Adina Mosque

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Adina Mosque
আদিনা মসজিদ
Malda ~ Adina Mosque 5.JPG
Main façade of the Adina Mosque
General information
Construction started 1373
Completed 1373
Owner Government of West Bengal

The Adina Mosque ruins are the ruins of the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent, located in the Indian state of West Bengal, near the border with Bangladesh. The site, dating from the 14th century, hosted the imperial mosque of the Sultanate of Bengal.[1]

Location[edit]

The ruins of Adina Mosque are located in Pandua of Maldah district, West Bengal, India, it is located close to the Bangladesh-India border and twenty kilometers north of the town of English Bazar along a major highway to North Bengal.

History[edit]

The mosque's plan was similar to the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus
Its ribbed barrel vault was similar to the Sasanian Taq Kasra in Iraq
A 19th century sketch of artwork in the Adina Mosque

The mosque was built during the reign of Sikandar Shah, the second sultan of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty in the Bengal Sultanate. The mosque was designed to project the kingdom's imperial ambitions after its two victories against the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century,[2] the mosque was probably constructed on the ruins of Hindu-Buddhist temples and monasteries. Its exterior wall contains defaced Indian sculptures. According to Encyclopedia Iranica, its construction material included stone from Bengali temples.[3]

Inscriptions on the mosque proclaimed Sikandar Shah as "the exalted Sultan" and the "Caliph of the faithful",[4] the Sultan was buried in a tomb chamber attached to the wall facing the direction of Mecca. The mosque was located in the now ruined city of Pandua, a former capital of the Bengal Sultanate.

It fell into ruin during the period of British rule and was damaged by earthquakes in the 19th century.

Santhal rebellion[edit]

In October 1932, the Zaminder Abul Hayat Khan chowdhury of Kotwali demanded two thirds of the crops from the santhals At Jitu’s instruction the Santhals refused to obey. Jitu spelt out; Gandhibaba (Kashishwar Chakraborty) asked the Santhals not to pay rent to the Zaminders. All the lands now belong to Santhals. A clash between the zaminder’s paiks and the Santhals took place at Habibpur on 25 October 1932, the police rushed to the spot and controlled the situation. The Santhals found that the Government was on the side of the zaminder, the anti-zaminder agitation now turned into an anti-colonial struggle. In December 1932, a large number of Santhals marched to Pandua and occupied the ruins of the Adina Mosque. Jitu declared that the Adina Mosque was in reality the temple of Adinath or Siva which later transformed into mosjid by the Muslims. Jitu stated that they would perform a Puja of the Goddess Kali within the mosque, at the same time Jitu, who now called himself ‘Senapati Gandhi‘ declared the end of British Raj and proclaimed his own Government, ‘The English has gone ,Our raj, Our desh is established .We have our own Government. ‘larai’(fight) has begun to drive English and Muslims out of Barind .[5] The Santhals now resorted to violence, houses of Zaminders and Mahajans were attacked. Police outpost was attacked art Habibpur, from the Habibpur the out break spread in others areas of Barind region like fire. The long oppressed Santhals of Barind at last found in it a chance of getting free from the Zaminders and moneylenders and establishing themselves as a free people. A magical vision of the breakdown of English power was projected by Jitu; Our bows and arrows will three kos and the guns of the English will not fire. The district administration sent a large group of armed police force to Pandua to put down the revolt of Santhals of Barind .Then the district magistrate ordered the Santhals to leave the Adina mosque, but they refused to obey .A pitched battle followed between Jitu’s men and armed police force who opened fire after the Santhals refused to come out .Six Santhals, including Jitu himself, were shot dead while a police was killed by a poisoned arrow and some others were wounded , the police entered the mosque and arrested the Santhals rebel. In this task the police were assisted by some zaminders and mahajanas of malda .The prominent among then was Abul Hayat Khan Chowdhury, the zaminder of Kotwali ,[6] the revolt of Jitu which aimed to establish a Santhals Desh came to an end .

Design[edit]

The design of the mosque incorporated Bengali, Arab, Persian and Byzantine elements. It was built with brick and stone, its plan is similar to the Great Mosque of Damascus.[7] It had a rectangular hyspostyle structure with an open courtyard. There were several hundred domes, the structure measured 172 by 97 m. The entire western wall evokes the imperial style of pre-Islamic Sasanian Persia, the mosque's most prominent feature is its monumental ribbed barrel vault over the central nave, the first such huge vault built in the subcontinent, and another feature shared in common with the Sasanian style. The mosque consciously imitated Persianate imperial grandeur,[3] the prayer hall is five aisles deep, while the north, south and east cloisters around the courtyard consist of triple aisles. In total, these aisles had 260 pillars and 387 domed bays, the interior of the courtyard is a continuous façade of 92 arches surmounted by a parapet, beyond which the domes of the bays can be seen. The interior elevated platform, which was the gallery of the Sultan and his officials, still exists, the Sultan's tomb chamber is attached with the western wall.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1 January 1996). "The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760". University of California Press – via Google Books. 
  2. ^ Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1996). The Rise of Islam in the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. p. 40-50. ISBN 0520205073. 
  3. ^ a b electricpulp.com. "BENGAL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". 
  4. ^ "Adina Mosque - Banglapedia". 
  5. ^ J.C Sengupta ,malda gezzeteer,op.cit.p.261
  6. ^ ibid
  7. ^ Hasan, Perween (15 August 2007). "Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh". I.B.Tauris – via Google Books. 
  8. ^ Banerji, Naseem Ahmed (1 January 2002). "The Architecture of the Adina Mosque in Pandua, India: Medieval Tradition and Innovation". Edwin Mellen Press – via Google Books.