The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, as the Iroquois Confederacy, to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Oneida and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations; the Iroquois have absorbed many other peoples into their tribes as a result of warfare, adoption of captives, by offering shelter to displaced peoples. Culturally, all are considered members of the clans and tribes into which they are adopted by families; the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoians, Wyandot and Susquehannock, all independent peoples spoke Iroquoian languages. In the larger sense of linguistic families, they are considered Iroquoian peoples because of their similar languages and cultures, all descended from the Proto-Iroquoian people and language. In addition, Cherokee is an Iroquoian language: the Cherokee people are believed to have migrated south from the Great Lakes in ancient times, settling in the backcountry of the Southeast United States, including what is now Tennessee.
In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, about 80,000 in the United States. The most common name for the confederacy, Iroquois, is of somewhat obscure origin; the first time it appears in writing is in the account of Samuel de Champlain of his journey to Tadoussac in 1603, where it occurs as "Irocois". Other spellings appearing in the earliest sources include "Erocoise", "Hiroquois", "Hyroquoise", "Irecoies", "Iriquois", "Iroquaes", "Irroquois", "Yroquois", as the French transliterated the term into their own phonetic system. In the French spoken at the time, this would have been pronounced as or. Over the years, several competing theories have been proposed for this name's ultimate origin, the earliest by the Jesuit priest Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote in 1744: The name Iroquois is purely French, is formed from the term Hiro or Hero, which means I have said—with which these Indians close all their addresses, as the Latins did of old with their dixi—and of Koué, a cry sometimes of sadness, when it is prolonged, sometimes of joy, when it is pronounced shorter.
In 1883, Horatio Hale wrote that Charlevoix's etymology was dubious, that "no other nation or tribe of which we have any knowledge has borne a name composed in this whimsical fashion". Hale suggested instead that the term came from Huron, was cognate with Mohawk ierokwa "they who smoke" or Cayuga iakwai "a bear". In 1888, J. N. B. Hewitt expressed doubts, his preferred the etymology from Montagnais irin "true, real" and ako "snake", plus the French -ois suffix, though he revised this to Algonquin Iriⁿakhoiw. A more modern etymology was advocated by Gordon M. Day in 1968, elaborating upon Charles Arnaud from 1880. Arnaud had claimed that the word came from Montagnais irnokué, meaning "terrible man", via the reduced form irokue. Day proposed a hypothetical Montagnais phrase irno kwédač, meaning "a man, an Iroquois", as the origin of this term. For the first element irno, Day cites cognates from other attested Montagnais dialects: irinou, iriniȣ, ilnu. However, none of these etymologies gained widespread acceptance.
By 1978 Ives Goddard could write: "No such form is attested in any Indian language as a name for any Iroquoian group, the ultimate origin and meaning of the name are unknown."More Peter Bakker has proposed a Basque origin for "Iroquois". Basque fishermen and whalers are known to have frequented the waters of the Northeast in the 1500s, so much so that a Basque-based pidgin developed for communication with the Algonquian tribes of the region. Bakker claims that it is unlikely that "-quois" derives from a root used to refer to the Iroquois, citing as evidence that several other Indian tribes of the region were known to the French by names terminating in the same element, e.g. "Armouchiquois", "Charioquois", "Excomminquois", "Souriquois". He proposes instead that the word derives from hilokoa, from the Basque roots hil "to kill", ko, a. In favor of an original form beginning with /h/, Bakker cites alternate spellings such as "hyroquois" sometimes found in documents from the period, the fact that in the Southern dialect of Basque, the word hil is pronounced il.
