Adelbert von Chamisso

Adelbert von Chamisso was a German poet and botanist, author of Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow. He was known in French as Adelbert de Chamisso de Boncourt, a name referring to the family estate at Boncourt; the son of Louis Marie, Count of Chamisso, by his marriage to Anne Marie Gargam, Chamisso began life as Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamissot at the château of Boncourt at Ante, in Champagne, the ancestral seat of his family. His name appears in one of the most common being Ludolf Karl Adelbert von Chamisso. In 1790, the French Revolution drove his parents out of France with their seven children, they went successively to Liège, the Hague, Würzburg, Bayreuth, Hamburg where he met both a younger boy in Johann August Wilhelm Neander and another younger boy in Karl August Varnhagen von Ense before settling in Berlin. There, in 1796 the young Chamisso was fortunate in obtaining the post of page-in-waiting to the queen of Prussia, in 1798 he entered a Prussian infantry regiment as an ensign to train for a career as an army officer.

Shortly thereafter, thanks to the Peace of Tilsit, his family was able to return to France, but Chamisso remained in Prussia and continued his military career. He had little formal education, but while in the Prussian military service in Berlin he assiduously studied natural science for three years. In collaboration with Varnhagen von Ense, in 1803 he founded the Berliner Musenalmanach, the publication in which his first verses appeared; the enterprise was a failure, interrupted by the Napoleonic wars, it came to an end in 1806. It brought him, however, to the notice of many of the literary celebrities of the day and established his reputation as a rising poet. Chamisso had become a lieutenant in 1801, in 1805 he accompanied his regiment to Hamelin, where he shared in the humiliation of the town's treasonable capitulation the next year. Placed on parole, he went to France. Homeless and without a profession and despondent, Chamisso lived in Berlin until 1810, when through the services of an old friend of the family he was offered a professorship at the lycée at Napoléonville in the Vendée.

He set out to take up the post, but instead joined the circle of Madame de Staël, followed her in her exile to Coppet in Switzerland, devoting himself to botanical research, he remained nearly two years. In 1812 he returned to Berlin. In the summer of the eventful year, 1813, he wrote the prose narrative Peter Schlemihl, the man who sold his shadow. This, the most famous of all his works, has been translated into most European languages, it was written to divert his own thoughts and to amuse the children of his friend Julius Eduard Hitzig. In 1815, Chamisso was appointed botanist to the Russian ship Rurik, fitted out at the expense of Count Nikolay Rumyantsev, which Otto von Kotzebue commanded on a scientific voyage round the world, he collected at the Cape of Good Hope in January 1818 in the company of Krebs and Maire. His diary of the expedition is a fascinating account of the expedition to the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. During this trip Chamisso described a number of new species found in what is now the San Francisco Bay Area.

Several of these, including the California poppy, Eschscholzia californica, were named after his friend Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz, the Rurik's entomologist. In return, Eschscholtz named a variety of plants, including the genus Camissonia, after Chamisso. On his return in 1818 he was made custodian of the botanical gardens in Berlin, was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, in 1819 he married his friend Hitzig's foster daughter Antonie Piaste, he became a leading member of a literary circle around E. T. A. Hoffmann. In 1827 for the purpose of rebutting the charges brought against him by Kotzebue, he published Views and Remarks on a Voyage of Discovery, Description of a Voyage Round the World. Both works display great industry, his last scientific labor was a tract on the Hawaiian language. Chamisso's travels and scientific researches restrained for a while the full development of his poetical talent, it was not until his forty-eighth year that he turned back to literature. In 1829, in collaboration with Gustav Schwab, from 1832 in conjunction with Franz von Gaudy, he brought out the Deutscher Musenalmanach, in which his poems were published.

