Basket Range is a small town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. It is located on an north-south ridge that runs from Deep Creek in the north to Greenhill Road in the south; the area is encircled by hills, giving the town the appearance of nestling within a large basket, hence "Basket Range". It has been suggested that the name may derive from the practice of German farmers who, travelling from Lobethal to Adelaide along the old Bullock Track which passed through the area, would carry their produce in large wicker baskets, it has been suggested that a Mr Basket was in charge of issuing timber-cutting licences in the early days. The town's main industries include apple and cherry orchards, there are numerous cottages available for bed and breakfast accommodation. Basket Range Primary School was established in 1885, the Basket Range CFS was founded in 1969. Basket Range Post Office opened on 1 April 1892. Basket Range is home to one of the oldest cricket clubs in the region. Basket Range Cricket Club was formed in 1892 and their oval overlooks the wide sweeping hills views of the area
History of Adelaide
This article details the History of Adelaide from the first human activity in the region to the 20th century. Adelaide is the capital of South Australia. For early human settlement of Australia see Prehistory of AustraliaThe Adelaide plains were inhabited by the Kaurna tribe before European settlement, their territory extending from what is now Cape Jervis to Port Broughton; the Kaurna lived in family groups called yerta, a word which referred to the area of land which supported the family group. Each yerta was the responsibility of Kaurna adults who inherited the land and had an intimate knowledge of its resources and features; the Kaurna led a nomadic existence within the Yerta confines in large family groups of around 30. The area where the Adelaide city centre now stands was called "Tarndanya", which translates as "male red kangaroo rock", an area along the south bank of what is now called the River Torrens. Kaurna numbers were reduced by at least two devastating epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River.
When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people. British Commander Matthew Flinders and French Captain Nicolas Baudin independently charted the southern coast of the Australian continent, with the notable exception of the inlet known as the Port Adelaide River. In 1802 Flinders named Mount Lofty, but recorded little of the area, now Adelaide. In 1830 Charles Sturt explored the Murray River and was impressed with what he saw writing: "Hurried....as my view of it was, my eye never fell on a country of more promising aspect, or more favourable position, than that which occupies the space between the lake and the ranges of the Gulf St Vincent, continuing northerly from Mount Barker stretches away, without any visible boundary". Captain Collet Barker, sent by New South Wales Governor Ralph Darling, conducted a more thorough survey of the area in 1831, as recommended by Sturt. After swimming the mouth of the Murray River, Barker was killed by natives who may have had contact with sealers and escaped convicts in the region.
Despite this, his more detailed survey led Sturt to conclude in his 1833 report: "It would appear that a spot has at last been found upon the south coast of New Holland to which the colonists might venture with every prospect of success... All who have landed upon the eastern shore of the St. Vincent's Gulf agree as to the richness of its soil and the abundance of its pastures." A group in Britain led by Edward Gibbon Wakefield were looking to start a colony based on free settlement rather than convict labour. After problems in other Australian colonies arising from existing settlement methods, the time was right to form a more methodical approach to establishing a colony. In 1829 an imprisoned Wakefield wrote a series of letters about systematic colonisation which were published in a daily newspaper. Wakefield suggested that instead of granting free land to settlers as had happened in other colonies, the land should be sold; the money from land purchases would be used to transport labourers to the colony free of charge, who were to be responsible and skilled workers rather than paupers and convicts.
Land prices needed to be high enough so that workers who saved to buy land of their own remained in the workforce long enough to avoid a labour shortage. Robert Gouger, Wakefield's secretary promoted Wakefield's theories and organised societies of people interested in the scheme. In 1834 the South Australian Association, with the aid of such figures as George Grote, William Molesworth and the Duke of Wellington persuaded British Parliament to pass the South Australian Colonisation act, succeeding where two previous organisations had failed. Wakefield wanted the colony's capital to be called Wellington, but King William IV preferred it to be named after his wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; the British government appointed a Board of Commissioners from people nominated by the South Australian Association, with the task of organising the new colony and meeting the condition of selling at least £3,500 worth of land. This land was advertised and preliminary purchase land orders were sold before a single settler had set foot in their new home.