He argues that the /l/ was rendered as /r/ since the former is not attested in the phonemic inventory of any language in the region. Thus the word according to Bakker is translatable as "the killer people", it is similar to other terms used by Eastern Algonquian tribes to refer to their enemy the Iroquois, which translate as "murderers". The Five Nations referred to themselves by the autonym, meaning "People of the Longhouse"; this name is preferred by scholars of Native American history, who consider the name "Iroquois" derogatory. The name derives from two phonetically similar but etymologically distinct words in the Seneca language: Hodínöhšö:ni:h, meaning "those of the extended house," and Hodínöhsö:ni:h, meaning "house builders"; the name "Haudenosaunee" first appears in English in Lewis Henry Morga
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U. S. states. The state capital is the least populous state capital in the United States; the most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. In crime statistics, it was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory, now Vermont and was claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont.
The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York. A group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War; the Vermont Republic abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont was admitted to the newly established United States as the fourteenth state in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were sovereign states, given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants and Catholics make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion.
Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total. The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture; the state's climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product, it has been ranked 42nd as a state in. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Democratic governors. Voters have chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples; the origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but comes from the French Les Monts Verts, meaning "the Green Mountains".
Thomas Young introduced it in 1777. In 1913, the Secretary of State of Vermont speculated that the archaic French term Mont Verd may have inspired Young. Another source points out the predominance of mica-quartz-chlorite schist, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, as a possible reason; the Green Mountains form a north–south spine running most of the length of the state west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are located the Taconic Mountains. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen. Vermont is located in the New England region of the Northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state, it is the only state. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is smaller than Haiti, it is the only landlocked state in New England, it is the easternmost and the smallest in area of all landlocked states.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the state's eastern border with New Hampshire, though much of the river is within New Hampshire's territory. 41% of Vermont's land area is part of the Connecticut River's watershed. Lake Champlain, the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States, separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long, its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border; the width averages 60.5 miles. The state's geographic center is three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Canada. Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield, the highest mountain in the state. Areas in Vermont a
Battle of Bennington
The Battle of Bennington was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, part of the Saratoga campaign, that took place on August 16, 1777, in Walloomsac, New York, about 10 miles from its namesake Bennington, Vermont. A rebel force of 2,000 men New Hampshire and Massachusetts militiamen, led by General John Stark, reinforced by Vermont militiamen led by Colonel Seth Warner and members of the Green Mountain Boys, decisively defeated a detachment of General John Burgoyne's army led by Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum, supported by additional men under Lieutenant Colonel Heinrich von Breymann. Baum's detachment was a mixed force of 700 composed of Hessians but including small numbers of dismounted Brunswick dragoons, Canadians and Indians, he was sent by Burgoyne to raid Bennington in the disputed New Hampshire Grants area for horses, draft animals and other supplies. Believing the town to be only defended and Baum were unaware that Stark and 1,500 militiamen were stationed there. After a rain-caused standoff, Stark's men enveloped Baum's position, taking many prisoners, killing Baum.
Reinforcements for both sides arrived as Stark and his men were mopping up, the battle restarted, with Warner and Stark driving away Breymann's reinforcements with heavy casualties. The battle was a major strategic success for the American cause and considered the turning point of the Revolutionary War; the victory galvanized colonial support for the independence movement, played a key role in bringing France into the war on the rebel side. The battle's anniversary is celebrated in the state of Vermont as Bennington Battle Day. With the American Revolutionary War two years old, the British changed their plans. Giving up on the rebellious New England colonies, they decided to split the Thirteen Colonies and isolate New England from what the British believed to be the more loyal southern colonies; the British command devised a grand plan to divide the colonies via a three-way pincer movement. The western pincer, under the command of Barry St. Leger, was repulsed when the Siege of Fort Stanwix failed, the southern pincer, to progress up the Hudson valley from New York City, never started since General William Howe decided instead to capture Philadelphia.
