Photoplay is a dated term for a motion picture that can refer to a type of novel popular during the silent era of Hollywood. Photoplay was one of the first American film fan magazines and it was founded in 1911 in Chicago, the same year that J. Stuart Blackton founded Motion Picture Story, a magazine directed at fans. For most of its run, Photoplay was published by Macfadden Publications, Photoplay began as a short-fiction magazine concerned mostly with the plots and characters of films at the time and was used as a promotional tool for those films. In 1915, Julian Johnson and James R. Quirk became the editors, by 1918 the circulation exceeded 200,000, with the popularity of the magazine fueled by the publics increasing interest in the private lives of celebrities. Photoplay reached its apex in the 1920s and 1930s and was considered influential within the motion picture industry. The magazine was renowned for its portraits of film stars on the cover by such artists as Earl Christy. Macfadden Publications purchased the magazine in 1934, with the advancement of color photography, the magazine began using photographs of the stars instead by 1937.
The magazine was edited by Quirk until 1932, editors include Kathyrn Dougherty, Ruth Waterbury and it featured the health and beauty advice of Sylvia of Hollywood, arguably the first fitness guru to the stars. Beginning in 1920, Photoplay gave out what is considered the first significant annual movie award, the worth of its dramatic message. By 1939 the Medal of Honor had declined in importance and the award was discontinued that year. From 1944 to 1968, Photoplay awarded a Gold Medal for film of the based on polling done by George Gallups Audience Research Inc. through the 1950s. It awarded Most Popular Male Star and Most Popular Female Star based on an actor and actress popularity, the awards were based on polling through the 1950s, and on a vote by the readers, similar to the Gold Medal. Most popular television stars were named in the 1960s. In 1948, the Photoplay Awards were broadcast on television as part of The Steve Allen Plymouth Show. Photoplay merged with another fan magazine, Movie Mirror, in 1941, and with TV-Radio Mirror in 1977, the magazine ceased publication in 1980 and its staff were moved to Us magazine.
A British version of Photoplay debuted in 1950, featuring a mix of American and British films and stars. Original Photoplay interview with Greta Garbo - as told by her to Ruth Biery
Lady of the Night
Lady of the Night is a 1925 American silent romantic drama film directed by Monta Bell. The film stars Norma Shearer in a dual role, chris Helmer is sentenced to 20 years in prison by Judge Banning, and has to leave his wife and baby girl. By coincidence, the judge has a daughter about the same age, eighteen years later, the two now motherless young women graduate, Florence Banning from an exclusive private school, Molly Helmer from reform school. Molly and her two friends become taxi dancers, one day, Molly rejects the advances of a stranger at the dance hall where she works. When her boyfriend, Chunky Dunn, tries to defend her and she is rescued by Chunkys friend, inventor David Page, and falls in love with him. Page is oblivious to this and only sees her as a good pal, the more perceptive Chunky becomes increasingly jealous. Page perfects a device that can open any safe, Chunky tells him that he knows a gang of crooks who would pay a lot of money for it, but Molly tells him that crime does not pay.
Page shows his invention to the directors of a bank, Judge Banning being one and they are impressed and purchase it. As he is leaving the meeting, David bumps into Florence, they are dating, much to the displeasure of Florences spinster aunt. However, when Florence meets Molly by accident at Davids workshop and she tells David that Molly has a greater claim to him and breaks up with him. When she gets into her limousine however, she finds Molly there waiting for her, Molly urges her to marry David, thinking only of his happiness. To fool David into believing she never loved him, Molly accepts Chunkys standing offer of marriage, Norma Shearer as Molly Helmer/Florence Banning Malcolm McGregor as David Page Dale Fuller as Miss Carr George K. com
Presidential Medal of Freedom
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States. The award is not limited to U. S. citizens and, while it is an award, it can be awarded to military personnel. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy, President John F. Kennedy established the current decoration in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, with unique and distinctive insignia, vastly expanded purpose, and far higher prestige. It was the first U. S. civilian neck decoration and, in the grade of Awarded With Distinction, is the only U. S. sash and star decoration. The Executive Order calls for the medal to be awarded annually on or around July 4, and at other convenient times as chosen by the president, Recipients are selected by the president, either on his own initiative or based on recommendations. The order establishing the medal expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a source of such recommendations.
