Pope Callixtus II
Pope Callixtus II or Callistus II, born Guy of Burgundy, reigned from 1 February 1119 to his death in 1124. His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms in 1122. Born the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy, one of the wealthiest rulers in Europe and his family was part of a network of noble alliances. He was a cousin of Arduin of Ivrea, the King of Italy. One sister, was married to Humbert II, Count of Savoy and his brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of León, and fathered the future King Alfonso VII of León. His brother Hugh was an Archbishop of Besançon, Guy first appears in contemporary records when he became the Archbishop of Vienne in 1088. He held strong views about the Investiture Controversy. These concessions were received with violent opposition and nowhere more so than in France, where the opposition was led by Guy and these decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for a confirmation, which they received on 20 October 1112.
Guy was later, created cardinal by Pope Paschal, Archbishop Guy de Bourgogne of Vienne, who was not a cardinal, was elected at Cluny on 2 February 1119. Nine cardinals took part in the election, most of the other cardinals were in Rome. He was crowned at Vienne on 9 February 1119, as Calixtus II. At the outset, it appeared that the new Pope was willing to negotiate with Henry V, who received the embassy at Strasbourg. Henry V arrived for his conference at Mousson — not alone, as had been anticipated. Calixtus II, fearing that force was likely to be used to extract prejudicial concessions, since there was no compromise coming from Henry V, it was determined on 30 October 1119 that the Emperor and his antipope should be solemnly excommunicated. The Imperial candidate was obliged to flee to the fortress of Sutri and he was transferred from prison to prison first near Salerno, and afterwards at the fortress of Fumo. The imperial allies in Rome soon disbanded, in 1120 Calixtus II issued the papal bull Sicut Judaeis setting out the official position of the papacy regarding the treatment of Jews.
It was prompted by the First Crusade, during which five thousand Jews were slaughtered in Europe. The bull was intended to protect Jews and echoed the position of Pope Gregory I that Jews were entitled to enjoy their lawful liberty, having established his power in Italy, the Pope resolved to re-open negotiations with Henry V on the question of investiture
Sir William Dugdale was an English antiquary and herald. As a scholar he was influential in the development of history as an academic subject. Dugdale was born at Shustoke, near Coleshill in Warwickshire, where his father, as he was born, a swarm of bees flew into the garden, which some considered a happy presage on the life of the babe. He was educated at King Henry VIII School, Coventry, in 1623 he married Margaret Huntbach, with whom he had nineteen children. In 1625, the year after his fathers death, he purchased the manor of Blyth, during an enclosure dispute with a neighbour a few years he met the Leicestershire antiquary William Burton, who acted as arbitrator. He became involved in transcribing documents and collecting church notes and met other Midlands antiquaries such as Sir Symon Archer and he began working with Archer on the history of Warwickshire and their research led them to the archives of public records in London. There he met Sir Christopher Hatton, Sir Henry Spelman, Sir Simonds dEwes, Hatton provided him with hospitality in Holborn and became his principal patron.
The accommodation in the College of Arms and the income from his post enabled him to pursue his research in London, in June 1642 he was summoned with the other heralds to attend the king at York. When war broke out Charles deputed him to summon the castles of Banbury and he witnessed the battle of Edgehill, and returned with a surveyor to make a survey of the battlefield. He arrived in Oxford with the king in November 1642 and he was admitted MA of the University and he worked as a bureaucrat in the royalist capital, especially after December 1643 when Hatton was appointed Comptroller of the Household. In 1644 the king appointed him Chester Herald of Arms in Ordinary, during his leisure at Oxford he collected material at the Bodleian Library and college libraries for his books. It was during these years that he met Elias Ashmole, who became his son-in-law. Following the surrender of Oxford in 1646 Dugdale returned to Blyth Hall, who had opposed the surrender, went into exile in France, where Dugdale visited him in 1648.
He recommenced his researches, collaborating with Roger Dodsworth on the Monasticon Anglicanum. In the following year he published his own Antiquities of Warwickshire, in this work he was one of the first to consider the significance of stone tools, stating these were weapons used by the Britons before the art of making arms of brass or iron was known. At the Restoration Dugdale obtained the office of Norroy King of Arms through the influence of the Earl of Clarendon, in the office of Norroy he undertook heraldic visitations of the counties north of the Trent. In 1677 he was knighted and promoted to the office of Garter Principal King of Arms, in his last years he wrote an account of his life at the request of Anthony Wood. He died in his chair at Blythe Hall in 1686 and he edited Sir Henry Spelmans Glossarium Archaiologicum and Concilia, adding his own extensions to the latter
Adelaide of Susa
Adelaide of Susa or Adelaide of Turin was the Marchioness of Turin from 1034 to her death. She was the last of the Arduinici, born in Turin to Ulric Manfred II and Bertha around 1014/1020, Adelaides early life is not well known. Adelaide had two sisters and Bertha. She may have had a brother, whose name is not known, thus, on Ulric Manfreds death, the great margraviate was divided between his three daughters, though the greatest part by far went to Adelaide. She received the property in the counties of Turin, especially in the Susa Valley, Adelaide inherited property, but probably not comital authority, in Albenga, Alba and Ventimiglia. It is likely that Adelaides mother, briefly acted as regent for Adelaide after Ulric Manfreds death, since the margravial title primarily had a military purpose at the time, it was thus was not considered suitable for a woman. Emperor Conrad II therefore arranged a marriage between Adelaide and his stepson, Herman IV, in January 1037, Herman was invested as margrave of Turin.