The northern pincer, proceeding southward from Montreal, enjoyed the most success. After the British victories at Hubbardton, Fort Ticonderoga, Fort Anne, General John Burgoyne proceeded with the Saratoga campaign, with the goal of capturing Albany and gaining control of the Hudson River Valley, where Burgoyne's force could meet the other pincers, dividing the colonies in two. Burgoyne's progress towards Albany had met with some success, including the scattering of Seth Warner's men in the Battle of Hubbardton. However, his advance had slowed to a crawl by late July, due to logistical difficulties, exacerbated by the American destruction of a key road, the army's supplies began to dwindle. Burgoyne's concern over supplies was magnified in early August when he received word from Howe that he was going to Philadelphia, was not in fact going to advance up the Hudson River valley. In response to a proposal first made on July 22 by the commander of his German troops, Baron Riedesel, Burgoyne sent a detachment of about 800 troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum from Fort Miller on a foraging mission to acquire horses for the German dragoons, draft animals to assist in moving the army, to harass the enemy.
Baum's detachment was made up of dismounted Brunswick Army dragoons of the Prinz Ludwig regiment. Along the way it was joined by local companies of Loyalists, some Canadians and about 100 Indians, a company of British sharpshooters. Baum was ordered to proceed to the Connecticut River valley where they believed horses could be procured for the dragoons. However, as Baum was preparing to leave, Burgoyne verbally changed the goal to be a supply depot at Bennington, believed to be guarded by the remnants of Warner's brigade, about 400 colonial militia. Unknown to Burgoyne, the citizens of the New Hampshire Grants territory had appealed to the states of New Hampshire and Massachusetts for protection from the invading army following the British capture of Ticonderoga. New Hampshire responded on July 18 by authorizing John Stark to raise a militia for the defense of the people "or the annoyance of the enemy". Using funds provided by John Langdon, Stark raised 1,500 New Hampshire militiamen in the space of six days, more than ten percent of New Hampshire's male population over the age of sixteen.
They were first marched to the Fort at Number 4 crossed the river border into the Grants and stopped at Manchester, where Stark conferred with Warner. While in Manchester, General Benjamin Lincoln, whose promotion in preference to Stark had been the cause for Stark's resignation from the Continental Army, attempted to assert Army authority over Stark and his men. Stark refused, stating that he was responsible to the New Hampshire authorities. Stark went on to Bennington with Warner as a guide, while Warner's men remained in Manchester. Lincoln returned to the American camp at Stillwater, where he and General Philip Schuyler hatched a plan for Lincoln, with 500 men, to join with Stark and Warner in actions to harass Burgoyne's communications and supp
Lake Champlain is a natural freshwater lake in North America within the borders of the United States but situated across the Canada–U. S. Border, in the Canadian province of Quebec; the New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of Clinton County and Essex County. Most of this area is part of the Adirondack Park. There are recreational facilities in the park and along the undeveloped coastline of Lake Champlain; the cities of Plattsburgh, New York and Burlington, Vermont are on the lake's western and eastern shores and the Town of Ticonderoga, New York is in the region's southern part. The Quebec portion is in the regional county municipalities of Le Haut-Richelieu and Brome-Missisquoi. There are a number of islands in the lake; the Champlain Valley is the northernmost unit of a landform system known as the Great Appalachian Valley, which stretches between Quebec, Canada, to the north, Alabama, US, to the south. The Champlain Valley is a physiographic section of the larger Saint Lawrence Valley, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division.
Lake Champlain is one of numerous large lakes scattered in an arc through Labrador, in Canada, the northern United States, the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the thirteenth largest lake by area in the US. 1,269 km2 in area, the lake is 172 km long and 23 km across at its widest point, has a maximum depth of 400 feet. The lake varies seasonally from about 95 to 100 ft above mean sea level. Lake Champlain is in the Lake Champlain Valley between the Green Mountains of Vermont and the Adirondack Mountains of New York, drained northward by the 106-mile -long Richelieu River into the St. Lawrence River at Sorel-Tracy, Quebec and downstream of Montreal, Quebec, it receives the waters from the 32-mile -long Lake George, so its basin collects waters from the northwestern slopes of the Green Mountains and the northernmost eastern peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. Lake Champlain drains nearly half of Vermont, 250,000 people get their drinking water from the lake; the lake is fed in Vermont by the LaPlatte, Missisquoi and Winooski rivers, along with Lewis Creek, Little Otter Creek, Otter Creek.
