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Aden Protectorate

The Aden Protectorate was a British protectorate in southern Arabia which evolved in the hinterland of the port of Aden and in the Hadramaut following the conquest of Aden by Great Britain in 1839, it continued until the 1960s. In 1940 it was divided for administrative purposes into the Western Protectorate and the Eastern Protectorate. Today the territory forms part of the Republic of Yemen. What became known as the Aden Protectorate was informal arrangements of protection with nine tribes in the immediate hinterland of the port city of Aden: Lahej Alawi Dhala Aqrabi Aulaqi Fadhli Haushabi Subeihi YafaBritish expansion into the area was designed to secure the important port that was, at the time, governed from British India. From 1874, these protection arrangements existed with the tacit acceptance of the Ottoman Empire that maintained suzerainty over Yemen to the north and the polities became known collectively as the "Nine Tribes" or the "Nine Cantons." Beginning with a formal treaty of protection with the Mahra Sultanate of Qishn and Socotra in 1886, Britain embarked on a slow formalisation of protection arrangements that included over 30 major treaties of protection with the last signed only in 1954.

These treaties, together with a number of other minor agreements, created the Aden Protectorate that extended well east of Aden to Hadhramaut and included all of the territory that would become South Yemen except for the immediate environs and port of the colonial capital, Aden. Aden with its harbour was the only area under full British sovereignty and, together with some offshore islands, was known as Aden Settlement, Aden Province, Aden Colony and State of Aden. In exchange for British protection, the rulers of the constituent territories of the Protectorate agreed not to enter into treaties with or cede territory to any other foreign power. In 1917, control of Aden Protectorate was transferred from the Government of India, which had inherited the British East India Company's interests in various princely states on the strategically important naval route from Europe to India, to the British Foreign Office. For administrative purposes, the protectorate was informally divided into the Eastern Protectorate and the Western Protectorate, for some separation of administration.

In 1928, the British established Aden Command, under Royal Air Force leadership, to preserve the security of the Protectorate. It was renamed British Forces Aden in 1936 and was known as British Forces Arabian Peninsula and Middle East Command; the boundaries between the polities and their number fluctuated over time. Some such as the Mahra Sultanate had any functioning administration. Not included in the protectorate were Aden Colony and the insular areas of Perim and Khuriya Muriya that accrued to it; the Eastern Protectorate came to include the following entities: Kathiri Mahra Qu'aiti Wahidi Balhaf Wahidi Bir Ali Wahidi Haban The Western Protectorate included: Alawi Aqrabi Audhali Beihan Dathina Dhala Qutaibi Dependence of Dhala Fadhli Haushabi Lahej Lower Aulaqi Lower Yafa Shaib Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom Upper Aulaqi Sultanate Upper Yafa Sultanate and the five Upper Yafa sheikhdoms of: Al-Busi Al-Dhubi Hadrami Maflahi Mawsata In 1938, Britain signed an advisory treaty with the Qu'aiti sultan and, throughout the 1940s and 1950s, signed similar treaties with twelve other protectorate states.

The following were the states with advisory treaties: Eastern Protectorate StatesKathiri Mahra Qu'aiti Wahidi BalhafWestern Protectorate StatesAudhali Beihan Dhala Haushabi Fadhli Lahej Lower Aulaqi Lower Yafa Upper Aulaqi SheikhdomThese agreements allowed for the stationing of a Resident Advisor in the signatory states which gave the British a greater degree of control over their domestic affairs. This rationalised and stabilised the rulers' status and laws of succession but had the effect of ossifying the leadership and encouraging official corruption. Aerial bombardment and collective punishment were sometimes used against wayward tribes to enforce the rule of Britain's clients. British protection came to be seen as an impediment to progress, a view reinforced by the arrival of news of Arab nationalism from the outside world on newly available transistor radios. British control was challenged by King Ahmad bin Yahya of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen to the north who did not recognise British suzerainty in South Arabia and had ambitions of creating a unified Greater Yemen.