Herman died of the plague while fighting for Conrad II at Naples in July 1038, Adelaide remarried in order to secure her vast march. Probably in 1041, and certainly before 19 January 1042, Adelaide married Henry, Henry died c.1045 and left Adelaide a widow for the second time. Immediately, a marriage was undertaken, this time to Otto of Savoy. With Otto she had three sons, Peter I, Amadeus II, and Otto, the couple had two daughters, who married Henry IV of Germany, and Adelaide, who married Rudolf of Rheinfelden. After the death of her husband Otto, c. 1057/60, Adelaide ruled the march of Turin and it is sometimes said that Adelaide abandoned Turin as a capital and began to reside permanently at Susa. Adelaide is documented far more frequently at the palace in Turin than anywhere else. In 1070 Adelaide captured and burned the city of Asti, which had rebelled against her, in 1069 Henry IV tried to repudiate Adelaides daughter, which caused Adelaides relationship with the imperial family to cool.
However, through the intervention of Bertha, Henry received Adelaides support when he came to Italy to submit to Pope Gregory VII, in return for allowing him to travel through her lands, Henry gave Bugey to Adelaide. Adelaide and her son Amadeus accompanied Henry IV and Bertha to Canossa, bishop Benzo of Alba sent several letters to Adelaide between 1080 and 1082, encouraging her to support Henry IV in the Italian wars which formed part of the Investiture Controversy. Adelaides dealings with Henry IV became closer after this and she offered to mediate between him and Matilda and Tuscany, and may even have joined him on campaign. Adelaide made many donations to monasteries in the march of Turin, in 1064 she founded the monastery of Santa Maria at Pinerolo
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Peter I of Courtenay
Peter I of Courtenay was the youngest son of Louis VI of France and his second wife, Adélaide de Maurienne. He was the father of the Latin Emperor Peter II of Courtenay, Peter was born in France and died in Palestine. In about 1150, he married Elizabeth de Courtenay, the daughter of Renaud de Courtenay and Hawise du Donjon and he is buried in a tomb in the floor of Exeter Cathedral, next to Elizabeth. Their eldest son was Peter of Courtenay, Lord of Conches, Seigneur of Tanlay Isabella Constance
Humbert I, Count of Savoy
Humbert I, better known as Humbert the White-Handed or Humbert Whitehand was the founder of the House of Savoy. Humbert was the son of Amadeus, who may or may not have preceded him as count of Maurienne and his brother was Bishop Otto of Belley. Humbert is the progenitor of the dynasty known as the House of Savoy, the origins of this dynasty are unknown, but Humberts ancestors are variously said to have come from Saxony, Burgundy or Provence. Humbert initially held lands around Belley and in the county of Sermorens, before gaining lands in Aosta, after Rudolf III’s death, Humbert I swore fealty to Emperor Conrad II. He supported Conrad II in his campaigns against Odo II, Count of Blois, in return, Conrad II appointed Humbert count of Savoy and granted him Maurienne and perhaps Tarentaise. These imperial grants to a loyal supporter secured key passes through the Alps and she may have been Ancilla of Lenzburg, the daughter of the master of ceremonies of Burgundy. Alternatively, Ancilla may have been a daughter of Anselm and Aldiud, Humbert is often said to have died c.
1047/8 at Hermillon, a town in the Maurienne region of present-day Savoie, France. More recently, it has suggested that he died by 1042. Humbert was buried in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Cathedral, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. Ducourthial, ‘Géographie du pouvoir en pays de Savoie au tournant de l’an Mil, guilleré, J- M. Poisson, L. Ripart and C. Le royaume de Bourgogne autour de l’an mil, pp. 207–246, history of House of Savoy Humbert Weißhand, Graf von Savoyen Humbert Biancamano, Conte di Savoia
William I, Count of Burgundy
William I, called the Great, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, william was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II. In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon and he was buried in Besançons Cathedral of St John. William married a woman named Stephanie and she married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Reims is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Erected as a diocese around 250 by St. Sixtus, the diocese was elevated to an archdiocese around 750, the archbishop received the title primate of Gallia Belgica in 1089. In 1023, Archbishop Ebles acquired the Countship of Reims, making him a prince-bishop, it became a duchy, the archdiocese comprises the arrondissement of Reims and the département of Ardennes while the province comprises the région of Champagne-Ardenne. The suffragan dioceses in the province of Reims are Amiens, Beauvais and Senlis, Châlons, Soissons and Saint-Quentin. The archepiscopal see is located in the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Reims, in 2014 it was estimated that there was one priest for every 4,760 Catholics in the diocese. Pope John Paul II appointed Thierry Romain Camille Jordan as Archbishop of Reims in 1999, on June 28,2013, Pope Francis appointed Father Bruno Feillet as an Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Reims.
