Matilda of Flanders
Matilda of Flanders was the wife of William the Conqueror and, as such, Queen of England. She bore William nine or ten children who survived to adulthood and her descent from the Anglo-Saxon royal House of Wessex was to become a useful card. Like many royal marriages of the period, it breached the rules of consanguinity, at their most restrictive and William were third-cousins, once removed. She was about 20 when they married in 1051/2, William was some three years older, and had been Duke of Normandy since he was about eight, the marriage appears to have been successful, and William is not recorded to have had any bastards. Matilda was about 35, and had produced most of her children, when William embarked on the Norman conquest of England, sailing in his flagship Mora. She was about 51 when she died in Normandy in 1083, Matilda, or Maud, was the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Flanders and Adèle of France, herself daughter of Robert II of France. Another version of the states that William rode to Matildas fathers house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room.
William and Matilda were married after a delay in c. A papal dispensation was finally awarded in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II. Lanfranc, at the prior of Bec Abbey, negotiated the arrangement in Rome and it came only after William. There were rumours that Matilda had been in love variously with the English ambassador to Flanders and with the great Saxon thegn Brictric, son of Algar, who in his youth declined her advances. When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, William entrusted Normandy to his wife during his absence. Matilda successfully guided the duchy through this period in the name of her fourteen-year-old son, even after William conquered England and became its king, it took her more than a year to visit the kingdom. Despite having been crowned queen, she spent most of her time in Normandy, governing the duchy, supporting her brothers interests in Flanders, and sponsoring ecclesiastic houses there. Only one of her children was born in England, Henry was born in Yorkshire when Matilda accompanied her husband in the Harrying of the North.
Matilda was crowned queen on 11 May 1068 in Westminster during the feast of Pentecost, Matilda bore William nine or ten children. He was believed to have been faithful to her and never produced a child outside their marriage, despite her royal duties, Matilda was deeply invested in her childrens well-being. All were known for being remarkably educated and her daughters were educated and taught to read Latin at Sainte-Trinité in Caen founded by Matilda and William in response to the recognition of their marriage. For her sons, she secured Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury of whom she was an ardent supporter, both she and William approved of the Archbishops desire to revitalize the Church
Sancerre is a medieval hilltop town and canton in the Cher department of central France overlooking the Loire River. It is noted for its wine, located in the area of Gaul settled by the powerful Celtic tribe, the Bituriges, or the Kings of the World, and after their defeat at Bourges, part of Roman Aquitania. Name possibly derived from Sacred to Caesar and Christianized to Saint-Cere, during the Carolingian period there was a small village on the hillside, clustered around the Saint Romble Church. An Augustinian abbey was founded in Saint Satur in 1034, a natural fortress 312 meters in height, Sancerre is a former feudal possession of the Counts of Champagne in the province of Berry. They built a chateau on the hill and ramparts to protect the city, the chateau had six towers including the Tower of the Strongholds and the Tower of Saint George. In times of war, a fire was lit on the top of the Saint George tower that could be seen for 40 kilometres around. The Customs of Lorris, a charter granted by Stephen I to the merchants of Sancerre was considered one of the most progressive in the Capetian kingdom, in 1184, the Count of Sancerre led a band of rebels called the Brabançons against the king.
They were defeated by the Confrères de la Paix, the Confraternity of Peace, in 1190, Stephen I was among the first feudal lords to abolish serfdom. Sancerre was the seat of Joan of Arcs great comrade-in-arms, Jean V de Bueil, Sancerre was the site of the infamous Siege of Sancerre during the Wars of Religion where the Huguenot population held out for nearly eight months against the Catholic forces of the king. The siege was one of the last times in European history where slings, the siege was documented by a Protestant minister who survived the battle, Jean de Léry, in The Memorable History of the Siege of Sancerre. In 1621 much of the chateau and city walls were destroyed by orders of the king to prevent further resistance. In 1637 the county was sold by Rene de Bueil to the Prince of Condé, Henry II of Bourbon, the area suffered economically from the mass exodus of Protestant merchants and others during the 17th century, especially after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. During the French Revolution, Sancerre was the site of a royalist rebellion led by Louis-Edmond de Phelippeaux – small Vendee Sancerroise, Sancerre was designated the seat of government for the district during the First Republic, but in 1926 the sous-préfecture and other administrative services were transferred to Bourges.
