometimes with gold hilts in the case of pharaohs. The blade may be edged on one or both sides, was made from copper alloy, iron, or blue steel; the double-edge grip-tongue sword is believed to have been introduced by the Sherden and became dispersed throughout the Near East. These swords are of various lengths, were paired with shields, they had a leaf-shaped blade, a handle which hollows away at the centre and thickens at each end. Middle Eastern swords became dominant throughout North Africa after the introduction of Islam, after which point swordsmanship in the region becomes that of Arabian or Middle Eastern fencing; the process of both iron smelting and forging was introduced to Sub-Saharan Africa from the north, thus many African swords were of Egyptian derivation. Among some communities, swords were restricted to tribal leaders. Forms vary from one area to another, such as the billao of Somalia, boomerang-sword in Niger or the single-edge swords of the Gold Coast.
The Abyssinian shotel took the form of a large sickle, like the Egyptian khopesh, with a small 4 inch wooden handle. The edge was on the inside of the blade. Double-edge swords similar to those of Europe and ancient Arabia occurred in some areas such as the takoba and kaskara. Two types of sword existed in Zanzibar: the foot-long shortsword and the standard sword with a blade measuring 3–3.5 feet and a cylindrical pommel. The latter weapon was wielded with both hands like a quarterstaff. Greece provides the foundation for the widespread use of the sword as a weapon in its own right in the West; the Roman legionaries and other forces of the Roman military, until the 2nd century A. D. used the gladius as a short thrusting sword with the scutum, a type of shield, in battle. Gladiators used a shorter gladius than the military; the spatha was a longer double-edged sword used only by Celtic soldiers incorporated as auxilia into Roman Cavalry units. D. the spatha was used throughout much of the Roman Empire.
The Empire's legionary soldiers were trained and prided themselves on their disciplinary skills. This carried over to their training with weaponry, but we have no Roman manuals of swordsmanship. One translation of Juvenal's poetry by Barten Holyday in 1661 makes note that the Roman trainees learned to fight with the wooden wasters before moving on to the use of sharpened steel. In fact, it is found that Roman gladiators trained with a wooden sword, weighted with lead, against a straw man or a wooden pole known as a palus; this training would have provided the Roman soldier with a good foundation of skill, to be improved upon from practical experience or further advanced training. Little is known about early medieval fencing techniques save for what may be concluded from archaeological evidence and artistic depiction. What little has been found, shows the use of the sword was limited during the Viking age among the Vikings themselves and other northern Germanic tribes. Here, the spear and shield were prominent weapons, with only wealthy individuals owning swords.
These weapons, based on the early Germanic spatha, were made well. The technique of pattern welding of composite metals, invented in the Roman Empire around the end of the 2nd century A. D. provided some of these northern weapons superior properties in strength and resilience to the iron gladius of early Rome. As time passed, the spatha evolved into the arming sword, a weapon with a notable cruciform hilt common among knights in the Medieval Age; some time after this evolution, the earliest known treatises were written, dealing with arming sword and buckler combat. Among these examples is the I.33, the earliest known Fechtbuch. The German school of swordsmanship can trace itself most to Johannes Liechtenauer and his students, who became the German masters of the 15th century, including Sigmund Ringeck, Hans Talhoffer, Peter von Danzig and Paulus Kal, it is possible that the Italian fencing treatise Flos Duellatorum, written by the Italian swordmaster Fiore dei Liberi around 1410, has ties to the German school.
During this period of time, the longsword grew out of the arming sword resulting in a blade comfortably wielded in both hands at once. Armour technology evolved, leading to the advent of plate armour, thus swordsmanship was further pressed to meet the demands of killing a well protected enemy. For much of the early medieval period, the sword continued to remain a symbol of status. During years, pro
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It is the largest London borough by population, it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the civic centre of the borough; the borough is now one of London's leading business and cultural centres, its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. Formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon, the local authority Croydon London Borough Council, is now part of the local government association for Greater London, London Councils; the economic strength of Croydon dates back to Croydon Airport, a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once London's main airport for all international flights to and from the capital, it was closed on 30 September 1959 due to the lack of expansion space needed for an airport to serve the growing city.
It is now a Grade II listed tourist attraction. Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954, 2000, 2002 and 2012; the area is going through a large regeneration project called Croydon Vision 2020, predicted to attract more businesses and tourists to the area as well as backing Croydon's bid to become London's Third City. Croydon is urban, though there are large suburban and rural uplands towards the south of the borough. Since 2003, Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation, it was the first London borough to have Fairtrade status, awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of the South East of England. Institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre, the Warehouse Theatre, went into administration in 2012 when the council withdrew funding, the building itself was demolished in 2013; the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum.