Reims was taken by the Vandals in 406, according to Flodoard, on Holy Saturday,497, Clovis was baptized and anointed by Archbishop Remigius of Reims in the cathedral of Reims. In 719 the city took up arms against Charles Martel, who besieged the city, took it by assault, the First Council of Reims took place in 625, under the presidency of Archbishop Sonnatius. It produced at least twenty-five canons, in 816, Pope Stephen IV crowned Louis the Pious as Emperor at Reims. On 28 January 893, Charles III the Simple was crowned King of West Francia at Reims, King Robert I was consecrated and crowned Rex Francorum at Saint-Remi in Reims on 29 June 922 by Archbishop Hervée. Hugh Capet was crowned at Reims on Christmas Day 988, by Archbishop Adalberon, in 990 the city was attacked by Charles of Lorraine, the rival of Hugues Capet, who seized the city and devastated the area. In 1049, from 3 to 5 October, a Council of the Church took place at Reims under the presidency of Pope Leo IX, with twenty bishops and some fifty abbots in attendance.
The Pope was in Reims for the dedication of the church of the monastery of Saint-Rémi, in 1657, the Chapter of the Cathedral of Reims contained nine dignities and sixty-four Canons. The dignities included, the Major Archdeacon, the Minor Archdeacon, the Provost, the Dean, the Cantor, the Treasurer, the Vicedominus, the Scholasticus, and the Poenitentiarius. The two archdeacons were already in existence in 877, when they are mentioned at the head of the Capitulations issued by Archbishop Hincmar and they were both appointees of the Archbishop. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo, Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Pouillés de la province de Reims, recueils des historiens de la France, Pouilles. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii, Messagero di S. Antonio, hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI
Adelaide del Vasto
She was the daughter of Manfred del Vasto. Her uncle held much political clout in the region of Liguria–a document relating the deeds of Roger I described him as “that most renowned marquis of Italy. ”Her fathers family was of Frankish descent of a branch of the Aleramici, sharing a common descent from Aleramo of Montferrat with the Marquesses of Montferrat. Her brothers founded the lines of the Marquesses of Saluzzo, of Busca, of Lancia, of Ceva and her paternal grandparents were Teto II del Vasto, and his wife Bertha of Turin, daughter of margrave Ulric Manfred II of Turin. She married Roger I in 1089, as his third wife, Roger I died in 1101, and Adelaide ruled as regent of Sicily for her young sons Simon and Roger II. Adelaide herself was young when she became regent, she was only about 26 years old at the time. During her tenure, the emir Christodulus rose to preeminence at the court, almost immediately after Adelaide assumed the position of regent, rebellions broke out in parts of Calabria and Sicily.
The writings of the Norman monk Orderic Vitalis recount that Adelaide put an end to these episodes of insurgency with severity, the use of great force in suppressing such rebellions, did not tarnished her reputation as a ruler. In fact, Abbot Alexander of Telese’s history of Roger I describes Adelaide as “a most prudent woman, exercised the cares of the government and ruled over the county. ”A Greek and Arab charter from 1109 describes Adelaide as “the great female ruler, the malikah of Sicily and Calabria, the protector of the Christian faith. ”Adelaide’s older son, was enthroned when he reached the appropriate age but died in 1105, leaving Adelaide regent again until Roger II reached his majority in 1112. Similarly, she was careful to donate generously to the local Greek monasteries on Sicily as a way of currying favor with the religious authorities. Either through her influence or under her regency, her brother Henry del Vasto was granted Paternò, Henry was married to Flandina daughter of Count Roger I.
of Calabria and Sicily. Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, after the death of Baldwins first wife Godehilde during the First Crusade, in 1112 a new marriage was sought for the king. Arnulf of Chocques, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, suggested that Baldwin marry Adelaide, Adelaide brought with her an enormous amount of badly needed money, as well as some Muslim archers and a thousand other Sicilian soldiers. Adelaide was already well into middle age and no new heir was immediately forthcoming, the king was blamed for a bigamous marriage and the Patriarch Arnulf was deposed. Pope Paschal II agreed to him in 1116, provided that he annul the marriage between Baldwin and Adelaide. Baldwin agreed, after falling ill and assuming that renouncing his sin of bigamy would cure him, in 1117 the annulment was performed at Acre, and Adelaide sailed back to Sicily. Adelaide died on 16 April 1118 and was buried in Patti, Roger II was outraged at the treatment of his mother and never forgave the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Almost thirty years later, Roger still refused to give assistance to the Crusader states during the Second Crusade, william of Tyre wrote of the impact of the incident, “Adelaide’s son was angered beyond measure, because she had been sent back.
He conceived a hatred against the kingdom and its people