Free passage was given to suitable labourers men and women and animals under 30 years of age who were healthy and of good character. They were expected to carry out a promise of working for wages until they had saved enough to buy land of their own and employ others, a process taking at least 3 or 4 years. Land sales were encouraged by granting one acre of town land in Adelaide for every 80 acres of rural land sold; the largest buyer of land was the South Australia Company headed by politicians and slaveholder George Fife Angas, which bought enough land for South Australia to proceed, continued to influence the colony's future development. With the British government's conditions met, King William IV signed the Letters Patent and the first settlers and officials set sail in early 1836. In February 1836 the vessels John Pirie and Duke of York set sail for South Australia, they were followed in March by Cygnet and Lady Mary Pelham, in April by Emma, in May by Rapid and by Africaine and Tam O'Shanter.
Most took supplies and settlers to Kangaroo Island on the present day site of Kingscote, to await official decisions on the location and administration of the new colony. By the time Duke of York had arrived at Kangaroo Island, HMS Buffalo was on its way. Surveyor-General Colonel William Light, who had two months to complete his tasks, rejected locations for the new set
Lobethal is a town in the Adelaide Hills area of South Australia. It is located in the Adelaide Hills Council local government area, is nestled on the banks of a creek between the hills and up the sides of the valley, it was once the centre of the Adelaide Hills wool processing industry, which continued until around 1950. The mill buildings are now used by a number of cottage handcraft businesses. At the 2006 census, Lobethal had a population of 1,836; the town is famed during the Christmas season for its display of Christmas lights and decorations, which have attracted visitors from around the state since the 1950s. Lobethal is German for "valley of praise". On the day of the division of the land, according to Reverend I. Ey's account,'it received the name Lobethal, taken from the II Book of Chronicles, chapter 20, verse 26, according to Luther's translation, means Lobethal or'Valley of praise'. Due to the Great War in Europe, in 1917 the South Australian state government changed many German place names.
The name Lobethal was changed to Tweedvale. Lobethal was re-instated as the town's name with the enactment of the South Australia Nomenclature Act of 1935 on 12 December 1935. Lobethal was settled in 1842 by Prussian immigrants, who came out with Pastor Gotthard Fritzsche aboard the sailing vessel Skjold, who went to Hahndorf but were alerted to good land in the upper Onkaparinga. German Lutheran settlers provided compatriot, Johann Friedrich Krummnow, who had arrived in South Australia three years earlier and was a naturalised English citizen, with funds for land purchases to establish the community. Krummnow wanted it based on his own principles of fervent prayer; the Lobethal settlers rejected Krummnow's vision and disputed his right to the land titles. Many of their traditions remain to this day, although the town is not as overtly Germanic as Hahndorf or Tanunda. In 1845, St John's Lutheran Church was built. A new church has been built alongside; the town, as with many German towns in South Australia, was built in typical Silesian Hufendorf style, with the cottages arranged in a line along the main street, each family having a long, narrow strip of land stretching from the main street back to the village common, where all families could allow their animals to graze.
The advantages of this layout were that everyone had access to both fresh water and the main road, a even distribution of fertile and infertile land. While the town developed out of recognition, elements of the hufendorf layout remain. In 1850, F. W. Kleinschmidt set up a brewery, it closed after about two decades when Kleinschmidt turned his attention to hop-growing - which subsequently became a focus for Lobethal's agriculture. The brewery itself was turned into the Lobethal Tweed Factory, which became the Onkaparinga Woollen Company and operated until 1992. A cricket bat factory utilising locally grown willow operated from 1894 until 1950. Lobethal is located between Gumeracha and Woodside along the north-south road, east of Adelaide via Magill and Norton Summit. At the ABS 2001 census, Lobethal had a population of 1,653 people living in 707 dwellings, making it the largest town in the northern Adelaide Hills region. There are over 450 Lutherans in Lobethal. Lobethal contains two primary schools and a Country Fire Service station.
The Lutheran Church complex and the Archives and Historical Museum nearby, which contains a great deal of information about the lives of the German settlers, are tourist attractions. Fairyland Village and Fauna Park tries to provide a visual interpretation of some of Grimm's fairy tales, complete with native animals and light lunches. Lobethal Bierhaus is a regional beer brewery, with German style influences; the town is famous around Adelaide for its display of Christmas lights along its main streets in December each year. The tradition is the largest Christmas display in South Australia. In 2003 parts of Lobethal were transformed by the production of the movie The Honourable Wally Norman. Lobethal formed one third of the town used in the movie; the area is serviced by Adelaide public transport. Buses run from Lobethal to the Adelaide CBD via the South Eastern Freeway and Onkaparinga Valley Road. There are buses from Lobethal to Verdun Junction and Mount Barker. A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by Affordable Coachlines.