The medal may be awarded to a more than once. It may be awarded posthumously, examples include John F, golden American bald eagles with spread wings stand between the points of the star. It is worn around the neck on a ribbon with white edge stripes. When the medal With Distinction is awarded, the star may be presented descending from a neck ribbon, the sash and medal of the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction has never been worn in public since its inception. Andrew Presidential Medal of Freedom, an article from jfklibrary. org, Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients, a list of recipients from May 5,1993, through August 19,2009, from senate. gov, the U. S. Senates official website. Hosted on georgewbush-whitehouse. archives. gov, a section of the U. S. National Archives, Medal of Freedom Ceremony, a news release, August 12,2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse. gov, the White Houses official website. War Figures Honored With Medal of Freedom, The New York Times, December 15,2004
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women. Often referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles on issues, sex, careers, self-improvement, fashion. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, is printed in 35 languages, Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. There was a department for the members of the family. Cosmopolitans circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889. That same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to his magazine. Under John Brisben Walkers ownership, E. D. Walker, formerly with Harpers Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews. It became a market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Willa Cather.
The magazines circulation climbed to 75,000 by 1892, in 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school, No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan, No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study. When 20,000 immediately signed up, Walker could not fund the school, in 1897, H. G. Wells The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed an article about the Boer War. And Colorado - New Tricks in an Old Game, Jack Londons novella, The Red One, was published in the October 1918 issue, and a constant presence from 1910-18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the scientific detective, Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, and James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923, Hollywood until 1938. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearsts International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952.
In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day, in June 1914 it was shortened to Hearsts and was ultimately titled Hearsts International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearsts International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, after Hearst died in 1951, the Hearsts International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952
James Joseph Gene Tunney was an American professional boxer who competed from 1915 to 1928. He held the heavyweight title from 1926 to 1928. A highly technical boxer, Tunney had a rivalry with Harry Greb in which he won three, drew once, with one loss. He knocked out Georges Carpentier and defeated Jack Dempsey twice, first in 1926, Tunneys successful title defense against Dempsey remains one of the most famous bouts in boxing history and is known as The Long Count Fight. He retired undefeated as a heavyweight after his victory over Tom Heeney in 1928, Mary Lydon from Culleen House, Kiltimagh, County Mayo, emigrated to the United States after the Great Famine. She settled in New York City where she met John Tunney, from Cill Aodain and they married after a short courtship. The Tunneys had seven children, one son was murdered around 1920, another was a NYPD Detective from 1924 to 1951, dying in 1971, Tunney fought some 68 official professional fights, losing only one, to Harry Greb, while fighting as a light heavyweight.
Tunney fought many other fights whose scoring was unofficial, judged by newspaper reporters and he lost none of these newspaper decisions. He reported that he lost a fight during World War I. Tunney was regarded as a skillful boxer who excelled in defense. In addition to beating Dempsey, the most famous fighter of his era, Tunney defeated Tommy Gibbons, Georges Carpentier and many other fine boxers. Already the U. S. Expeditionary Forces champion, Tunney spent the winter of 1921 as a lumberjack in northern Ontario for the J. R. Booth Company of Ottawa, without revealing he was a champion boxer. He explained this as wanting the solitude and the labors of the woods to help condition himself for the career that appeared before him. Tunney had an acting career, starring in the movie The Fighting Marine in 1926. Unfortunately, no prints of film are known to exist. In 1928, Tunney married a wealthy socialite, the former Mary Polly Lauder, the couple lived in Stamford and had four children. Among them is John V.
