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Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen

Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and Queen consort of Hanover as the wife of King William IV. Adelaide was the daughter of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, Luise Eleonore of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her. Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Germany, the eldest child of George I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, she was titled Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Duchess in Saxony with the style Serene Highness from her birth until the Congress of Vienna, when the entire House of Wettin was raised to the style of Highness. She was baptised at the castle chapel on 19 August, her godparents numbered twenty-one, including her mother, the Holy Roman Empress, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Crown Princess of Saxony, the Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, the Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. Saxe-Meiningen was a small state.

It was the most liberal German state and, unlike its neighbours, permitted a free press and criticism of the ruler. At the time, no statute existed which barred a female ruling over the small duchy and it was not until the birth of her brother, Bernhard, in 1800, that the law of primogeniture was introduced. By the end of 1811, King George III was incapacitated and, although he was still king in name, his heir-apparent and eldest son, Prince George, was regent. On 6 November 1817 Princess Charlotte, died in childbirth. Princess Charlotte was second in line to the throne: had she outlived her father and grandfather, she would have become queen. With her death, the King was left with no legitimate grandchildren; the Prince Regent was estranged from his wife, forty-nine years old, thus there was little likelihood that he would have any further legitimate children. To secure the line of succession, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, the other sons of George III sought quick marriages with the intent of producing offspring who could inherit the throne.

William had ten children by the popular actress Dorothea Jordan, being illegitimate, they were barred from the succession. Considerable allowances were to be voted by Parliament to any royal duke who married, this acted as a further incentive for William to marry. Adelaide was a princess from an unimportant German state, but William had a limited choice of available princesses and, after deals with other candidates fell through, a marriage to Adelaide was arranged; the allowance proposed was slashed by Parliament, the outraged Duke considered calling off the marriage. However, Adelaide seemed the ideal candidate: amiable, home-loving, willing to accept William's illegitimate children as part of the family; the arrangement was settled and William wrote to his eldest son, "She is doomed, poor dear innocent young creature, to be my wife."Adelaide's dowry was set at 20,000 florins, with additional three separate annuities being promised by her future husband, the English regent, the state of Saxe-Meiningen.

Adelaide married William in a double wedding with William's brother, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, his bride Victoria, Dowager Princess of Leiningen, on 11 July 1818, at Kew Palace in Surrey, England. They had only met for the first time about a week earlier, on 4 July at Grillon's Hotel in Bond Street. Neither William nor Adelaide had been married before, William was twenty-seven years her senior. Despite these unromantic circumstances, the couple settled amicably in Hanover, by all accounts were devoted to each other throughout their marriage. Adelaide improved William's behaviour. Observers thought them parsimonious, their lifestyle simple boring. William accepted the reduced increase in his allowance voted by Parliament. On the Continent, Adelaide became pregnant, but in her seventh month of pregnancy, she caught pleurisy and gave birth prematurely on 27 March 1819 during the illness, her daughter, lived only a few hours. Another pregnancy in the same year caused William to move the household to England so his future heir would be born on British soil, yet Adelaide miscarried at Calais or Dunkirk during the journey on 5 September 1819.

Back in London, they moved into Clarence House, but preferred to stay at Bushy House near Hampton Court where William had lived with Dorothea Jordan. She became pregnant again, a second daughter, was born on 10 December 1820. Elizabeth seemed strong but died less than three months old on 4 March 1821 of "inflammation in the Bowels". William and Adelaide had no surviving children. Twin boys were stillborn on 8 April 1822, a possible brief pregnancy may have occurred within the same year. Princess Victoria of Kent came to be acknowledged as William's heir presumptive, as Adelaide had no further pregnancies. While there were rumours of pregnancies well into William's reign, they seem to have been without basis. At the time of their marriage, William was not heir-presumptive to the throne, but became so when his brother Frederick, Duke of York, died childless in 1827. Given the small likelihood of his older brothers producing heirs, William's relative youth and good health, it had long been considered likely that he would become king in due course.