Lobethal was the host town for the 1939 Australian Grand Prix, Australia's premier motor race of that year. The race, won by Alan Tomlinson driving an MG TA, was staged on the Lobethal Circuit which comprised public roads in and around the town; the circuit was used for four race meetings from 1937 through to 1948. The Lights of Lobethal - Web site of the Lights of Lobethal Committee Tourist Information on Lobethal
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Forest Range, South Australia
Forest Range is a small town in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. Forest Range was settled by timber sawyers, cutting stringybark trees for charcoal. In 1854 there was a minor gold rush with a larger gold rush in the 1880s. Gold-seekers took over 6000 ounces of gold. Timber-cutting gave way to vegetable farming as land was cleared. Forest Range comprised the whole district including Lenswood, until 1917 when Lenswood was proclaimed. Land clearing formed the major industries, but this soon gave way to farming. Farming in those times was mixed, with fruit and vegetables farmed for local or Adelaide use. In the 20th century farming became more specialised and apples and cherries became the main industries; the Forest Range Fruitgrowers' Co-Operative Society was one of the main sites of apple packing and storage until it was absorbed by the nearby Lenswood Cold Store in the 1950s. Forest Range had a number of businesses and community buildings, but over time, these have all disappeared; these included hotels, timber sawing mills and churches.
The Forest Range Hall and the Forest Range Post Office remain the last community buildings, however there are numerous orchard sheds and private cold stores. There is a community park on Lobethal Road, near The Ford. There are two war memorials on Central Recreation Ground commemorating each world war; the Forest Range Oval The Central Recreation Park
Christmas lights are lights used for decoration in celebration of Christmas on display throughout the Christmas season including Advent and Christmastide. The custom goes back to when Christmas trees were decorated with candles, which symbolized Christ being the light of the world. Christmas trees displayed publicly and illuminated with electric lights became popular in the early 20th century. By the mid-20th century, it became customary to display strings of electric lights along streets and on buildings. In the United States, it became popular to outline private homes with such Christmas lights in tract housing beginning in the 1960s. By the late 20th century, the custom had been adopted in other nations, including outside the Western world, notably in Japan and Hong Kong. Throughout Christendom, Christmas lights continue to retain their symbolism of Jesus as the light of the world. In many countries, Christmas lights, as well as other Christmas decorations, are traditionally erected on or around the first day of Advent.
In the Western Christian world, the two traditional days when Christmas lights are removed are Twelfth Night and Candlemas, the latter of which ends the Christmas-Epiphany season in some denominations. Leaving the decorations up beyond Candlemas is considered to be inauspicious; the Christmas tree was adopted in upper-class homes in 18th-century Germany, where it was decorated with candles, which at the time was a comparatively expensive light source. Candles for the tree were attached by pins. Around 1890, candleholders were first used for Christmas candles. Between 1902 and 1914, small lanterns and glass balls to hold the candles started to be used. Early electric Christmas lights were introduced beginning in the 1880s; the illuminated Christmas tree became established in the UK during Queen Victoria's reign, through emigration spread to North America and Australia. In her journal for Christmas Eve 1832, the 13-year-old princess wrote, "After dinner.. We went into the drawing-room near the dining-room.
There were two large round tables on which were placed two trees hung with lights and sugar ornaments. All the presents being placed round the trees"; until the availability of inexpensive electrical power in the early 20th century, miniature candles were used. In the UK, electric Christmas lights are known as fairy lights. In 1881, the Savoy Theatre, London was the first building in the world to be lit by electricity. Sir Joseph Swan, pioneer of the incandescent light bulb, supplied about 1,200 Swan incandescent lamps, a year the Savoy owner Richard D'Oyly Carte equipped the principal fairies with miniature lighting supplied by the Swan United Electric Lamp Company, for the opening night of the Gilbert and Sullivan opera Iolanthe on 25 November 1882; the term'fairy lights', describing'a small coloured light used in illuminations' had entered English: its usage for a string of electrically powered Christmas lights has been common in the UK since. The first known electrically illuminated Christmas tree was the creation of Edward H. Johnson, an associate of inventor Thomas Edison.
