Ticonderoga, New York
Ticonderoga is a town in Essex County, New York, United States. The population was 5,042 at the 2010 census, the name comes from the Mohawk tekontaró, meaning it is at the junction of two waterways. The town of Ticonderoga is in the corner of the county and is south of Plattsburgh. The crossing between Lakes George and Champlain had been used by natives for thousands of years, in the 17th century, French explorers such as Samuel de Champlain explored the area. The town was located on the route, utilizing rivers. The town was the setting for historic battles and maneuvers during both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Fort Ticonderoga, constructed by the French, who called it Fort Carillon, in the 1750s, the town of Ticonderoga was formed in 1804 from part of the town of Crown Point. By the end of the 18th century, the town was noted for wood products such as paper, the position of the now former Ticonderoga village at the north end of Lake George made it an important port.
Historic Fort Ticonderoga is in town, east of the former village of Ticonderoga. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 88.5 square miles, of which 81.4 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles. The town encompasses both the end of Lake George and a portion of Lake Champlain near its southern end. The short, but rapidly flowing, La Chute River connects the two lakes, the east town line is the border of Vermont, and the south town line is the county line of Warren County and Washington County. New York State Route 9N is a north-south highway, another north-south highway, New York State Route 22, is partly conjoined with NY-9N in the town. New York State Route 74, an east-west highway, intersects NY-9N/NY-22 near Ticonderoga village, as of the census of 2010, there were 5,042 people,2,028 households, and 1,352 families residing in the town. The population density was 63.2 people per square mile, there were 2,581 housing units at an average density of 31.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 98. 08% White,0. 46% African American,0. 31% Native American,0. 27% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 41% of the population. 28. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was out with 26. 7% under the age of 18,6. 5% from 18 to 24,26. 2% from 25 to 44,24. 4% from 45 to 64
It may be either a detailed description of these characteristics or be a summary of the gross physical character of a rock. It is the basis of subdividing rock sequences into individual lithostratigraphic units for the purposes of mapping, in certain applications, such as site investigations, lithology is described using a standard terminology such as in the European geotechnical standard Eurocode 7. The naming of a lithology is based on the rock type, the three major rock types are sedimentary, metamorphic. Sedimentary rocks are classified by whether they are siliciclastic or carbonate. Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are subcategorized based on their size distribution and the relative proportions of quartz, feldspar. Carbonate rocks are classified with the Dunham or Folk classification schemes according to the constituents of the carbonate rock, the name of an igneous rock requires information on crystal size and mineralogy. This classification can often be performed with a QAPF diagram, metamorphic rock naming can be based on texture, metamorphic facies, and/or the locations in which they are found.
Naming based on texture and a pelite protolith can be used to slate and phyllite. Texture-based names are schist and gneiss and these textures, from slate to gneiss, define a continually-increasing extent of metamorphism. Metamorphic facies are defined by the fields in which particular minerals form. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, grain size is a measure of the sizes of the crystals in the rock. In igneous rock, this is used to determine the rate at which the material cooled, large crystals typically indicate intrusive igneous rock, as metamorphic reactions progress, the grains in metamorphic rocks can often be broken down into smaller grains. In clastic sedimentary rocks, grain size is the diameter of the grains and/or clasts that constitute the rock and these are used to determine which rock naming system to use. In the case of sandstones and conglomerates, which cover a range of grain sizes. Examples are pebble conglomerate and fine quartz arenite, in rocks in which mineral grains are large enough to be identified using a hand lens, the visible mineralogy is included as part of the description.