In 1830, on the death of his elder b

Constable Burton Hall

Constable Burton Hall is a grade I-listed Georgian mansion of dressed stone in an extensive and well wooded park in the village of Constable Burton in North Yorkshire, is owned by the Wyvill family. The house is a two-storey ashlar faced structure with a five bay frontage having an elegant recessed Ionic portico; the principal entrance is approached by a double flight of steps. The side elevation has a pediment and there is a large projecting bay to the rear of the house; the estate came into the Wyvill family by marriage in the reign of Edward VI and a house was constructed in Elizabethan times to an H-shaped floor plan. In 1611 Marmaduke Wyvill was created a baronet; the house passed down to the 7th Baronet Sir Marmaduke Wyvill, who in 1768 commissioned John Carr of York to renovate it in the Palladian style. The 7th Baronet was High Sheriff of Yorkshire for 1773 and died unmarried in 1774, causing the baronetcy to be extinguished, he left the estate to his cousin and brother-in-law, the Rev. Christopher Wyvill, from whom it descended in turn via the latter's son Marmaduke, the MP for York, to Marmaduke's son Marmaduke.

He represented Richmond in Parliament for many years and was a world class chess player. The current owner is Charles Wyvill. In 1984, the hall was listed as a grade II listed building; the pub in the village is called The Wyvill Arms. The house and gardens are private. Please consult website www.constableburton.com for special events The hall was featured in the British television series All Creatures Great and Small, in the episode "Be Prepared", as the home of Major Headingley. Official website Historic England. "Details from listed building database". National Heritage List for England

E. K. Nayanar

Erambala Krishnan Nayanar was an Indian politician of the Communist Party of India or CPI. He served three terms as the Chief Minister of Kerala, making him the longest-serving holder of that office. At the time of death, he was a senior leader within the CPI, being a member of its central Politburo, twice heading its Kerala state unit. E. K. Nayanar was born on 9 December 1919 in Kalliasseri, as the second son of Govindan Nambiar and Narayani Amma. Despite his father, Govindan Nambiar, being a believer in the feudalism, Nayanar took to the national movement of the time at a young age under the influence of his cousin, K. P. R. Gopalan. Nayanar was influenced by the events following the admission of a Dalit girl to local school under the leadership of K. P. R. Gopalan. Nayanar was a participant in student movements in the Malabar region as a part of Balasangham and dropped out of school, he faced severe opposition from his father. He was drawn towards the socialist ideology guided by leaders like P. Krishna Pillai.

Nayanar famously helped in the establishment of a library and named it Shri Harshan Library, after Harshan, a member of the oppressed caste, tortured to death at the Kannur Central Jail for his participation in the national movement. Nayanar joined the undivided Communist Party of India in 1939; as a youth leader, Nayanar has organized several movements. He led the forty-six-day-long Aaron Mill workers' protest against dismissal of thirty workers by the mill management in 1940, he was jailed for six months as a consequence. Nayanar was one of the organizers of Morazha rally on 15 September 1940 in protest of rising prices. Two policemen were killed in the rally and Nayanar went into hiding for six years without knowing that he was not one of the accused, he organized peasant uprisings in Kayyur. A policeman subsequently died in Kayyur. Communist leaders were pursued by police following the incident, forcing Nayanar to go into hiding in forest areas in Eleri. On, as Chief Minister, he set up a Government College in the area in 1981.

The college was renamed to E. K. Nayanar Memorial Government college. While in hiding in Travancore, he worked as a journalist for Kerala Kaumudi. After Independence, cases against Nayanar were dropped, he continued working for Communist Party of India. He was elected Kannur taluk secretary in 1948, he again was forced to go into hiding following'Calcutta Thesis' proclamation that lead to banning Communist Party in India. During the Sino-Indian War, Nayanar was accused of being pro-China and was imprisoned in 1964 under the Preventive Detention Act, he was the secretary of Kozhikode district committee of the united CPI from 1956 to 1964. Nayanar was one of the 32 CPI national council members who walked out and formed CPI in 1964, he was a central committee member of the CPI from the 7th Congress in 1964. He served as the Secretary of the Kerala State Committee of the CPI from 1972 to 1980 and again from 1992 to 1996, he was elected to the Polit Bureau at the 14th Congress in 1992. In 1967, he was elected to the Lok Sabha from Palakkad.