In New York, it is fed by the Ausable, Great Chazy, La Chute, Little Ausable, Little Chazy and Saranac rivers, along with Putnam Creek. In Quebec, it is fed by the Pike River, it is connected to the Hudson River by the Champlain Canal. Parts of the lake freeze each winter, in some winters the entire lake surface freezes, referred to as "closing". In July and August, the lake temperature reaches an average of 70 °F; the Chazy Reef is an extensive Ordovician carbonate rock formation that extends from Tennessee to Quebec and Newfoundland. It occurs in prominent outcropping at Goodsell Ridge, Isle La Motte, the northernmost island in Lake Champlain; the oldest reefs are around "The Head" of the south end of the island. Together, these three sites provide a unique narrative of events that took place over 450 million years ago in the ocean in the Southern Hemisphere, long before Lake Champlain's emergence 20,000 years ago; the lake has long acted as a border between indigenous nations much as it is today between the USA and Canada.
The lake is located at the frontier between Mohawk traditional territories. The official toponym for the lake according to the orthography established by the Grand Council of Wanab-aki Nation is Pitawbagok, meaning'middle lake','lake in between' or'double lake'; the Mohawk name in modern orthography as standardized in 1993 is Kaniatarakwà:ronte, meaning "a bulged lake" or “lake with a bulge in it." An alternate name is Kaniá:tare tsi kahnhokà:ronte, meaning'door of the country' or'lake to the country'. The lake is an important eastern gateway to Iroquois Confederacy lands; the lake was named after the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, who encountered it in July 1609. While the ports of Burlington, Port Henry, New York, Plattsburgh, New York today are used by small craft and lake cruise ships, they were of substantial commercial and military importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. New France allocated concessions all along lake Champlain to French settlers and built forts to defend the waterways.
In colonial times, Lake Champlain was used as a water passage between the Saint Lawrence and Hudson valleys. Travelers found it easier to journey by boats and sledges on the lake rather than go overland on unpaved and mud-bound roads; the lake's northern tip at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, is a short distance from Montreal, Quebec. The southern tip at Whitehall is a short distance from Saratoga, Glens Falls, Albany, New York. Forts were built at Crown Point to control passage on the lake in colonial times. Important battles were fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the British and Americans conducted a frenetic shipbuilding race through the spring and summer of 1776, at opposite ends of the lake, fought a significant naval engagement on October 1
Addison is a town in Addison County, United States. It was founded October 14, 1761; the population was 1,371 at the 2010 census. Addison was chartered on October 14, 1761. Benning Wentworth named the town Addison after poet Joseph Addison. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.0 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. The Dead Creek and the Hospital Creek run through Addison, Lake Champlain is on the west border of Addison; the highest point is Snake Mountain, 1281 ft above Lake Champlain. Vermont Route 17 Vermont Route 22A Vermont Route 23 Vermont Route 125 As of the census of 2000, there were 1,393 people, 494 households, 402 families residing in the town; the population density was 33.4 people per square mile. There were 651 housing units at an average density of 15.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.42% White, 0.14% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 494 households out of which 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.7% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 14.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.10. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 26.6% from 45 to 64, 10.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,063, the median income for a family was $48,696. Males had a median income of $31,328 versus $25,602 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,000. About 2.9% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.
Addison Four Corners – Junction of VT Route 22A and Vermont Route 17 near the east side of the town. The town hall, fire department, general store, Addison Baptist Church are located here. Chimney Point – Junction of Route 17 and Route 125 on the shore of Lake Champlain by the Champlain Bridge Dead Creek – runs north through the center of the town. Most of the creek is within the Dead Creek Wildlife Management Area with a viewing area on Route 17. Lake Champlain – forms Addison's western border with New York Otter Creek – a creek that forms Addison's eastern border with Waltham. Snake Mountain – a monadnock on Addison's eastern border with Weybridge. West Addison – Junction of Church Street and Jersey Street South near Vermont Route 17 on the west side of town. John N, Wisconsin physician and politician Silas G. Pratt, composer John Strong, militia officer and Speaker of the Vermont House of Representatives The town of Addison is part of the Addison North West Supervisory Union; the town has its own elementary school, known as Addison Central School, serving students from kindergarten to sixth grade at the town center.
