The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system; the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The Adena Culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthington's early 19th-century estate located near Chillicothe, which he named "Adena", Adena sites are concentrated in a small area - maybe 200 sites in the central Ohio Valley, with another 200 scattered throughout Wisconsin, Kentucky, West Virginia and Maryland, although those in Ohio may once have numbered in the thousands; the importance of the Adena complex comes from its considerable influence on other contemporary and succeeding cultures. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, which are sometimes thought as an elaboration, or zenith, of Adena traditions.
The Adena were notable for their agricultural practices, artistic works, extensive trading network, which supplied them with a variety of raw materials, ranging from copper from the Great Lakes to shells from the Gulf Coast. Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today; these mounds ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers, gathering places. These earthen monuments were built using hundreds of thousands of baskets full of specially selected and graded earth. According to archaeological investigations, Adena earthworks were built as part of their burial rituals, in which the earth of the earthwork was piled atop a burned mortuary building; these mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their final burial was performed.
Before the construction of the earthworks, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, burned with the goods and honored dead within. The earthwork would be constructed, a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new earthwork. After a series of repetitions, mortuary/earthwork/mortuary/earthwork, a quite prominent earthwork would remain. In the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial earthworks; the Adena carved small stone tablets 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick. On one or both flat sides were gracefully composed stylized zoomorphs or curvilinear geometric designs in deep relief. Paint has been found on some Adena tablets, leading archaeologists to propose that these stone tablets were used to stamp designs on cloth or animal hides, or onto their own bodies, it is possible. Unlike in other cultures, Adena pottery was not buried with the dead or the remains of the cremated, as were other artifacts.
Adena pottery was tempered with grit or crushed limestone and was thick. The vessel shapes were flat-bottomed jars, sometimes with small foot-like supports; the large and elaborate mound sites served a nearby scattering of people. The population was dispersed in small settlements of one to two structures. A typical house was built in a circle form from 15 to 45 feet in diameter; the walls were made of paired posts tilted outward, that were joined to other pieces of wood to form a cone shaped roof. The roof was covered with bark and the walls may have been bark and/or wickerwork, their sustenance was acquired through the cultivation of native plants. Hunted deer, black bear, beaver, turkey, trumpeter swan, ruffed grouse. Gathered several edible seed and nuts. Cultivated pumpkin, squash and goosefoot; the Adena ground stone axes. Somewhat rougher slab-like stones with chipped edges were used as hoes. Bone and antler were used in small tools, but more prominently in ornamental objects such as beads and worked animal-jaw gorgets or paraphernalia.
Spoons and other implements were made from the marine conch. A few copper axes have been found, but otherwise the metal was hammered into ornamental forms, such as bracelets, rings and reel-shaped pendants. Hopewell tradition Ohio Memory Ohio Historical Society's Archaeology Page Virtual First Ohioans's webpage on the Adena Introduction to North America's Native People: Adena people Ancient Earthworks of Eastern North America Photo Galleries
The 2016–17 Mestis season was the 17th season of Mestis, the second highest level of ice hockey in Finland after Liiga. Previous seasons champion. IPK got promoted from Suomi-sarja at the end of last season. Espoo United got a place in Mestis after Espoo Blues suffered bankruptcy and the league was exceptionally played with 13 teams. At the end of the season SaPKo won both the playoffs. Hokki and IPK retained their place in Mestis. Hokki faced bankruptcy during the off-season and thus Imatran Ketterä were awarded a place in Mestis for the next season. Top eight advance to the Mestis playoffs while the bottom two face the top two teams from Suomi-sarja for a relegation playoff. Since the highest series of Finnish hockey is a closed series no team will be promoted to Liiga. Rules for classification: 1) Points. Playoffs are being played in three stages; each stage is a best-of-7 series. The teams are reseeded after the quarterfinals, so that the best team by regular season performance to make the semifinals faces the worst team in the semifinals.
Bottom three teams of Mestis face the top two teams of Suomi-Sarja in a relegation qualification, where two top teams will get a place in Mestis for the next season. Each team will play against each other twice. Rules for classification: 1) Points. 2016–17 Liiga season
Jaron David Lowenstein is an American singer who recorded with his identical twin brother, Evan, in the musical duo Evan and Jaron. As Jaron and the Long Road to Love, he released his debut single, "Pray for You," to country radio in November 2009; this song reached the Top 15 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts, is included on the album Getting Dressed in the Dark. The second single, "That's Beautiful to Me", was released in September 2010. Lowenstein was born in Tucker, the son of Leslie and Charles Lowenstein, he was raised in an Orthodox Jewish family, attended Greenfield Hebrew Academy and Yeshiva High School Through his mother, he is related to actor Logan Lerman. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Lowenstein recorded with his identical twin brother, Evan, in the pop duo Evan and Jaron. Evan and Jaron charted three singles, including "Crazy for This Girl," which reached number 15 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts in 2000; the duo split up in 2003. Jaron co-wrote and recorded his first solo single, "Pray for You", as Jaron and the Long Road to Love in late 2009.
Starting in February 2010, Big Machine Records assumed promotion of the single and a forthcoming album, distributed through a partnership of Jaron's Jaronwood label and Universal Republic. The song reached Top 40 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart and the Billboard Hot 100. Jaron told Technorati that the song "wasn't pushed by some major label or organization. I would love to take the credit for its success, but this is something fans want and they are the ones calling radio to have them play it." Hank Friedmann directed a music video for the song, which has aired on CMT Pure Country and Great American Country. A second video, which includes Jaime Pressly, debuted in April 2010, his debut album, Getting Dressed in the Dark, was released on June 22, 2010. The album's second single is "That's Beautiful to Me", which debuted on the country chart at number 59 in September 2010. In early 2011, Lowenstein parted ways with Big Machine Records and Republic Nashville. Despite leaving the label, a third single from Getting Dressed in the Dark, "It's a Good Thing", was released on April 18, 2011, with promotion from Nine North Records.
However, the single failed to chart. On May 31, 2011, Lowenstein released "Beautiful Lies", which features Big Kenny, one-half of the country music duo Big & Rich; the song is the lead-off single to Lowenstein's second album. The song failed to chart. In 2011, eleven songs were released as a self-titled album by the band Cordovas; the band is made out of Joe Firstman, Jaron Lowenstein, Jon Loyd, Johnny Gray, Parker Gins and Toby Weaver. The album was made available as a free download on the band's official website as well as other traditional paying outlets; the songs Old Dog and All I Found had videos released online. Official Website Artist's Official Facebook Site Cordovas Official Web Site