From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged an annual summer festival celebrating the area's black and Indian cultural diversity, with audiences reaching over 50,000 people. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by local people for the area; the borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in Selhurst, a stadium they have been based in since 1924. Other landmarks in the borough include Addington Palace, an eighteenth-century mansion which became the official second residence of six Archbishops of Canterbury, Shirley Windmill, one of the few surviving large windmills in Greater London built in the 1850s, the BRIT School, a creative arts institute run by the BRIT Trust which has produced artists such as Adele, Amy Winehouse and Leona Lewis. For the history of the original town see History of CroydonThe London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning "the valley of the crocuses", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the collection of saffron. By the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Archbishop Lanfranc lived at Croydon Palace. Visitors included Thomas Becket, royal figures such as Henry VIII of England and Elizabeth I. Croydon carried on through the ages as a prosperous market town, they produced charcoal, tanned leather, ventured into brewing. Croydon was served by the Surrey Iron Railway, the first public railway in the world, in 1803, by the London to Brighton rail link in the mid-19th century, helping it to become the largest town in what was Surrey. In the 20th century Croydon became known for industries such as metal working, car manufacture and its aerodrome, Croydon Airport.
Starting out during World War I as an airfield for protection against Zeppelins, an adjacent airfield was combined, the new aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920. It became the largest in London, was the main terminal for international air freight into the capital, it developed into one of the great airports of the world during the 1920s and 1930s, welcomed the world's pioneer aviators in its heyday. British Airways Ltd used the airport for a short period after redirecting from Northolt Aerodrome, Croydon was the operating base for Imperial Airways, it was due to the airport that Croydon suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II. As aviation technology progressed and aircraft became larger and more numerous, it was recognised in 1952 that the airport would be too small to cope with the ever-increasing volume of air traffic; the last scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959. It was superseded as the main airport by both London London Gatwick Airport; the air terminal, now known as Airport House, has been r
An entablature is the superstructure of moldings and bands which lies horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of classical architecture, are divided into the architrave, the frieze, the cornice; the Greek and Roman temples are believed to be based on wooden structures, the design transition from wooden to stone structures being called petrification. The structure of an entablature varies with the orders of architecture. In each order, the proportions of the subdivisions are defined by the proportions of the column. In Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is approximately a quarter of the height of the column. Variants of entablature that do not fit these models are derived from them. In the pure classical Doric order entablature is simple; the architrave, the lowest band, is split, from bottom to top, into the guttae, the regulae, the taenia. The frieze is dominated by the triglyphs, vertically channelled tablets, separated by metopes, which may or may not be decorated.
The triglyphs sit on top of the taenia, a flat, horizontal protrusion, are finished at the bottom by decoration of drops, called guttae, which belong to the top of the architrave. The top of the triglyphs meet the protrusion of the cornice from the entablature; the underside of this protrusion is decorated with mutules, tablets that are finished with guttae. The cornice is split into the soffit, the corona, the cymatium; the soffit is the exposed underside. The corona and the cymatium are the principal parts of the cornice; the Ionic order of entablature adds the fascia in the architrave, which are flat horizontal protrusions, the dentils under the cornice, which are tooth-like rectangular block moldings. The Corinthian order adds a far more ornate cornice, from bottom to top, into the cyma reversa, the dentils, the ovulo, the modillions, the fascia, the cyma recta; the modillions are ornate brackets, similar in use to dentils, but in the shape of acanthus leaves. The frieze is sometimes omitted—for example, on the portico of the caryatides of the Erechtheum—and did not exist as a structure in the temple of Diana at Ephesus.
Neither is it found in the Lycian tombs, which are reproductions in the rock of timber structures based on early Ionian work. The entablature is an evolution of the primitive lintel, which spans two posts, supporting the ends of the roof rafters; the entablature together with the system of classical columns occurs outside classical architecture. It is used to complete the upper portion of a wall where columns are not present, in the case of pilasters or detached or engaged columns it is sometimes profiled around them; the use of the entablature, irrespective of columns, appeared after the Renaissance. Classical order Classical architecture Subdivisions of the entablature: Architrave Frieze Cornice
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich
The Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It also trained officers of the Royal Corps of Signals and other technical corps. RMA Woolwich was known as "The Shop" because its first building was a converted workshop of the Woolwich Arsenal. An attempt had been made by the Board of Ordnance in 1720 to set up an academy within its Arsenal to provide training and education for prospective officers of its new Regiment of Artillery and Corps of Engineers. A new building was being constructed in readiness for the Academy and funds had been secured through investment in the South Sea Company. After this false start, the Academy was opened by authority of a Royal Warrant in 1741: it was intended, in the words of its first charter, to produce "good officers of Artillery and perfect Engineers". Its'gentlemen cadets' ranged in age from 10 to 30. To begin with they were attached to the marching companies of the Royal Artillery, but in 1744 they were formed into their own company, forty in number overseen by a Captain-Lieutenant.