Students from seventh to twelfth grade are taught at Vergennes Union High School in Vergennes
The Vermont Republic is a term used by historians to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791. In January 1777, delegates from 28 towns met and declared independence from the jurisdictions and land claims both of the British colony of Quebec and of the American states of New Hampshire and New York, they abolished adult slavery within their boundaries. Many people in Vermont took part in the American Revolution, although the Continental Congress did not recognize the jurisdiction as independent; because of vehement objections from New York, which had conflicting property claims, the Continental Congress declined to recognize Vermont known as the New Hampshire Grants. Vermont's overtures to join the Province of Quebec were accepted by the British, offering generous terms for the Republic's reunion; when the main British army surrendered in 1781, American independence became apparent. Vermont, now surrounded on three sides by American territory, rejected the British overtures and instead negotiated terms to enter the United States.
In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the 14th state. Vermont coined a currency called Vermont coppers from a mint operated by Reuben Harmon in East Rupert, operated a postal system. While the Vermont coppers bore the legend Vermontis. Res. Publica, the constitution and other official documents used the term "State of Vermont", it referred to its chief executive as a "governor". The 1777 constitution refers to Vermont variously: the third paragraph of the preamble, for example, mentions "the State of Vermont", in the preamble's last paragraph, the constitution refers to itself as "the Constitution of the Commonwealth"; the historian Frederic F. van de Water called the Vermont Republic the "reluctant republic" because many early citizens favored political union with the United States rather than full independence. Both popular opinion and the legal construction of the government made clear that the independent State of Vermont would join the original 13 states. While the Continental Congress did not allow a seat for Vermont, Vermont engaged William Samuel Johnson, representing Connecticut, to promote its interests.
In 1785 the Vermont General Assembly granted Johnson title to the former King's College Tract as a form of compensation for representing Vermont. After 1724, the Province of Massachusetts Bay built Fort Dummer near Brattleboro, as well as three other forts along the northern portion of the Connecticut River to protect against raids by Native Americans farther south into Western Massachusetts. After 1749, Benning Wentworth, the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, granted land to anyone in a land granting scheme designed to enrich himself and his family. After 1763, settlement increased due to easing security concerns after the end of the French and Indian Wars; the Province of New York had made grants of land in areas overlapping similar grants made by the Province of New Hampshire. The "Green Mountain Boys", led by Ethan Allen, was a militia force from Vermont that supported the New Hampshire claims and fought against the British during the American Revolution. Following controversy between the holders of the New York grants and the New Hampshire grants, Ethan Allen and his militia of "Green Mountain Boys" suppressed Loyalists.
On January 15, 1777, a convention of representatives from towns in the territory declared the region independent, choosing the name the Republic of New Connecticut. On June 2 of that year, the name of the fledgling nation was changed to "Vermont" upon the suggestion of Dr. Thomas Young, a member of the Sons of Liberty and a Boston Tea Party leader and mentor to Ethan Allen. John Greenleaf Whittier's poem The Song of the Vermonters, 1779 describes the period in ballad form. First published anonymously, the poem had characteristics in the last stanza that were similar to Ethan Allen's prose and caused it to be attributed to Allen for nearly 60 years; the last stanza reads: Come York or come Hampshire, come traitors or knaves,If ye rule o'er our land ye shall rule o'er our graves. On August 19, 1781, the Confederation Congress of the United States passed an act saying they would recognize the secessionist state of Vermont and agreed to admit that state to the Union if Vermont would renounce its claims to territory east of the Connecticut River and west of Lake Champlain.