In the late 1940s and the early 1950s, Yemen was involved in a series of border skirmishes along the disputed Violet Line, a 1914 Anglo-Ottoman demarcation that served to separate Yemen from the Aden Protectorate. In 1950, Kennedy Trevaskis, the Advisor for the Western Protectorate drew up a plan for the protectorate states to form two federations, corresponding to the two-halves of the protectorate. Although little progress was made in bringing the plan to fruition, it was considered a provocation by Ahmad bin Yahya. In addition to his role as king, he served as the imam of the ruling Zaidi branch of Shi'a Islam, he feared that a successful federation in the Shafi'i Sunnite protectorates would serve as a beacon for discontented Shafi'ites who inhabited the coastal regions of Yemen. To counter the threat, Ahmad stepped up Yemeni efforts to undermine British control and, in the mid-1950s, Yemen supported a number of revolts by disgruntled tribes against protectorate states; the appeal of Yemen was limited in the protectorate but a

Chatan Chōchō

Chatan Ueekata Chōchō known by his Chinese style name Shō Kokuyō, was a bureaucrat of the Ryukyu Kingdom. Chatan Chōchō was an uncle of the famous sessei Shō Shōken, he served as a member of Sanshikan from 1652 to 1666. In 1663, King Shō Shitsu dispatched Chatan as a gratitude envoy for his investiture to Qing China; the mission stayed Fuzhou on their way home in the next year. King Shō Shitsu dispatched Eso Jūkō as congratulatory envoy to celebrate Kangxi Emperor's coronation at the same time, but Eso's envoy was shipwrecked near Meihua Port in the mouth of Min River, was attacked by pirates. Eso fled to Fuzhou, some of his entourages were murdered by poison, golden pots prepared for Kangxi Emperor were stolen. Two envoys came back to Ryukyu in 1665. Soon Chatan found the truth: the pirates were Ryukyuans disguised as Chinese, all of them were his entourages; when the ship passed through Iheya Island, he threw all participants into the sea in order to hush up the incident. But the truth was known by Satsuma Domain.

Both Chatan and Eso were sentenced to death by Satsuma, decapitated by Ryukyu Kingdom. Their eight sons were imprisoned at temples; this incident was known as Chatan Eso Incident

R. S. Khare

R. S. Khare is a socio-cultural anthropologist and a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Virginia, U. S, he is known for studying “from within/without” India's changing society, food systems, political cultures, for following the trajectories of contemporary Indian traditional and modern cultural discourses. His anthropology has endeavored to widen reasoned bridges across the India-West cultural, religious-philosophical, literary distinctions and differences, he obtained his M. A. and Ph. D. in socio-cultural anthropology from Lucknow University, India. His doctoral field research concerned the relationships domestic ritual purity-pollution practices had with the health and sanitation issues in a low-caste village near Lucknow, he field studied how Lucknow's orthodox Kanyakubja Brahmins modernized. During his postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Chicago, while analyzing his researches, he was exposed to the studies of McKim Marriott and Milton Singer at Chicago, while familiar with Louis Dumont’s writings on the Indian caste system and civilization.

Khare spent 1972 doing additional fieldwork in Rae Bareli, explicating the value-practice structures of Indian food and ritual systems. The results were written up during a visiting fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, at Clifford Geertz’s initiative. Khare’s second research phase included a series of field research trips for studying, urban Indian Dalit communities and their local leaders and intellectuals. Khare’s third research phase involved collaboration with a few prominent north Indian Dalit writers and political leaders in Lucknow and New Delhi, while developing cultural critiques of the sharpening Indian caste and gender inequalities, religious nationalism, subaltern identity politics in India; the latest phase has concerned issues in Indian modernity amid social diversity. Khare established and chaired anthropology at the Kanya-Kubja College in Lucknow. After Chicago, he spent a year in the Anthropology Department at Lucknow University, moved on to the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay in the U.