The mineralogical composition of a rock is one of the ways in which it is classified. In general, igneous rocks can be categorized by increasing silica content as ultramafic, intermediate, or felsic, the fabric of a rock describes the spatial and geometric configuration of all the elements that make it up. In sedimentary rocks the main fabric is normally bedding and the scale
Tahawus, New York
Tahawus was a village in the Town of Newcomb, Essex County, New York, United States. It is now a ghost town situated in Adirondack Park, Tahawus is located in Essex County within the unpopulated northern area designated to the town of Newcomb. Tahawus was the site of mining and iron smelting operations in the 19th century. Although standing as recently as 2005, the last mining facilities have since demolished and removed. It was in Tahawus in 1901 that Vice President Theodore Roosevelt learned President William McKinley was dying, the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. In the nineteenth century the area was mined for iron ore, New York was a company town of the Adirondack Iron Works. Iron deposits were first found here in 1826 by Archibald McIntyre, the iron was extracted at what was known as the Upper Works with moderate success between 1827 and 1857. In 1857, after a struggle, the Adirondack Iron Works surrendered to the remoteness of the wilderness, impurities of titanium dioxide were present in the iron, which made it difficult for equipment of that era to properly process the ore.
A local flood and an economic crisis were factors in the closure of the Upper Works. The Village consisted of sixteen dwellings and a building with a cupola, used as school, the first bank in the Adirondack Mountains opened in the hamlet of Adirondac. The mine and related works operated from 1827 to 1857, after which residents abandoned the community, the enterprise closed due in part to difficulties in extracting an unknown impurity from the local ore. During the latter nineteenth century the land uses at the Tahawus tract were lumbering. The private and relatively informal Preston Ponds Club was formed in February 1876 by James R. Thompson, prior to this time he had been using the property for his own recreational purposes, inviting family and friends to come for hunting and fishing trips. But with the club, he and his associates were better able to protect the fish and game. The club leased an area around the three Preston Ponds from the Adirondack Iron and Steel Company – a incorporation of the Adirondack Iron Works.
In January 1877, the club was reorganized and incorporated as the “Adirondack Club”, in 1898 the club renamed itself again to the Tahawus Club. Club management continued to lease the Tahawus tract lands from the owners heirs. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was visiting Tahawus in 1901 during the days of President William McKinleys presidency
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. All species of garnets possess similar physical properties and crystal forms, the different species are pyrope, spessartine, grossular and andradite. The garnets make up two solid solution series, pyrope-almandine-spessartine and uvarovite-grossular-andradite, the word garnet comes from the 14th‑century Middle English word gernet, meaning dark red. It is derived from the Latin granatus, from granum, Garnet species are found in many colors including red, yellow, purple, blue, black and colorless, with reddish shades most common. Garnet species light transmission properties can range from the gemstone-quality transparent specimens to the varieties used for industrial purposes as abrasives. The minerals luster is categorized as vitreous or resinous, garnets are nesosilicates having the general formula X3Y23. The X site is occupied by divalent cations 2+ and the Y site by trivalent cations 3+ in an octahedral/tetrahedral framework with 4− occupying the tetrahedra.
Garnets are most often found in the crystal habit, but are commonly found in the trapezohedron habit. They crystallize in the system, having three axes that are all of equal length and perpendicular to each other. Garnets do not show cleavage, so when they fracture under stress, because the chemical composition of garnet varies, the atomic bonds in some species are stronger than in others. As a result, this group shows a range of hardness on the Mohs scale of about 6.5 to 7.5. The harder species like almandine are often used for abrasive purposes, for gem identification purposes, a pick-up response to a strong neodymium magnet separates garnet from all other natural transparent gemstones commonly used in the jewelry trade. Almandine, Fe3Al23 Pyrope, Mg3Al23 Spessartine, Mn3Al23 Almandine, sometimes incorrectly called almandite, is the modern gem known as carbuncle, the term carbuncle is derived from the Latin meaning live coal or burning charcoal. The name Almandine is a corruption of Alabanda, a region in Asia Minor where these stones were cut in ancient times, almandine is an iron-aluminium garnet with the formula Fe3Al23, the deep red transparent stones are often called precious garnet and are used as gemstones.
Almandine occurs in metamorphic rocks like mica schists, associated with such as staurolite, andalusite. Almandine has nicknames of Oriental garnet, almandine ruby, and carbuncle, Pyrope is red in color and chemically an aluminium silicate with the formula Mg3Al23, though the magnesium can be replaced in part by calcium and ferrous iron. The color of pyrope varies from red to black. A variety of pyrope from Macon County, North Carolina is a shade and has been called rhodolite
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Geologists use the marble to refer to metamorphosed limestone, however. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material and this stem is the basis for the English word marmoreal, meaning marble-like. In Hungarian it is called márvány, Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Primary sedimentary textures and structures of the carbonate rock have typically been modified or destroyed. Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure limestone or dolomite protolith, green coloration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally magnesium-rich limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilized and recrystallized by the intense pressure, examples of historically notable marble varieties and locations, White marble has been prized for its use in sculptures since classical times.