To begin with the cadets were accommodated in lodgings in the town of Woolwich, but this arrangement was deemed unsatisfactory so in 1751 a Cadets' Barracks was built just within the south boundary wall of the Warren and the cadets had to adjust to a more strict military discipline. Education in the Academy focused at first on mathematics and the scientific principles of gunnery and fortification. In addition to their theoretical studies, the cadets shared in what was called'the Practice' of gunnery, bridge building, magazine technique and artillery work. While an Artillery officer attended each class to keep order, teaching in the Academy was provided by civilians: a First Master, a Second Master and additional tutors in French, Arithmetic and Drawing. In 1764 the Royal Academy had the word'Military' added to its title, at the same time a senior officer was appointed to serve as Lieutenant-Governor. Moreover, the institution was split: younger cadets entered the Lower Academy, where they were taught reading, arithmetic, Latin and drawing.
If they performed well in examinations they were allowed to proceed to the Upper Academy, where they learned military skills and sciences. The possibility of moving the Royal Military Academy out of the Warren was mooted as early as 1783, as it was fast outgrowing the available accommodation. At first costs precluded this possibility, but James Wyatt, the Board of Ordnance Architect, was commissioned to design a new complex of buildings to stand, on a site facing the Royal Artillery Barracks, at the southern edge of Woolwich Common. Wyatt's Academy was built of yellow brick in the Tudor Gothic style, it consisted of a central block flanked by a pair of accommodation blocks, linked by arcaded walkways. The central block contained a library and offices. Behind the central block Wyatt placed a large dining hall flanked by spacious quadrangles having service buildings around the sides.128 cadets moved to the new Academy: these comprised the four senior years. Of the younger cadets, sixty were kept at the Warren and another sixty were sent to a new college for junior cadets at Great Marlow.
Practical teaching continued to be given in the working context of the Arsenal. In 1810, military cadets of the East India Company, educated at the Academy, were moved to a new college at Addiscombe. During the years that followed the status of the cadets changed: rather than being considered military personnel, as had been the case, they were removed from the muster roll and they began to be charged fees for attendance. In this way the Academy took on something of the ethos of an English public school. In 1844 the Academy was described by Edward Mogg as accommodating: "about one hundred and thirty young gentlemen, the sons of military men, the more respectable classes, who are here instructed in mathematics, land-surveying, with mapping, engineering, the use of the musket and sword exercise, field-pieces; this department is under the direction of a lieutenant-general, an instructor, a professor of mathematics, a professor of fortification. Following the demise of the Board of Ordnance in the wake of the Crimean War the Academy was inspected by a commission which recommended changes: the minimum age for cadets was raised to fifteen and more specialist training was added.
As part of these reforms the Academy complex was enlarged in the 1860s, with a view to accommod
Public school (United Kingdom)
A public school in England and Wales is a long-established, student-selective, fee-charging independent secondary school that caters for children aged between 11 or 13 and 18, whose head teacher is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. Public refers to their origins as schools open to any public citizen who could afford to pay the fees. Traditionally, English public schools were all-male boarding schools, but the term now includes co-educational and girls' schools, while many accept day pupils as well as boarders. Public schools have had a strong association with the ruling classes, they educated the sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes. The sons of officers and senior administrators of the British Empire were educated in England while their fathers were on overseas postings. In 2010, over half of Cabinet Ministers had been educated at public schools. Public schools emerged from charity schools established to educate poor scholars—public because access to them was not restricted on the basis of religion, occupation, or home location, that they were subject to public management or control, in contrast to private schools which were run for the personal profit of the proprietors.
The origins of schools in the UK were religious until 1640, when House of Commons invited Comenius to England to establish and participate in an agency for the promotion of learning. It was intended that by-products of this would be the publication of'universal' books and the setting up of schools for boys and girls. Soon after the Clarendon Commission reported in 1864, the Public Schools Act 1868 gave the following seven schools independence from direct jurisdiction or responsibility of the Crown, the established church, or the government: Charterhouse, Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School, Winchester College. Henceforth each of these schools was to be managed by a board of governors; the following year, the headmaster of Uppingham School invited sixty to seventy of his fellow headmasters to form what became the Headmasters' Conference – the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. Separate preparatory schools developed from the 1830s, which "prepared" younger boys for entry to the senior schools.