He became an MLA for the first time from Irikkur legislative assembly in 1974. Since he has been elected as an MLA five more times (twice each from Malampuzha and Thrikkarippur and once from Thalasseri, losing only once. Nayanar became the Chief Minister of Kerala for the first time in 1980, he formed government with the support of Congress under A. K. Antony and Kerala Congress under K. M. Mani, but both the parties left for United Democratic Front coalition and the Government was dissolved on 20 October 1981. K. Karunakaran formed the government, Nayanar became the leader of the opposition, he served as the leader of the opposition from 1981 to 1987. Nayanar became the chief Minister for a second time in 1987, but he did not complete his term of five years as CPI decided to contest elections early in 1991 assuming political climate to be favourable. But the left lost Nayanar became the leader of the opposition yet again, he resigned from that post the next year when he was chosen as the Kerala state secretary of the CPI and was succeeded by V. S. Achuthanandan as the opposition leader.

Nayanar had not contested the 1996 assembly elections. V. S. Achudanandan, projected as the Chief Ministerial candidate lost in Mararikkulam. A faction in the party wanted Susheela Gopalan to be the Chief Minister, but when the matter was put to vote in the state secretariat, Nayanar was selected to be the CM, he won by-elections in Thalasseri. Nayanar introduced several reforms during his tenures as Chief Minister like The Kerala Coir workers Welfare Fund Act, 1987, The Kerala Khadi Workers' Welfare Fund Act, 1989, The Kerala Abkari Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1989, The Kerala Construction workers’ Welfare Fund Act, 1989 and the Kerala Ration Dealer's Welfare Fund Act, 1998; the Kannur University was established during his tenure. It was during his last stint as Chief Minister that the LDF launched the People's Planning Campaign in 1996, he is revered and respected by both the LDF and UDF for his contributions for the development of the state. Nayanar has authored several works in both Malayalam.

He was an occasional poet. A few notable works are: My Struggle Doha Diary Marxism-Oru Mukhavara Nehru-Gandhi Oru Padanam Karl Marx American Diary Ente China Diary Parliamentum Chila Vasthuthakalum Samar

Neil Robson (politician)

Neil Maxwell Robson AM was a Tasmanian member of parliament from 1976 to 1992. He was a Liberal member in the House of Assembly division of Bass. Robson is known for championing the introduction of a system of rotating the order of names printed on ballot papers at elections known as the Robson Rotation. Robson was born in Smithton, Tasmania in July 1928, his father was a saddler and undertaker from Sheffield, a World War I veteran. He died in Queensland -- three months after Robson's birth -- after contracting tuberculosis, his mother was from England, moved to Smithton with her father after his retirement from the British Army. In 1941, Robson won a scholarship to attend Launceston Church Grammar School. In 1944, Robson attempted to enlist in the Royal Australian Navy, although he was a year under the minimum age of seventeen, his mother refused to provide a statutory declaration claiming he was old enough. On 15 August 1945, he enlisted and was trained at Flinders Naval Depot and posted to the naval base HMAS Lonsdale.

He gained a posting aboard HMAS Quickmatch by asking the captain for one, served with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Papua New Guinea and Japan in the aftermath of World War II. Following his service overseas, he returned to Flinders Naval Depot, was demobilised as an Able Seaman at HMAS Huon. After leaving the navy, Robson refused a university place, to his regret, he worked for many years at the Launceston Savings Bank, whilst completing an accounting degree as a correspondence course. Robson married Desiree Tyson in May 1949, they had three children: Jill and Jan. On Australia Day 2007, he was made a Member of the Order of Australia for "service to electoral reform through the voting system, to the Tasmanian Parliament, to fishing and community organisations", he was a member of Mensa International. Robson, Neil Maxwell.