Tunney, who was a U. S, senator from California from 1971 until 1977. Tunneys daughter Joan was committed to a hospital on June 6,1970 after she murdered her husband
Eleanor Josephine Medill Cissy Patterson was an American journalist and newspaper editor and owner. Patterson was one of the first women to head a major daily newspaper, Elinor Josephine Patterson was born in Chicago, Illinois, on November 7,1881, to the daughter of Robert and Elinor Nellie Patterson. She would change the spelling of her first name to Eleanor as an adult, but would always be known as Cissy, the name her brother gave her in childhood. Her grandfather, Joseph Medill, was Mayor of Chicago and owned the Chicago Tribune and her older brother, Joseph Medill Patterson, was the founder of the New York Daily News. She was educated at Miss Porters School in Farmington, when her uncle Robert S. McCormick was named ambassador to Austria-Hungary, she accompanied him and his wife, Cissys maternal aunt Kate, to Vienna. There she met Count Josef Gizycki and fell in love him, a romance not interrupted even by her return to America. In Washington, she was a light in society, where the press labeled Alice Roosevelt, Marguerite Cassini.
Count Gizycki came to America and they were married in Washington on April 14,1904 despite her familys objections, a daughter was born to them September 3,1905, and was named Felicia Leonora. Cissy went with the Count to his home, a feudal manor in Russian Poland. Their family life did not go well and they separated and rejoined several times, but eventually Cissy set herself on leaving. She kidnapped their child, hiding her in a house near London, Cissy filed for divorce, which took thirteen years to obtain. After her experience abroad, she moved to Lake Forest, Illinois, a Chicago suburb, in 1920, her brother Joseph finally succumbed to his sisters entreaties and allowed her to write for his New York Daily News, founded the previous year. She worked for William Randolph Hearst and she published two novels, romans à clef, Glass Houses and Fall Flight, part of her feud with former friend Alice Roosevelt Longworth. In 1925, Eleanor married Elmer Schlesinger, a New York lawyer and he died four years and in 1930, Mrs.
Schlesinger legally changed her name to Mrs. Eleanor Medill Patterson. Patterson tried to buy Hearsts two Washington papers, the morning Washington Herald and the evening Washington Times, Hearst hated to sell anything, even when he needed the money. Although he had never made money from his Washington papers, he refused to give up the prestige of owning papers in the capital, however, at the urging of his editor Arthur Brisbane, Hearst agreed to make Patterson the papers editor. She began work on August 1,1930, Patterson was a hands-on editor who insisted on the best of everything—writing, typography and comics. She encouraged society reporting and the page and hired many women as reporters including Adela Rogers St. Johns
A Free Soul
A Free Soul stars Norma Shearer, Leslie Howard, Lionel Barrymore, and Clark Gable. A Free Soul became famous for a sequence where Barrymore delivers a monologue that is said to be the reason he won the Academy Award for Best Actor that year. Gable made such an impression in the role of a gangster who pushes Shearer around that he was catapulted from supporting player to leading man, a position he held for the rest of his career. However, according to MGM publicity material, the story on which film was based first appeared serially in Hearsts International with Cosmopolitan magazine starting in September 1926. Although onscreen credits list only the book by Adela Rogers St. Johns, uncredited contribution is assigned to Philip Dunning, Dorothy Farnum and John Lynch. According to the Guinness World Records, A Free Soul holds the record for the longest take in a commercial film, since a reel of camera film lasts only 10 minutes, the take was achieved by using more than one camera. The Canadian Pharmacists Association protested what they claimed was a portrayal of druggists in the film.
Minor deletions were made in the film by local censors following its release, in 1936, the Production Code Administration recommended that the studio withdraw its application for reissue certification of the picture or face a possible rejection. A Free Soul was voted One of the Ten Best Pictures of 1931 by the Film Daily Nationwide Poll. The film was a big hit - according to MGM records it earned $889,000 in the US and Canada and $533,000 elsewhere resulting in a profit of $244,000
Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco. Its 8, 180-acre campus is one of the largest in the United States, Stanford has land and facilities elsewhere. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Stanford was a former Governor of California and U. S. Senator, he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students 125 years ago on October 1,1891, Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanfords death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country. There are three schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools.
Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a number of companies that produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue. It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires,17 astronauts and it is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child. The institution opened in 1891 on Stanfords previous Palo Alto farm, despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I, the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which was established in 1962, in 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped.