Chamisso died in Berlin at the age of 57. His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof III in Berlin-Kreuzberg, to the south of the Hallesches Tor. Chamisso is chiefly remembered for his work as a botanist, his Bemerkungen und Ansichten, published in an incomplete form in Kotzebue's Entdeckungsreise and more in Chamisso's Collected Works, the botanical work, Übersicht der nutzbarsten und schädlichsten Gewächse in Norddeutschland, of 1829, are esteemed for their careful treatment of their subjects. The genera Chamissoa Kunth and Camissonia Link and many species wer

Changing of the Guards

"Changing of the Guards" is a song written by Bob Dylan, released in 1978 as a single and as the first track on his album Street-Legal. As an A-side single it failed to reach the Billboard Top 100. However, the song has been included on compilation albums: Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Volume 3, released in 1994, the Deluxe Edition of Dylan, released in 2007. A longer mix of "Changing of the Guards", including an extended fade, was included on editions of Street-Legal released in 1999 and 2003. Musically, "Changing of the Guards," like much of Street-Legal, concocts a sound unknown to prior Dylan records; this is in part effected by a trio of female back-up singers, a prominent saxophone in between verses, a hauntingly dynamic chord progression. This is evident in several of the instrumental components; the drums play a driving and consistent 4/4 rhythm devoid of the reverb heard on Dylan's prior album Desire. The chord progression has a certain catch, noticeable: there is a repeating cadence, which, by landing on the dominant chord, "begs" for resolution.

However, rather than resolving with the tonic chord, it is resolved with the relative minor chord, creating an tragic feeling throughout. Most listeners instinctively expect a happy-sounding tonic chord. Instead, the music moves to the unusual and dark-sounding relative minor chord, although each verse does end with a final resolution to the major. Over the course of the recording cited here, the performance speeds up noticeable to most listeners only when hearing the track's beginning repeated after it ends. Lyrically, this song has prompted much critique, both negative. According to Oliver Trager author of Keys to the Rain: The Definitive Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, "Changing of the Guards" has been criticized as a "song in which Dylan unsuccessfully and cynically parodies his anthemic self in haunting fashion..."Conversely, several commentators have found much depth and meaning in the song's lyrics. Noted Dylan expert Michael Gray, author of The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia, commented that "Changing of the Guards" is a thorough description of Dylan's personal journey, from the beginning of his musical career, about sixteen years prior, through his marriage to and divorce from Sara Dylan, up to his conversion to Christianity, announced soon after the song's release.

Indeed, much religious and biblical imagery is found in this work apocalyptic imagery—not new ground for Dylan. Dylan once commented: "It means something different every time I sing it.'Changing of the Guards' is a thousand years old'". However the song's greatest admirers concede the opacity of the lyrics. "Like much in'Changing of the Guards', the intended meaning of this passage is opaque..." The deliberate ambiguity of the lyrics marked Street-Legal's effective abandonment of the narrative approach that dominated Dylan's previous album Desire. Dylan performed "Changing of the Guards" only during the tour following its 1978 release as the closing song of the set; this tour was documented on the double live album Bob Dylan at Budokan, though "Changing of the Guards" was not included. "Changing of the Guards" has been covered by: Frank Black: All My Ghosts Juice Leskinen: "Vahdinvaihto" single Chris Whitley & Jeff Lang: Dislocation Blues Patti Smith: Twelve The Gaslight Anthem: Chimes of Freedom: The Songs of Bob Dylan Lyrics to "Changing of the Guards"

Rockman Complete Works

Rockman Complete Works is a lineup of video game remakes released only in Japan for the PlayStation in 1999. Rockman Complete Works contains the first six entries in the Classic Mega Man series released on the Nintendo Entertainment System; the six games were released individually, each disc containing a port of the original Nintendo Entertainment System version as the game's "Original Mode", as well as a "Navi Mode". The games are compatible with the PocketStation peripheral, allowing the player to match up bosses from the games in a paper-rock-scissors minigame called "PokeRock". Players can play against one another via the PocketStation's infrared sensor. All six games were bundled with Mega Man X7 in the Rockman Collection Special Box for the PlayStation 2. A Sega Saturn port was cancelled; the Complete Works ports of Mega Man 1-6 served as the basis for the North American-exclusive Mega Man Anniversary Collection, released in 2004 for the PlayStation 2, Microsoft Xbox, Nintendo GameCube.

In addition to Mega Man 1-6, the Anniversary Collection includes the Super Nintendo title Mega Man 7, the PlayStation version of Mega Man 8, the arcade spin-offs, Mega Man: The Power Battle and Mega Man 2: The Power Fighters. The Complete Works versions of all six Mega Man games have been made available on the PlayStation Store in Japan, as well as the first four games in North America, making these titles available for download on the PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita. Rockman Complete Works: Rockman at MobyGames