While he was vice president of the Edison Electric Light Company, a predecessor of today's Con Edison electric utility, he had Christmas tree light bulbs made for him. He proudly displayed his Christmas tree, hand-wired with 80 red and blue electric incandescent light bulbs the size of walnuts, on December 22, 1882 at his home on Fifth Avenue in New York City. Local newspapers ignored the story. However, it was published by a Detroit newspaper reporter, Johnson has become regarded as the Father of Electric Christmas Tree Lights. By 1900, businesses started stringing up Christmas lights behind their windows. Christmas lights were too expensive for the average person. In 1895, US President Grover Cleveland sponsored the first electrically-lit Christmas tree in the White House, it was a huge specimen. The first commercially-produced Christmas tree lamps were manufactured in strings of multiples of eight sockets by the General Electric Co. of Harrison, New Jersey. Each socket took a miniature two-candela carbon-filament lamp.
From that point on, electrically-illuminated Christmas trees grew with mounting enthusiasm in the US and elsewhere. San Diego in 1904, Wisconsin in 1909, New York City in 1912 were the first recorded instances of the use of Christmas lights outside. McAdenville, North Carolina claims to have been the first in 1956; the Library of Congress credits the town for inventing "the tradition of decorating evergreen trees with Christmas lights dates back to 1956 when the McAdenville Men's Club conceived of the idea of decorating a few trees around the McAdenville Community Center." However, the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree has had "lights" since 1931, but did not have real electric lights until 1956. Furthermore, Philadelphia's Christmas Light Show and Disney's Christmas Tree began in 1956. Though General Electric sponsored community lighting competitions during the 1920s, it would take until the mid-1950s for the use of such lights to be adopted by average households. Christmas lights found use in places other than Christmas trees.
By 1919, city electrician John Malpiede began decorating the new Civic Center Park in Denver, Colorado expanding the display to the pa
Mount Lofty Fire Tower
The Mount Lofty Fire Tower sits on top of Mount Lofty in the Adelaide Hills just to the east of the city of Adelaide, South Australia. The 34m high tower has a commanding view over a huge area of the rural areas surrounding Adelaide, on a clear day the view can extend to as far as Kangaroo Island to the southwest, Monarto to the east, the Fleurieu Peninsula to the south, the grassy plains beyond Two Wells to the north; the tower is used to spot fires in the Adelaide Hills and surrounds on days of high or extreme fire danger during summer. The spotting crew determine the location of a smoke sighting by taking a bearing and calculating distance using topographic maps. Details of the sighting are passed to the Country Fire Service Regional Office in Mount Barker who despatch the nearest fire brigade; the tower, which sits within Cleland Conservation Park, was built in 1980 and manned by National Parks and Wildlife Service officers. The Country Fire Service took over responsibility for the tower in 1987, recruiting a paid staff of three fire spotters on a contract basis who between them maintained an eight-hour watch for the entire Fire Danger Season from 1 December to 30 April.
The spotting crew reported close to 200 sightings per season. In the mid-1990s a volunteer unit was established to operate the fire tower, this was formally recognised as a Country Fire Service brigade in November 2000; the National Parks and Wildlife Service crew who manned the tower during the Ash Wednesday fires on 16 February 1983 recalled the ferocity with which the fire came tearing up through Cleland Conservation Park towards them. The main fire that day started at nearby Mount Osmond and reached the summit of Mount Lofty well within an hour. Visibility was obscured due to severe dust storms generated by the strong winds, the crew only evacuated the tower as the fire was at their doorstep. Although the steel structure of the tower survived intact, the windows of the 34m high tower were shattered; the spotters were forced to shelter in the carpark below as the fire passed over them. On 1 January 1988 the Mount Lofty Fire Tower was beamed live around Australia on Channel 9 television as part of the Australia Live broadcast to celebrate the Australian Bicentenary.
The three members of the spotting crew appeared on the broadcast along with former Adelaide radio journalist Murray Nicoll, who received a Walkley Award for his live report from his own street in Greenhill as it burned around him during the Ash Wednesday fires in 1983. Following the Australia Live broadcast the three teenage members of the spotting crew appeared in several local media pieces and appeared in a two-page feature article in Woman's Day magazine. During February 2009 with some of the hottest weather on record, this 34m tower, the focal point for all fire-spotting activities in the Mt Lofty region, was unstaffed. CFS members say new civilian communications antennae on top of the tower made it sway uncontrollably in wind. Two experienced fire spotters feared for their own safety before they walked down the spiral staircase to the ground; the tower was re-opened after a years absence, has been manned each fire season since by the Mount Lofty fire tower brigade of the CFS. Mount Lofty Fire Tower CFS Brigade Fire Locating from the Mount Lofty Fire Tower Story of journalist Murray Nichol and Ash Wednesday The Independent Weekly - 21FEB09- A slideshow of the tower February 2009