Besides the central campus described below, the university operates at more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus. Stanfords main campus includes a place within unincorporated Santa Clara County. The campus includes land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park, Woodside. The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, the United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes,94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail
The Tonight Show
The Tonight Show is an American late-night talk show currently broadcast from the Rockefeller Center in New York City and airing on NBC since 1954. It is the worlds longest-running talk show, and the longest running and it is the third-longest-running show on NBC, after the news-and-talk shows Today and Meet the Press. Over the course of more than 60 years, The Tonight Show has undergone only minor title changes and it aired under the name Tonight for several of its early years, eventually settling on The Tonight Show after the seating of long-time host Johnny Carson in 1962. In 1957, the show briefly tried a more news-style format and it has otherwise remained a talk show throughout its run. The Tonight Show began broadcasting in 1954 and it has had six official hosts, beginning with Steve Allen, followed by Jack Paar, Johnny Carson, Jay Leno, Conan OBrien, and Jimmy Fallon. It has had recurring guest hosts, a practice especially common during the Paar. Carson is the longest-serving host to date, the Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson aired for 30 seasons between October 1962 and May 1992.
Leno, has the record of having hosted the greatest number of total televised episodes, during Johnny Carsons first eighteen years, the show ran for ninety minutes. During Johnnys 1980 contract negotiations, the show was shortened to sixty minutes, besides the guest hosts Johnny used, NBC ran The Best of Carson which was reruns of popular older shows Johnny had done. Prior to the starting of Saturday Night Live in 1975, NBC showed The Best of Carson on Saturday nights at 11,30 pm, outside of its brief run as a news show in 1957, OBrien is the shortest-serving host. OBrien hosted 146 episodes over the course of less than eight months, current host Fallon took the helm on February 17,2014. Fallon had previously hosted Late Night, and before Late Night he was a member of the cast of Saturday Night Live. From 1950 to 1951 NBC aired Broadway Open House, a variety show hosted primarily by comic Jerry Lester. Broadway… demonstrated the potential for late-night network programming. The format of The Tonight Show can be traced to a nightly 40-minute local program in New York, hosted by Allen and it was quickly retitled The Steve Allen Show.
This premiered in 1953 on WNBT-TV, the local affiliate in New York City. Beginning in September 1954, it was renamed Tonight. and began its run on the full NBC network. Notes for hosting history The first Tonight announcer was Gene Rayburn, when the show became a success, Allen got a primetime Sunday comedy/variety show in June 1956, leading him to share Tonight hosting duties with Ernie Kovacs during the 1956–57 season
Patricia Campbell Patty Hearst, now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is the granddaughter of American publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst. She became nationally known for following her 1974 kidnapping while she was a 19-year-old student living in Berkeley. Hearst was abducted by a left-wing terrorist group known as the Symbionese Liberation Army, after being isolated and threatened with death, she became supportive of their cause, making propaganda announcements for them and taking part in illegal activities. Hearst was found 19 months after her kidnapping, by which time she was a wanted for serious crimes. She was held in custody, despite speculation that her familys resources would prevent her spending time in jail. At her trial, the prosecution suggested that she had joined the Symbionese Liberation Army of her own volition and she was found guilty of bank robbery. Hearsts sentence was commuted by President Jimmy Carter, and she was pardoned by President Bill Clinton, Hearsts grandfather, William Randolph Hearst, created the largest newspaper, magazine and movie business in the world.
Her great-grandmother was philanthropist Phoebe Hearst, the family was associated with immense political influence and anti-Communism going back to before World War II. Hearst was born in San Francisco, the third of five daughters of Randolph Apperson Hearst and she grew up primarily in Hillsborough. She attended Crystal Springs School for Girls in Hillsborough and the Santa Catalina School in Monterey, Patty attended Menlo College in Atherton, California prior to transferring as a Junior to the University of California, Berkeley. Despite her wealthy grandfather, Patty Hearsts father was one of a number of heirs. Her parents did not consider it necessary to any measures for her personal security. At the time of her abduction, she was a sophomore at the University of California, studying the history of art, on February 4,1974, 19-year-old Hearst was kidnapped from her Berkeley, California apartment. She was beaten and lost consciousness during the abduction, shots were fired from a machine gun during the incident.