Lactarius pyrogalus

Lactarius pyrogalus known as the fire-milk lactarius, is a species of inedible mushroom in genus Lactarius. It is greyish and differentiated from other grey Lactarius by its spaced, yellow gills, it is found on the forest floor in mixed woodland at the base of hazel trees. Lactarius pyrogalus was first described by French mycologist Pierre Bulliard as Agaricus pyrogalus in 1792, before being given its current binomial name by Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries in 1838. Lactarius pyrogalus has a cap 5–10 cm across, grey fawn, sometimes with a yellowish tinge, with pink and purple tinges not unknown, it is flattened convex to flat becoming funnel shaped. The cap is sometimes faintly concentrically banded, it is thin fleshed and becomes sticky when moist, but is not shiny; the stem is between 4 and 6 cm, between 7 and 15 mm thick cylindrical but sometimes swollen at the base. The stem is whitish or concolorous with whitish flesh, it has decurrent gills, which are yellow to flesh coloured, though become a cinnamon-ochre colour.

The well-spaced, yellow gills differentiate it from other greyish Lactarius species. Lactarius pyrogalus produces a light ochre spore print; the spores are 7–8 by 5.5–7 µm in size. The spores are amyloid, meaning they stain dark blue in Melzer's reagent, feature an incomplete net. Lactarius pyrogalus is common and is found at the base of hazel trees alone or in scattered groups, it is common in hazel woodland managed for coppice. It can be found elsewhere on the ground in mixed woodland, it is found in the autumn months of August and October. Lactarius pyrogalus has a hot, acrid taste and is acidic, it is due to this taste that it received both its English name, fire-milk lactarius, its scientific name, with "pyrogalus" translating as "fire milk". Despite not being poisonous, it should be avoided; this is unlike its relative, the saffron milk-cap, regarded as a choice mushroom. List of Lactarius species

INS Jarawa

INS Jarawa is a naval base under the joint-services Andaman and Nicobar Command located in Port Blair in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. It was commissioned in 1964. INS Utkrosh is an adjacent naval air station. INHS Dhanvantari is a naval hospital on the base. A Floating Dock Navy of nearly 40,000 tonnes is operated to dock a large number of vessels under the A&N Command. A second, smaller floating dock was ordered in 2010. After the 1962 Sino-Indian War, the Navy was tasked with the defence of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Preparations for setting up naval establishments on the islands started in November 1962. In mid 1963, the first naval garrison of 5 officers and 156 sailors arrived in Port Blair. After the Seaward class defense boats were deployed to the islands, a maintenance and repair facility was created to support these small craft. INS Jarawa was commissioned in 1964 as the base to oversee all naval operations on the islands; the base is named for the indigenous adivasi Jarawa tribe of the Andaman islands.

INS Magar, an amphibious warfare ship, was the first major vessel to have INS Jarawa as its home port. Construction of a naval wharf for the base started in 1968. Comprehensive ship repair facilities were commissioned at the base in 1979. On 6 November 2002, the 180 meter long floating drydock FDN1 sank off Port Blair in the Andaman Islands on 24 meters, leaving only the dock crane tops visible. SVITZER Salvage was instructed to re-float the drydock. A SVITZER Salvage Team from Singapore and The Netherlands, aided by special Salvage vessel PERDANA SAKTI, prepared the drydock. A smooth and controlled three-day operation saw it safely back afloat, she was returned to her owners, The Indian Navy, on 15 February 2003. Indian navyList of Indian Navy bases List of active Indian Navy shipsIntegrated commands and unitsArmed Forces Special Operations Division Defence Cyber Agency Integrated Defence Staff Integrated Space Cell Indian Nuclear Command Authority Indian Armed Forces Special Forces of IndiaOther listsStrategic Forces Command List of Indian Air Force stations List of Indian Navy bases India's overseas military bases