Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration the management of human resources in army unit. The term adjudant is used in French-speaking armed forces as a non-commissioned officer rank similar to a staff sergeant or warrant officer but is not equivalent to the role or appointment of an adjutant. An adjutant general is commander of an army's administrative services. Adjutant comes from the Latin adiutāns, present participle of the verb adiūtāre, frequentative form of adiuvāre'to help'. In various uniformed hierarchies, the term is used for number of functions, but as a principal aide to a commanding officer. A regimental adjutant, garrison adjutant etc. is a staff officer who assists the commanding officer of a regiment, battalion or garrison in the details of regimental, garrison or similar duty. In United States Army squadrons, the adjutant is the officer-in-charge of the administrative platoon. In the British Army, an adjutant is a senior captain, sometimes a major.

As the colonel's personal staff officer, he was once in charge of all the organisation and discipline for a battalion or regiment, although now the bulk of administrative work is carried out by the regimental administrative officer. Until the 1970s the adjutant was the regimental operations officer, although this job is now filled by a separate officer. In the British Army, adjutants are given field rank and as such are senior by appointment to all other captains, ranking just behind the majors. Unlike the RAO, the adjutant is a member of the regiment of which their unit is a part; the adjutant's job is not a'backroom' one, since he accompanies the colonel—Captain David Wood, the adjutant of 2 Para, was killed in action at the Battle of Goose Green, for example. In a British Infantry battalion, the adjutant controls the battle whilst the CO commands it; as such, the adjutant is a man of significant influence within his battalion. In the Foot Guards, the adjutant of the unit in charge of Trooping the Colour is one of three officers on horseback.

In many Commonwealth armies, the adjutant performs much the same role as in the British Army. There is no RAO position within the Australian or Canadian armies, where an adjutant performs the administrative role with the assistance of a Chief Clerk, who has a rank of Warrant Officer Class Two. In the Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force, the term adjutant is used in common with other English-speaking armies, the corresponding French term is Capitaine-adjudant; the Bangladesh Army has the appointment of adjutant, similar to that in old British system. Adjutants are captains and sometimes lieutenants though the authorization is of captain rank. Resaldar Adjutant or Naek Subedar Adjutant is a position unique to the Bangladesh Army, he is a warrant officer. On all formal parades, the standard procedure is for the Squadron/Company Sergeant Major to first report to the Resaldar Adjutant/ Naek Subedar Adjutant, the Resaldar Adjutant/ Naek Subedar Adjutant in turn to report to the Adjutant; the Indian Army has the position of adjutant, based on the old British system.

The adjutants in most cases are captains but in some cases. Subedar adjutant is a position unique to the Indian Army, he is a subedar. On all formal parades, the standard procedure is for the company havildar major to first report to the subedar adjutant, the subedar adjutant in turn to report to the adjutant. In the British Indian Army, the equivalent position was the jemadar adjutant, who held the lower rank of jemadar; the Pak Army has the appointment of Adjutant, similar to that in old British system. Adjutants in the Pak Army are captains and sometimes lieutenants; the Pak Army holds the rank of junior adjutant who works as an aide to the adjutant and is of the rank of subedar, an equivalent rank to warrant officer or sergeant in Western armies. The Regimental Adjutant is Commander of Regimental Provost and Assist Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to discipline and operational planning. In the US Army the adjutant was a member of the branch or regiment of the parent unit. In 2008, as a result of the Army's transformation, the Human Resources community implemented the Personnel Services Delivery Redesign, which recoded the adjutant position in battalions to an officer from the Adjutant General branch.

The adjutant general at the battalion-level is a junior captain or senior first lieutenant and, in conjunction with the S-1 section, manages the administrative functions of the unit. The adjutant works with the unit's command sergeant major for awards ceremonies, traditional ceremonial functions, casual events, evaluation reports, management of correspondence and other secretarial functions. Based upon the needs of the commander, an adjutant from the combat arms branches may still be specially appointed in modern-day to assist a brigade commander to ease his/her burden of command. There is a bugle call announcing the adjutant, still used in military ceremonies today. In the USMC, the adjutant serves as the senior administrator for their unit, is the OIC of the S-1 or admin shop; the USMC MOS handbook says: Adjutants coordinate administrative matters