This preference has to do with its softness, which made it easier to carve, relative isotropy and homogeneity, construction marble is a stone which is composed of calcite, dolomite or serpentine which is capable of taking a polish. More generally in construction, specifically the dimension stone trade, the marble is used for any crystalline calcitic rock useful as building stone. For example, Tennessee marble is really a dense granular fossiliferous gray to pink to maroon Ordovician limestone that geologists call the Holston Formation. Ashgabat, the city of Turkmenistan, was recorded in the 2013 Guinness Book of Records as having the worlds highest concentration of white marble buildings. According to the United States Geological Survey, U. S. domestic marble production in 2006 was 46,400 tons valued at about $18.1 million, compared to 72,300 tons valued at $18.9 million in 2005. Crushed marble production in 2006 was 11.8 million tons valued at $116 million, of which 6.5 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate and the rest was construction aggregate.
For comparison,2005 crushed marble production was 7.76 million tons valued at $58.7 million, of which 4.8 million tons was finely ground calcium carbonate, U. S. dimension marble demand is about 1.3 million tons. The DSAN World Demand for Marble Index has shown a growth of 12% annually for the 2000–2006 period, the largest dimension marble application is tile. In 1998, marble production was dominated by 4 countries that accounted for almost half of production of marble
Hematite, spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron oxide, one of several iron oxides. Hematite crystallizes in the lattice system, and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite. Hematite and ilmenite form a solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown and it is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, iron rose and specularite, while the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than iron, but much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite-related oxide mineral, huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Gray hematite is typically found in places that can have still standing water or mineral hot springs, the mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake, spring, or other standing water. Hematite can occur without water, usually as the result of volcanic activity, the name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood αἷμα haima, due to the red coloration found in some varities of hematite.
The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment, ochre is a clay that is colored by varying amounts of hematite, varying between 20% and 70%. Red ochre contains unhydrated hematite, whereas yellow ochre contains hydrated hematite, the principal use of ochre is for tinting with a permanent color. The red chalk writing of this mineral was one of the earliest in the history of humans, the powdery mineral was first used 164,000 years ago by the Pinnacle-Point man possibly for social purposes. Hematite residues are found in graves from 80,000 years ago. Near Rydno in Poland and Lovas in Hungary red chalk mines have been found that are from 5000 BC, rich deposits of hematite have been found on the island of Elba that have been mined since the time of the Etruscans. Adding to the surprise was a transition with a decrease in temperature at around 260 K to a phase with no net magnetic moment. The disappearance of the moment with a decrease in temperature at 260 K is caused by a change in the anisotropy which causes the moments to align along the c axis, in this configuration, spin canting does not reduce the energy.
The magnetic properties of bulk hematite differ from their nanoscale counterparts, for example, the Morin transition temperature of hematite decreases with a decrease in the particle size. Two other end-members are referred to as protohematite and hydrohematite, enhanced magnetic coercivities for hematite have been achieved by dry-heating a 2-line ferrihydrite precursor prepared from solution
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
New York State Route 3
New York State Route 3 is a major east–west state highway in New York, in the United States, that connects central New York to the North Country region near the Canada–US border via Adirondack Park. NY3 traverses eight counties and is a roadway from Mexico to Sackets Harbor, a mountainous route in Adirondack Park, and an urban arterial in Fulton, Watertown. In 1924, the segment of the Theodore Roosevelt International Highway within New York was designated NY3, since 1924, there have been 14 suffixed routes of NY3, all designated between NY 3A and NY 3G. Of these, all but one only existed during the 1930s, the only active designation is NY 3A, which was assigned in the 1950s to an alternate route of NY3 in Jefferson County. A substantial portion of NY3 travels east–west across northern New York, much of this section of the highway is named as part of the Olympic Trail Scenic Byway. NY3 is classified mainly as an arterial road, the major exception being the section that is concurrent with NY812.