The Constitution of Vermont was drafted and ratified at Elijah West's Windsor Tavern in 1777. The settlers in Vermont, who sought independence from New York, justified their constitution on the same basis as the first state constitutions of the former colonies: authority is derived from the people; as historian Christian Fritz notes in American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition before the Civil War: They saw themselves as a distinct region outside the legitimate jurisdiction of New York. Possessing an identifiable population or "a people" entitled them to the same constitutional rights of self-government as other "Peoples" in the American confederacy; the Vermont constitution was modeled after the radically democratic constitution of Pennsylvania on the suggestion of Dr. Young, who worked with Thomas Paine and others on that 1776 document in Philadelphia. During the time of the Vermont Republic, the government issued its own coinage and currency, operated a postal service.
The governor of Vermont, Thomas Chittenden, with
Essex County, New York
Essex County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,370, its county seat is the hamlet of Elizabethtown. Its name is from the English county of Essex. Along with Hamilton County, Essex is within the Adirondack Park; when counties were established in the state of New York in 1683, the present Essex County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York state as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Charlotte County, contained the eastern portion. In 1784, the name "Charlotte County" was changed to Washington County to honor George Washington, the American Revolutionary War general and President of the United States of America.
In 1788, Clinton County was split off from Washington County. This was a much larger area than the present Clinton County, including several other counties or county parts of the present New York state. Essex County was split from Clinton County in 1799. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,916 square miles, of which 1,794 square miles is land and 122 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. Essex County is in the northeastern part of New York state, just west of Vermont along the eastern boundary of the state; the eastern boundary of Essex County is Lake Champlain, which serves as the New York – Vermont border at an elevation of just under 100 feet. The highest natural point in New York, Mount Marcy at 5,344 feet, is in the town of Keene; the Ausable River forms a partial northern boundary for the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,851 people, 15,028 households, 9,828 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile.
There were 23,115 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.84% White, 2.81% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.69% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. Of the population, 22.0% were of French, 16.3% Irish, 13.0% English, 8.6% German, 7.1% American and 6.2% Italian ancestry. There were 15,028 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.20% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.60% were non-families. 28.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years.
For every 100 females there were 107.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,823, the median income for a family was $41,927. Males had a median income of $30,952 versus $22,205 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,194. Of the population, 11.60% of individuals, 7.80% of families, 14.50% of those under the age of 18, 8.60% of those 65 and older, were living below the poverty line. Mountain Lake Academy National Sports Academy North Country School Northwood School St. Agnes School St. Mary's School North Country Community College The following public use airports are located in the county: Lake Placid Airport – Lake Placid Marcy Field – Keene Schroon Lake Airport – Schroon Lake Ticonderoga Municipal Airport – TiconderogaEssex County Public Transportation Lake Placid Saranac Lake Bloomingdale North Pole Olmstedville Port Kent Vincent Colyer, was a successful American artist and humanitarian who worked to help freedmen and Native Americans.
Henry Debosnys, Portuguese-born wife murderer and cryptographer Francis Donnelly of Olmstedville, at the time of his death in 1980 was the longest continually serving town elected official in the United States having served as the Town of Minerva Supervisor and as that town's representative at the county level for 46 years Carlton Foster, Wisconsin lumberman, Wisconsin state legislator, mayor of Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Robert Garrow, serial killer in the Syracuse area in the 1970s, he grew up in Moriah. Ben Goldwasser, keyboardist for psychedelic rock band MGMT, he grew up in Westport. Solomon Northup, born in Minerva as a free man, he was kidnapped and sold into slavery in 1841. Regaining freedom in 1853, he published his memoir that year, became nationally known and lectured on the abolitionist circuit, he became an inspiration for the 2013 film 12 Years a Slave. Johnny Podres, pitcher for Brooklyn Dodgers and 1955 World Series MVP, was born in Witherbee. James Renwick, Jr. a successful nineteenth-century architect, was born in Bloomingdale.
Tom Tyler, silent film star from Mineville. Eli Winch, born in the town of Wilmington, a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly and ma