Lal Darja

Lal Darja is a 1997 Bengali allegorical drama film about a Kolkata dentist Dr. Nabin Dutta who fears becoming a cripple. Directed and written by Buddhadev Dasgupta, he film won the Golden Lotus Award for Best Film at the Indian National Film Awards. Nabin Dutta was a 47-year-old dentist, he had a son Kushal, studying in Darjeeling. His wife wanted to be separated. Nabin thought he had some acute disease; every moment Nabin felt a lack of satisfaction. He compared his situation with his driver Dinu who had two wives and Maloti. Dinu's wives were satisfied with him and they had no complaints about Dinu. Nabin tried to understand himself. Most of the time he thought about his childhood in Cherrapunji and the red coloured gate which he thought obeyed him, his mother said that the gate had a huge tolerance and Nabin compared himself with the red coloured gate. After departing from his wife and son, he raised his tolerance to a maximum stage and started to live alone with himself. Champa Subhendu Chatterjee as Nabin Dutta Raisul Islam Indrani Haldar as Maloti Biplab Chatterjee Haradhan Bandopadhyay Lal Darja on IMDb


A yardang is a streamlined protuberance carved from bedrock or any consolidated or semiconsolidated material by the dual action of wind abrasion by dust and sand, deflation, the removal of loose material by wind turbulence. Yardangs become elongated features three or more times longer than wide, when viewed from above, resemble the hull of a boat. Facing the wind is a steep, blunt face that gets lower and narrower toward the lee end. Yardangs are formed by wind erosion of an flat surface formed from areas of harder and softer material; the soft material is eroded and removed by the wind, the harder material remains. The resulting pattern of yardangs is therefore a combination of the original rock distribution, the fluid mechanics of the air flow and resulting pattern of erosion; the word itself is of Turkic origin, meaning ‘steep bank’, was first introduced to the English-speaking world by the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin in 1903. In China, they are sometimes known as yadan from the Chinese transcription of the Uyghur form of the same name.

Other names for them are "mud-lions", "mushroom rocks", "sphinx-like hills", "koukour" in Tunisia, "kalut" in Iran. The massive features of mega-yardangs are called "corridors" in French. A yardang is formed in cohesive material. Hedin first found the wind-sculptured "clay terraces" or yardangs in the dried up riverbed of the Kurruk-daria in Central Asia. However, yardangs can be found in most deserts across the globe. Depending upon the winds and the composition of the weakly indurated deposits of silt and sand from which they are carved, yardangs may form unusual shapes — some resemble various objects or people. Yardangs come in a large range of sizes, are divided into three different categories: mega-yardangs, meso-yardangs, micro-yardangs. Mega-yardangs can be several kilometers long and hundreds of meters high and are found in arid regions with strong winds. A large concentration of mega-yardangs are found near the Tibesti Mountains in the central Sahara. There is a famous yardang at Hole in the Rock in Papago Park in Phoenix, Arizona, a rock formation with a circular hole in it.

Another yardang in Arizona is Window Rock, near the town of Window Rock. It is a 60-meter sandstone hill with a large circular hole in the middle of it; some geologists have suggested. Pictures from Mars show. Yardangs on Mars are found in the Amazonis region but the best ones are found in the equatorial region. Yardangs on Mars demonstrate that much of the eolian erosion is recent since they are sculpted in young geologic units. Yardangs form in environments where water is scarce and the prevailing winds are strong, uni-directional, carry an abrasive sediment load; the wind cuts down low-lying areas into parallel ridges which erode into separate hills that take on the unique shape of a yardang. This process yields a field of yardangs of the same size referred to as a fleet due to their resemblance to the bottoms of ships. Alternatively, one can be formed by the migration of a dune; as the process of formation continues a trough will form around the base of the yardang. Most yardang fields are in sand-poor areas, but the associated troughs in grooved terrain, may be invaded by sand.

Sometimes this sand will accumulate to build shallow moats around the bottom. They are more created from softer rock types like siltstone, sandstone and limestone, but have been observed in crystalline rocks such as schist and gneiss. Aeolian processes – Processes due to wind activity Barchan – A crescent-shaped dune Blowout – Depressions in a sand dune ecosystem caused by the removal of sediments by wind Dune – A hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water Dunhuang Yardang National Geopark, China Lop Desert – desert in China Saltation – Particle transport by fluids Sandhill – A type of ecological community or xeric wildfire-maintained ecosystem Ventifact – A rock, abraded, etched, grooved, or polished by wind-driven sand or ice crystals Mushroom rock – Naturally occurring rock whose shape resembles a mushroom Yardangs in Tithonium Chasma, Mars Hole in the Rock Window Rock Yardangs, Desert Processes Working Group; the Bibliography of Aeolian Research