Most of the route is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation, exceptions are in the cities of Watertown and Plattsburgh, where at least part of the road is city-maintained. In Watertown, NY3 is locally maintained from Massey Street to the end of the NY 3/NY12 overlap, the route is entirely city-maintained in Plattsburgh. NY3 begins at an intersection with NY 104A in Sterling, NY3 continues east to meet NY104 in the center of Hannibal. From there, NY3 progresses across Oswego County and passes Lake Neatahwanta prior to entering Fulton, within Fulton, NY3 intersects NY48 on the west bank of the Oswego River before crossing the river and meeting NY481 at the eastern bank. East of the city, NY3 passes south of the Oswego County Airport as it heads to the northeast through Palermo, upon intersecting NY264, NY3 becomes signed as a north–south highway instead of as an east–west route. It proceeds north to the village of Mexico, where it meets NY104 once again, NY3 and NY104 overlap briefly through the western portion of the village before separating at the center of Mexico.
While NY104 heads east toward Williamstown, NY3 heads north toward the hamlet of Texas, East of Texas, NY3 meets NY 104B near the Lake Ontario shoreline. Past NY 104B, NY3 parallels both Interstate 81 and US11 as it heads along the shore of Lake Ontario, near the Selkirk Shores State Park west of Pulaski, NY3 intersects NY13 adjacent to the mouth of the Salmon River. After crossing the Salmon River, NY3 passes the Sandy Island Beach State Park before entering Jefferson County, at the county line, NY3 becomes signed as an east–west highway once again. The route continues northward toward Ellisburg where it meets NY193 at the entrance to Southwick Beach State Park northwest of the community, past NY193, NY3 passes the lakeside at Westcott Beach State Park prior to entering the vicinity of Sackets Harbor. The route bypasses both Sackets Harbor and the Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site to the east before separating from Lake Ontario and proceeding eastward toward Watertown. West of the city of Watertown, NY3 intersects NY180 southwest of the Watertown International Airport before connecting to I-81 by way of an interchange at the city line, NY3 heads east into Watertown, intersecting with both US11 and NY12 at Massey Street
North American porcupine
The North American porcupine, known as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. The beaver is the rodent in North America that is larger than the North American porcupine. The word porcupine comes from the middle or old French word porcespin and its roots derive from the Latin words porcus or pig and spina meaning thorns. Other colloquial names for the animal include quill pig and it is referred to as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine. The porcupines scientific name, Erethizon dorsatum, can be translated as the animal with the irritating back. Several Native American names exist, such as the Lakota name pahin meaning quill, the North American porcupine migrated from South America, where all New World porcupines or hystricomorphs evolved. Erethizon appeared in North America shortly after the two joined together in the Tertiary period. Other hystricomorphs migrated, but Erethizon was the one to survive north of Mexico. No known fossils are attributed to prior to the late Tertiary period.
Some fossils, such as species from the family Paramyidae, show resemblance to the porcupine, South American hystricomorphs first appeared in the Lower Oligocene period. They are thought to have migrated from Africa, ancestors of the Old World porcupines or Hystricidae or they originated based on a migration of the North American Paramyidae. The earliest appearance of E. dorsatum is from the Pleistocene era found along the Arroyo del Cedazo near Aguascalientes, seven subspecies of E. dorsatum are recognized. They are subdivided by different ranges across North America, by far the most common is E. d. dorsatum, which ranges from Nova Scotia to Alberta and from Virginia to the Yukon. E. d. picinum occupies a range in northeastern Quebec. E. d. couesi is the most southern ranging from northern Mexico to Colorado, E. d. bruneri can be found in the midwest from Arkansas to Montana. The last three are western species, from south to north they are E. d. epixanthum, E. d. nigrescens, and E. d. myops. Porcupines are usually brown or black in color, with white highlights.