Count Jean-Pierre de Montalivet, of Chateau de Thauvenay, Minister of the Interior under Napoleon, was a landowner in Sancerre during the 19th century. Area transportation was improved by the construction of a bridge at Saint Thibault, the Lateral Canal of the Loire and later. A mansion was built on the ruins of the original Chateau de Sancerre in 1874 by Mlle de Crussol dUzès in the style of Louis XII, in 1919, the mansion and part of the vineyards were purchased by Louis-Alexandre Marnier-Lapostolle, the liqueur manufacturer. During World War I, Sancerre was the site of a military hospital, during World War II, Sancerre was a regional command center for the French Resistance. Operation Spencer” in 1944 was to prevent the Germans from crossing the Loire River between Gien and Nevers and reinforcing troops in Brittany, the French Resistance and Free French Forces blew up the bridge at Sancerre and sabotaged communication, road and railway lines
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper and its river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a city during the period of the Roman Empire. Reims played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the site of the crowning of the kings of France. The Cathedral of Reims housed the Holy Ampulla containing the Saint Chrême and it was used for the anointing, the most important part of the coronation of French kings. Reims functions as a subprefecture of the department of Marne, in the region of Grand Est. Although Reims is by far the largest commune in both its region and department, Châlons-en-Champagne is the capital and prefecture of both. Before the Roman conquest of northern Gaul, founded circa 80 BC as *Durocorteron, at its height in Roman times the city had a population in the range of 30,000 -50,000 or perhaps up to 100,000.
Christianity had become established in the city by 260, at which period Saint Sixtus of Reims founded the bishopric of Reims, for centuries the events at the crowning of Clovis I became a symbol used by the monarchy to claim the divine right to rule. Meetings of Pope Stephen II with Pepin the Short, and of Pope Leo III with Charlemagne, took place at Reims, Louis IV gave the city and countship of Reims to the archbishop Artaldus in 940. Louis VII gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne, archbishop from 1176 to 1202, by the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture. Archbishop Adalberon, seconded by the monk Gerbert, founded schools which taught the liberal arts. Louis XI cruelly suppressed a revolt at Reims, caused in 1461 by the salt tax, during the French Wars of Religion the city sided with the Catholic League, but submitted to Henri IV after the battle of Ivry. In August 1909 Reims hosted the first international meet, the Grande Semaine dAviation de la Champagne.
Major aviation personages such as Glenn Curtiss, Louis Blériot and Louis Paulhan participated, hostilities in World War I greatly damaged the city. German bombardment and a subsequent fire in 1914 did severe damage to the cathedral, from the end of World War I to the present day an international effort to restore the cathedral from the ruins has continued. The Palace of Tau, St Jacques Church and the Abbey of St Remi were protected and restored, the collection of preserved buildings and Roman ruins remains monumentally impressive. During World War II the city suffered additional damage, but in Reims, at 2,41 on the morning of 7 May 1945, General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Adela of Normandy
Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England, known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism, was, by marriage, Countess of Blois and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders and she was the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Her birthdate is generally believed to be between 1066 and 1070, after her fathers accession to the English throne in 1066 and she was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England, they were probably the youngest of the Conquerors children. Adela was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin and she married Stephen Henry and heir to the count of Blois, between 1080 and 1083, around her fifteenth birthday. Stephen was nearly twenty years her senior, Stephen inherited Blois and Meaux upon his fathers death in 1089, as well as lands and right in parts of Berry and Burgundy. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade in 1096, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose, Stephens letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusades leaders and show that he trusted Adela to rule as regent while he was on crusade.
The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps and other treasures and he was, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101. He was ultimately killed in a charge at the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Adela and Stephens children are listed here in probable birth order, Count of Sully married Agnes of Sully and had issue Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. Died young Adela, married Milo II of Montlhéry King Stephen of England, married Matilda of Boulogne Lucia-Mahaut, married Richard dAvranches, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. It is known that Adela had five sons and may have had three or more daughters, though not all of the daughters were necessarily Adelas biological children. The daughters are not mentioned by name during their youth, only appearing when they reach marriageable age, Adela, a devout Benedictine sympathizer, employed several high-ranking tutors to educate her children.
Her youngest son, was conceived during the single year Stephen was in France between crusading duties. At two years of age Henry was pledged to the Church at Cluny Abbey, Saône-et-Loire, France, as an oblate child, Henry went on to be appointed Abbot of Glastonbury and Bishop of Winchester. In that capacity he sponsored hundreds of constructions including bridges, palaces, castles, in addition, Bishop Henry built dozens of abbeys and chapels and sponsored books including the treasured Winchester Bible. Adela quarrelled with her eldest son William and despite his previously being named heir-designate and her son Stephen moved to London in 1111 to join his uncles court and became the favorite of his uncle King Henry I. Upon Beauclercs death in Normandy, Stephen of Blois seized the English throne, Adela filled in as regent for her husbands duties during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade as well as during his second expedition in 1101. This included granting monks the right to build new churches, as well as other charters, while her husband was away, Adela would continue to tour their lands, settling disputes, promoting economic growth, and even commanding knights to go to battle with the king
Roman Catholic Diocese of Chartres
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Chartres is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite diocese in France. The diocese is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Tours, Chartres has been a site of Christian pilgrimage since the Middle Ages. The poet Charles Péguy revived the route between Paris and Chartres before the First World War. After the war, some students carried on the pilgrimage in his memory, about 15,000 pilgrims, mostly young families from all over France, participate every year. Catholic Church in France Gams, Pius Bonifatius, series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI, hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series. VII usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP, hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi. IX usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP, hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi.
X usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP, le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusquà nos jours. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusquà1801, lépiscopat français depuis le Concordat jusquà la Séparation
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, hence his nickname, immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she conveyed Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England in 1154, as Henry II, Henrys efforts to preserve and expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VIIs reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and he died in 1180 and was succeeded by his son Philip II. Louis was born in 1120 in Paris, the son of Louis VI of France. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career, in October 1131, his father had him anointed and crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. He spent much of his youth in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger, an advisor to his father who served Louis well during his early years as king.
Following the death of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Louis VI moved quickly to have Prince Louis married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of the late duke, on 25 July 1137. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, on 1 August 1137, shortly after the marriage, Louis VI died, and Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure, she once declared that she had thought to marry a king. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters and Alix, in the first part of his reign, Louis VII was vigorous and zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by no other than uprisings by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers. He soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, the pope thus imposed an interdict upon the king. As a result, Champagne decided to side with the pope in the dispute over Bourges, the war lasted two years and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François, more than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.
Overcome with guilt and humiliated by ecclesiastical reproach, Louis admitted defeat, removed his armies from Champagne and he accepted Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges and shunned Raoul and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he declared his intention of mounting a crusade on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges, bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay on Easter 1146. In the meantime, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy in 1144, in exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region vital to Norman security — to Louis
Peerage of France
The Peerage of France was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers. The prestigious title and position of Peer of France was held by the greatest, French peerage thus differed from British peerage, for the vast majority of French nobles, from baron to duke, were not peers. The title of Peer of France was an honour granted only to a small number of dukes, counts. It was analogous to the rank of Grandee of Spain in this respect, the French word pairie is equivalent to the English peerage. The individual title, pair in French and peer in English, derives from the Latin par and it signifies those noblemen and prelates considered to be equal to the monarch in honour, and it considers the monarch thus to be primus inter pares, or first among equals. The main uses of the word refer to two historical traditions in the French kingdom and after the First French Empire of Napoleon I, the word exists to describe an institution in the Crusader states.
Some etymologists posit that the French word baron, taken from the Latin baro, such a derivation would fit the early sense of baron, as used for the whole peerage and not simply as a noble rank below the comital rank. Medieval French kings conferred the dignity of a peerage on some of their pre-eminent vassals, some historians consider Louis VII to have created the French system of peers. A peerage was attached to a territorial jurisdiction, either an episcopal see for episcopal peerages or a fief for secular ones. Peerages attached to fiefs were transmissible or inheritable with the fief, the traditional number of peers is twelve. But since the first two were absorbed into the early in the recorded history of the peerage, the Duke of Burgundy has become the premier lay peer. In their heyday, the Duke of Normandy was undoubtedly the mightiest vassal of the French crown, the constitution of the peerage first became important in 1202, for the court that would try King John of England in his capacity as vassal of the French crown.
In 1216, Erard of Brienne claimed the County of Champagne through the right of his wife, again this required the peers of France, so the County of Champagne is a peerage. Six of the peers were identified in the charter - the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Langres, Chalons and Noyon. The tenth peerage that could be identified in the documents is the County of Flanders, in that year John de Nesle entered a complaint against Joan of Flanders, the countess responded that she could only be cited by a peer. Thus, though there had been differences in the dates of the identification of the peers, they were probably instituted simultaneously. Parallels may be seen with the mythical Knights of the Round Table under King Arthur, in periods peers held up by poles a baldaquin or cloth of honour over the king during much of the ceremony. This paralleled the arch-offices attached to the electorates, the more prestigious and powerful first college in the Holy Roman Empire
Stephen, Count of Blois
Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Garsinde du Maine. He is numbered Stephen II after Stephen I, Count of Troyes, in 1089, upon the death of his father, he became the Count of Blois and Chartres, although Theobald had given him the administration of those holdings in 1074. He was the father of Stephen of England, Stephen was the head of the army council at the Crusaders siege of Nicaea in 1097. He returned home in 1098 during the siege of Antioch, fleeing the battlefield. He was pressured by Adela into making a pilgrimage. In 1102, Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven, Stephen married Adela of Normandy, a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres. He fathered Adelas children, Count of Sully Theobald II, Count of Champagne Odo, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. Agnes, married Hugh III of Le Puiset Eleanor married Raoul I of Vermandois and had issue, davis, R. H. C.
King Stephen 1135–1154, Third Edition London, Longman 1990 ISBN 0-582-04000-0