An urban guerrilla group called the Symbionese Liberation Army claimed responsibility for the abduction, the SLA was formed through contacts made by a leftist-oriented study group, coordinated by a University of California, Berkeley professor. Its purpose was the tutelage of black inmates, and over time the ethos became increasingly radicalized, black convicts were viewed as heroic political prisoners, victimised by a racist American society. On March 5,1973, Donald DeFreeze escaped from prison, radical penal activists and future SLA members, Russell Little and William Wolfe, took DeFreeze to Patricia Soltysiks house. The SLA was led by DeFreeze, after an acquaintance named Wheeler left, was the only African American
William Clark Gable was an American film actor, often referred to as The King of Hollywood or just simply as The King. Gable began his career as an actor and appeared as an extra in silent films between 1924 and 1926, and progressed to supporting roles with a few films for MGM in 1931. The next year, he landed his first leading Hollywood role and he starred with Lana Turner in four features, and with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each. Gables final film, The Misfits, united him with Marilyn Monroe, Gable is considered one of the most consistent box-office performers in history, appearing on Quigley Publishings annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll 16 times. He was named the seventh-greatest male star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute, William Clark Gable was born in Cadiz, Ohio, to William Henry Will Gable, an oil-well driller, and his wife, Adeline. Gable was named William after his father, but even in childhood and he was mistakenly listed as a female on his birth certificate.
Among Gables ancestors were Pennsylvania Dutch and Bavarians, when he was six months old, his mother had him baptized as a Roman Catholic. She died when he was ten months old, possibly from a brain tumor, will Gable refused to raise his son Catholic, provoking criticism from Adelines side of the family. The dispute was resolved when Will Gable agreed to allow his son to spend time with his uncle, Charles Hershelman. In April 1903, Gables father married Jennie Dunlap, whose family came from the neighboring town of Hopedale. Gable was a tall, shy child with a loud voice and his stepmother raised him to be well-dressed and well-groomed. Jennie played the piano and gave her lessons at home. Later he took up brass instruments, at 13, he was the only boy in the mens town band. He was very mechanically inclined and loved to strip down and repair cars with his father, though his father insisted on Gable doing manly things, like hunting and hard physical work, Gable loved language. Among trusted company, he would recite Shakespeare, particularly the sonnets, will Gable agreed to buy a 72-volume set of The Worlds Greatest Literature to improve his sons education, but claimed he never saw his son use it.
In 1917, when Gable was in school, his father had financial difficulties. Will decided to settle his debts and try his hand at farming, despite his fathers insistence that he work the farm, Gable soon left to work in Akron for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. At 17, Clark Gable was inspired to be an actor after seeing the play The Bird of Paradise, by then, his stepmother had died, and his father moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma to go back to the oil business
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. The silent film era lasted from 1895 to 1936, in silent films for entertainment, the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures and title cards which contain a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. During silent films, a pianist, theatre organist, or, in large cities and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise, an orchestra would play from sheet music. The term silent film is therefore a retronym—that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively, the early films with sound, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were referred to as talkies, sound films, or talking pictures. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent feature films are believed to be completely lost, the earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern. This utilized a glass lens, a shutter and a persistent light source, such as a powerful lantern and these slides were originally hand-painted, but still photographs were used on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century.
The invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years, the next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. This experience was further demonstrated through Rogets introduction of the thaumatrope, the first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horses gallop, the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, due to Edisons lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were invented around the world. The Lumière brothers, for example, created the Cinématographe in France, the Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edisons as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.
In contrast to Edisons peepshow-style kinetoscope, which one person could watch through a viewer. Their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture, the invention of celluloid film, which was strong and flexible, greatly facilitated the making of motion pictures. This film was 35 mm wide and pulled using four sprocket holes and this doomed the cinematograph, which could only use film with just one sprocket hole. From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into maturity in the silent era. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that virtually every style, the silent era was pioneering era from a technical point of view