They have a body, a small face, short legs
Mount Marcy is the highest point in New York State, with an elevation of 5,343 feet. It is located in the Town of Keene in Essex County, the mountain is in the heart of the Adirondack High Peaks Region of the High Peaks Wilderness Area. Its stature and expansive views make it a destination for hikers. Lake Tear of the Clouds, at the col between Mt. Marcy and Mt, the mountain is named after Gov. William L. Marcy, the 19th-century Governor of New York, who authorized the environmental survey that explored the area. Its first recorded ascent was on August 5,1837, by a party led by Ebenezer Emmons looking for the source of the East Fork of the Hudson River. Today the summit may be reached by trails, though long by any route. Roosevelt and his party hiked ten miles down the southwest face of the mountain to Long Lake, at some point along the route, Roosevelt learned that McKinley had died, and so Roosevelt took the train to Buffalo to get sworn in as President. The route from Long Lake to North Creek has been designated as the Roosevelt-Marcy Trail, Mount Marcy is one of the High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains.
The majority of the mountain is forested, although the few hundred feet is above the tree line. The peak is dominated by rocky outcrops and alpine shrubs, there are two plaques at the top commemorating the centennial of the climb as well as the mountain summit itself. The shortest and most frequently used route up the mountain is from the northwest, the Van Hoevenberg Trail, from there it is 7.4 miles to the summit, a lengthy roundtrip which can nevertheless be done in a day. A large section of the trail is suitable for skiing and snowboarding. The summit via the Johns Brook Trail from the Garden parking north of the mountain in Keene Valley is an 18-mile round trip, a lengthier southern approach can be made from either of the two major trailheads for the southern High Peaks, Upper Works or Elk Lake. Visibility on the summit occasionally affords very distant views of most of the Montregian Hills volcano chain in Quebecs St Lawrence valley as far north as Mont St Hillaire, views of Burlington and Lake Champlain adorn the surrounding Green Mountains with visibility extending far beyond the Southern Adirondacks as well.
List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of U. S. states by elevation Adirondack Park High Peaks Wilderness Area Mount Marcy hike and trip report
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and abiogenic in origin. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids, the study of minerals is called mineralogy. There are over 5,300 known mineral species, over 5,070 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association, the silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earths crust. The diversity and abundance of species is controlled by the Earths chemistry. Silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earths crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals, minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals. Minerals can be described by their various properties, which are related to their chemical structure.
Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, more specific tests for describing minerals include magnetism, taste or smell and reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents, the two dominant systems are the Dana classification and the Strunz classification, the silicate class of minerals is subdivided into six subclasses by the degree of polymerization in the chemical structure. All silicate minerals have a unit of a 4− silica tetrahedron—that is, a silicon cation coordinated by four oxygen anions. These tetrahedra can be polymerized to give the subclasses, disilicates, inosilicates, other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. The first criterion means that a mineral has to form by a natural process, stability at room temperature, in the simplest sense, is synonymous to the mineral being solid. More specifically, a compound has to be stable or metastable at 25 °C, modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy.
Minerals are chemical compounds, and as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula, many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution, pure substances are not usually found because of contamination or chemical substitution. Finally, the requirement of an ordered atomic arrangement is usually synonymous with crystallinity, crystals are periodic, an ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been recent proposals to amend the definition to consider biogenic or amorphous substances as minerals. The formal definition of an approved by the IMA in 1995, A mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound, Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science
The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America, the Mohawk were historically based in the Mohawk Valley in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River, their territory ranged north to the St. As one of the five members of the Iroquois League. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the say that they are from Kanienkehá. The Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making and their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mohican or Mahican, referred to the People of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin. The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, and referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua, the French colonists adapted these latter terms as Aignier and Maqui, respectively.
They referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, the Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional competitors and enemies. The Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley and they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, and kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the floodplains along the Mohawk River. The Dutch were primarily merchants and the French conducted fur trading and their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at Fort Nassau, the Dutch initially traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. European contact resulted in a smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the three villages as Asserué, and Thenondiogo.
While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, Schenectady was established essentially as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river. Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind, during their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message. He operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, and their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings, especially compared to the Netherlands of that period