According to the Independent Schools Information Service, a consortium set up by British independent schools to promote themselves to the public, public school is applied to describe the 215 independent and boys' secondary schools belonging to the Headmasters' Conference. The name dates back to the time when schools founded for local children went'public' and admitted children from further afield, it is used to describe the some 230 girls' senior schools belonging to the Girls' Schools Association. When the "Education" section of a capsule biography in Who's Who or similar British reference works says "privately", this refers to the person having been educated by personal tutors rather than at a school; the term "public school" in American English and in Scotland, where a state-funded education system began 300 years prior to England's, means something quite different: one administered by the local government to serve the children of that area. Until the late medieval period most schools were controlled by the church and had specific entrance criteria.
The need for professional trades in an secularised society required schools for the sons of the gentry that were independent from ecclesiastical authority and open to all. From the 16th century onward, boys' boarding schools were endowed for public use. Traditionally, most of these public schools were all full boarding; some public schools are old, such as The King's School, The King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School, Sherborne School, Warwick School, The King's School, Ely and St Albans School. These schools were under their complete dominion. Separate preparatory schools for younger boys developed from the 1830s, with entry to the senior schools becoming limited to boys of at least 12 or 13 years old; the first of these was Windlesham House School, established with support from Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Many of the schools, including Rugby School, Harrow School and the Perse School fell into decline during the 18th century and nearly closed in the early 19th century. Protests in the local newspaper forced governors of the Perse School to keep it open, a court case in 1837 required reform of the abuse of the school's trust.
A Royal Commission, the Clarendon Commission, investigated nine of the more established schools, including seven boarding schools and two day schools. The Public Schools Act 1868 regulated and reformed these "public schools", for which it provided the first legal definition: schools which were open to the paying public from anywhere in the country, as opposed to, for example, a local school only open to local residents, or a religious school open only to members of a certain church. St Paul's School and the Merchant Taylors' School claimed that their constitutions made them "private" schools, were excluded from the requirements of this legislation. In 1887 the Divisional Court and the
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Addington Palace is an 18th-century mansion in Addington near Croydon in south London, England. It was built on the site of a 16th-century manor house, it is known for having been, between 1807 and 1897, the summer residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury. Between 1953 and 1996 it was occupied by the Royal School of Church Music, it is now a conference and wedding venue and country club, while the grounds are occupied by a golf course. The original manor house called. An ancient recipe for Malepigernout, a spiced chicken porridge, was made by the current Lord of the Manor of Addington to be served upon the Coronation of the Monarch of England; the Leigh family gained this serjeanty upon becoming Lords of the Manor of Addington prior to the coronation of Charles II in 1661. The Addington estate was owned by the Leigh family until the early 18th century. Sir John Leigh died without heirs in 1737 and his estates went to distant relatives, who sold to Barlow Trecothick. Trecothick had been brought up in Boston and became a merchant there.
He moved to London, still trading as a merchant, sat as MP for the City of London in 1768–74, served as Lord Mayor in 1770. He bought the estate for £38,500, he built a new house, designed by Robert Mylne in the Palladian style. He died before it was completed in 1774 and it was inherited by his heir, James Ivers, who had to take the surname Trecothick in order to inherit the estate. James continued the work on the house, having the substantial grounds and gardens landscaped by Lancelot "Capability" Brown. Owing to financial difficulties, James Trecothick had to sell the estate in 1802; the estate was sold in lots in 1803. The next owners got into financial trouble and sold it by Act of Parliament in 1807; this enabled the mansion to be purchased for the Archbishops of Canterbury, since nearby Croydon Palace had become dilapidated and inconvenient. The name became Addington Farm under the first few Archbishops, but changed to Addington Palace; the archbishops made enlarged the building. It became the official summer residence of six archbishops: Charles Manners-Sutton William Howley John Bird Sumner Charles Thomas Longley Archibald Campbell Tait Edward White Benson All except Benson are buried in St Mary's Church or churchyard, Addington: Benson is buried in Canterbury Cathedral.
The house was sold in 1897 to a diamond merchant from South Africa. After his death, the mansion was taken over during the First World War by the Red Cross and became a fever hospital. In 1930, it came into the hands of the County Borough of Croydon; the house was Grade II* listed in 1951. In 1953, it was leased to the Royal School of Church Music to house choirboys assembled from all over Britain to sing at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II; the building housed the Royal School of Church Music's music publishing operation, residential college and choir school until 1996, when a private company took it over for development as a conference and banqueting venue, health farm and country club. It is used extensively for weddings, it is surrounded by a park and golf courses, its gardens are still in their original design. Much of the grounds have been leased by golf clubs and the exclusive Bishops Walk housing development was built on Bishops Walk. A large Cedar of Lebanon stands next to one of the Great Trees of London.
Croydon Palace, the summer residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury for 500 years Addington Palace – Surrey Wedding Venue & Conference Centre Addington Palace – Surrey Health Club & Spa Friends of Old Palace, Surrey