S. He chaired its newly created multidisciplinary “Modernization Concentration.” In 1971, he joined University of Virginia as professor of anthropology just as anthropology separated as a department from the joint sociology-anthropology unit. At Virginia, he founded and led an interdisciplinary faculty scholarly activities committee, sponsored by the Center for Advanced Studies and its director, Dean W. Dexter Whitehead, a physicist scholar-administrator. Concurrently, he chaired an International Commission on the Anthropology of Food. During 1990-91, Khare was a fellow of the University's Commonwealth Center for Literary and Cultural Change, he became Interim Chair of the Department of Anthropology. In May 2004, he gave the XI D. N. Majumdar Memorial Lecture at his alma mater, Lucknow University, he has chaired the Center on Critical Human Survival Issues from Fall 1998 to December, 2018. The major universities and research institutions where Khare has visited as a visiting faculty or fellow include: University of Chicago.

K.. Khare intensively studied for two decades contemporary India's social “top” and the “bottom”, his early studies explicated how the changing caste/class hierarchies impacted orthodox Hindu hearth and family, kinship and community. These led to showing how ideologically rooted and distinct were the conceptions of Indic personhood, social relations, food thoughts, social-ritual practices, the associated cosmological semiotics, but politically to Dalits, this privileged upper-caste Indian worldview had long festered with glairing moral blindness and socioeconomic inequalities and injustices, instigating twentieth century Dalits to demand their rightful moral-social and political rights. To do so was to re-forge assertively their new identity and pragmatic modern political activism. For Khare, studying Dalits meant, inter alia, critically reevaluating approaches of Louis Dumont and McKim Marriott to Indian caste society and civilization. Khare's comparative critique employed the multi-stringed approach inherent in Indian traditional modern thought ways and actions.

Dumont's mutually exclusive and “opposed” India-West ideological structures, by contrast, had precluded, for example and all the different Indic constructions of individual self and agency. Dumont had hence long attracted criticisms. Marriott's rigorous attempts to create a comprehensive parsimonious transactional model for “the Hindu world” excluded the crucial moral-spiritual self-locations (e.g. of reformist

List of state leaders in 1533

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1533. Kingdom of Baguirmi – Birni Besse Ethiopian EmpireDawit II Kingdom of KongoAlfonso I, Manikongo Sennar SultanateAmara Dunqas Nayil Songhai EmpireAskia Mohammad Benkan, Askia of the Songhai Empire Inca EmpireAtahualpa The last Inca Emperor is killed by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Muisca Confederation zipa - Tisquesusa zaque - Quemuenchatocha Ahmadnagar Sultanate – Burhan Shah I Ahom KingdomSuhungmung Ayutthaya KingdomBorommarachathirat IVRatsadathirat Bengal SultanateNasiruddin Nasrat Shah Alauddin Firuz Shah Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah China - Jiajing Emperor Jaffna KingdomCankili I Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Nara Ashikaga shogunate - Ashikaga Yoshiharu Kengtung – Hpaya Kiao, ruled JoseonJungjong Sultanate of MaguindanaoSharif Kabungsuwan Ryukyu KingdomShō Sei Sultanate of Sulu – Muizzul-Mutawadi-in Ternate SultanateTabariji Pati Serang, Regent Tibet – Ngawang Tashi Drakpa Vijayanagara EmpireAchyuta Deva Raya Kingdom of Denmark–NorwayFrederick I Duchy of SchleswigChristian III and Frederick I in condominial rule Kingdom of EnglandHenry VIII Kingdom of FranceFrancis I Holy Roman EmpireCharles V Duchy of Holstein – Christian III and Frederick I in condominial rule LübeckJürgen Wullenwever, head of state, Burgomaster in chief of Lübeck Duchy of MantuaFederico II Duchy of MilanFrancesco II Sforza Duchy of SavoyCharles III Kingdom of HungaryHouse of Habsburg - Ferdinand I Zápolya - John Zápolya Khanate of Khiva – Aq Kubek Polish–Lithuanian union – Sigismund I the Old, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Duchy of the ArchipelagoJohn IV Crispo Ottoman EmpireSuleiman the Magnificent Kingdom of Portugal and the AlgarvesJohn III Grand Duchy of MoscowIvan IV, Grand Prince of Moscow Tsar of Russia Kingdom of ScotlandJames V Kingdom of SpainCharles I Kingdom of SwedenGustav I Vasa Republic of VeniceAndrea Gritti, Doge of Venice

Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

The VW Type 128 and 166 Schwimmwagen were amphibious four-wheel drive off-roaders, used extensively by German ground forces during the Second World War. The Type 166 is the most numerous mass-produced amphibious car in history. Volkswagen Schwimmwagens used the engine and mechanicals of the VW Type 86 four-wheel drive prototype of the Kübelwagen and the Type 87 four-wheel drive'Kübel/Beetle' Command Car, which in turn were based on the platform of the civilian Volkswagen Beetle. Erwin Komenda, Ferdinand Porsche's first car body designer, was forced to develop an all-new unitized bodytub structure since the flat floorpan chassis of the existing VW vehicles was unsuited to smooth movement through water. Komenda patented his ideas for the swimming car at the German Patent office; the earliest Type 128 prototype was based on the full-length Kübelwagen chassis with a 240 cm wheelbase. Pre-production units of the 128, fitted with custom welded bodytubs, demonstrated that this construction was too weak for tough off-roading, had insufficient torsional rigidity, suffered hull-ruptures at the front cross-member, as well as in the wheel-wells.

This was unacceptable for an amphibious vehicle. The large-scale production models were therefore made smaller, had a wheel-base of only 200 cm. VW Schwimmwagens were produced by the Volkswagen factory at Fallersleben / Wolfsburg and Porsche's facilities in Stuttgart. 15,584 Type 166 Schwimmwagen cars were produced from 1941 through 1944. Given these numbers, the VW 166 is the most mass-produced amphibious car in history. Only 189 are known by the Schwimmwagen Registry to remain today, only 13 have survived without restoration work. All Schwimmwagen were four wheel drive only on first gear and had ZF self-locking differentials on the front and rear axles. Just like the Kübelwagen, the Schwimmwagen had portal gear rear hubs that gave better ground clearance, while at the same time reducing drive-line torque stresses with their gear reduction at the wheels; the Schwimmwagen could go up to 50 miles per hour on land. When crossing a body of water a screw propeller could be lowered down from the rear deck/engine cover.

When in place a simple coupling provided drive straight from an extension of the engine's crankshaft. This meant; the Schwimmwagen could go up to 10 km/h in the water. For reversing in the water there was the choice of using the standard equipment paddle or running the land drive in reverse, allowing the wheel-rotation to take the vehicle back; the front wheels doubled up as rudders, so steering was done with the steering wheel both on land and on water. For steering the Schwimmwagen the personnel inside the schwimmwagen could use the aforementioned paddles. Amphicar GAZ 46 DUKW LuAZ-967 Ford GPA Su-Ki, Japanese World War II boat-hulled amphibious truck René Pohl: Mit dem Auto baden gehen. HEEL Verlag, Gut-Pottscheidt Konigswinter 1998, ISBN 3-89365-702-9 U. S. Intelligence report on German Schwimmwagen The VW-Schwimmwagen Registry Schwimmwagen enthusiast site Schwimmwagen Photos of the Schwimmwagen at the Canada War Museum in Ottawa UK Schwimmwagen owners site

List of Ealing Studios films

This is a list of films made by the British production company Ealing Studios and its predecessor Associated Talking Pictures. Prior to 1932 and after 1956, the company's films were made at studios other than Ealing; this list does not include films made at Ealing Studios by other companies. List of Stoll Pictures films List of Gainsborough Pictures films List of British and Dominions films List of British Lion films List of British National films List of Two Cities Films List of General Film Distributors films List of Paramount British films Perry, George. Forever Ealing. Pavilion Books, 1994