Administrative centre

An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located. In countries which have French as one of their administrative languages and in some other countries, a chef-lieu (French pronunciation: ​, plural form chefs-lieux, is a town or city, pre-eminent from an administrative perspective; the ` f' in chef-lieu is pronounced, in contrast to chef-d'oeuvre. The capital of an Algerian Province is called a chef-lieu; the capital of a district, the next largest division, is called a chef-lieu. While the capital of the lowest division, the municipalities, is called agglomeration de chef-lieu and is abbreviated as A. C. L; the chef-lieu in Belgium is the administrative centre of each of the ten Provinces of Belgium. Three of these cities give their name to their province. Luxembourg is divided into two judicial arrondissements, three administrative districts, four electoral circonscriptions, twelve cantons and one hundred and five communes.

Arrondissements and cantons have each a chef-lieu and are named after it. The same is true for each commune, composed of more than one town or village; the commune is named after the communal chef-lieu. The chef-lieu of a département is known as the préfecture; this is the town or city where the prefect of the départment is situated, in a building known as the prefecture. In every French region, one of the départments has pre-eminence over the others, the prefect carries the title of Prefect of region X…, Prefect of Department Z… and the city where the regional prefect is found is known as chef-lieu of the region or, more Regional prefecture; the services are, controlled by the prefecture of the départment. The chef-lieu of an arrondissement known as the sous-préfecture is the city or town where the sub-prefect of the arrondissement is situated, in a building called the sub-prefecture; the arrondissement where the département prefecture is located does not have a sub-prefect or sub-prefecture, the administration being devolved to the Secretary-general of the departmental prefecture, who functions as sub-prefect for the arrondissement.

The chef-lieu of a canton is the biggest city or town within the canton, but has only a nominal role. No specific services are controlled by it. In past decades, there was always a treasurer and a justice of the peace; the chef-lieu of a commune is the principal area of the town or city that gives the commune its name, the other areas of the town being called hamlets. French typographers will use a capital for the ‘Le’ or ‘La’ preceding the name of places having ‘chef-lieu of town’ status, lowercase ‘le’ or ‘la’ for hamlets. In the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the administrative centres nahias. Nahias may be in charge of a district, or a governorate; the chef-lieu indicates the principal city of the provinces of New Caledonia. So Nouméa is the chef-lieu of South Province, but the chef-lieu can mean the principal area within a town. So Wé is the chef-lieu of Lifou. In the Loyalty Islands and the other islands, the name of the chef-lieu differs from that of the name of the town. For the towns of the mainland, the chef-lieu has the same name as the town.

Nouméa is a town composed only of Nouméa. Many of the West African states which gained independence from France in the mid-20th century inherited the French administrative structure of Departments and Communes, headed by a Chief-Lieu. States still using Chief-Lieu to identify the administrative headquarters of a government subdivision include Senegal, Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger. Taking Niger and Mali as examples, the administrative subdivisions down to the Commune level each have a formal place of administrative headquarters, titled the chef-lieu; the larger portion of the terminology of administrative division is inherited from colonial rule as part of French West Africa, has survived and been somewhat modified over time. In both nations there have been remarkably parallel histories. With the decentralization process begun in both nations in the 1990s, the chef-lieu has transitioned from the location of the Governor, Commandant, or Prefect and their staff, to the location of Commune, Cercles of Mali/Departments of Niger, Regional Councils and a variety of decentralized bodies.

The chefs-lieux of a Region, Cercle or Département, is also a Communal chef-lieu. Both nations collect these councils in a "High Council of Collectivites" seated at the nation's capital. Smaller sub-divisions in Mali's Communes are administered from or identified as a Place/Site, so the chef-lieu is the Chief-Place at the lowest level. In Russia, the term is applied to the inhabited localities, which serve as a seat of government of entities of various levels; the only exception to this rule is the republics, for which the term "capital" is used to refer to the seat of government. The capital of Russia is an entity to which the term "administrative centre" does not apply. A similar arrangement exists in Ukraine. In Sweden there are two levels of administrative centre.

70th (Sussex) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery

70th Searchlight Regiment Royal Artillery was an air defence unit of Britain's Territorial Army raised just before the outbreak of World War II, which served as part of Anti-Aircraft Command during and after the war. As the international situation deteriorated in the late 1930s, the threat of air raids on the UK led to the rapid expansion in numbers of anti-aircraft units manned by members of the part-time TA. Formed in November 1938, 70th was the first TA searchlight regiment raised by the Royal Artillery, it consisted of HQ and Nos 459–461 Companies based at High Croft, Dyke Road, in Brighton. It was equipped with the new'90 cm Projector Anti Aircraft', a smaller and lighter piece of equipment than previous searchlights, with a more powerful high current density arc lamp with automatic carbon feed. Anti-Aircraft Command mobilised in August 1939, ahead of the declaration of war on 3 September, the regiment took its place in 27th Anti-Aircraft Brigade, part of 6th AA Division tasked with defending South East England.

In 1940, 27 AA Bde transferred to 5th AA Division and moved to Portsmouth to assist in the defence of the Royal Naval Dockyards there. Portsmouth was a major target for the German Luftwaffe, the regiment was present during the daytime bombing raids of the Battle of Britain, when searchlight detachments had a subsidiary role in plotting raids and in close defence with light machine-guns. Searchlights were vital for directing AA guns and night fighters during the night attacks of The Blitz, when Portsmouth city centre was devastated by a series of raids; the city was attacked again during the Baedeker Blitz of 1942. As the threat from the Luftwaffe waned in 1944, the War Office warned in June that AA Command would have to release manpower to provide reinforcements to 21st Army Group fighting in North West Europe; the run-down began in September 1944, 70th S/L Rgt was placed in'suspended animation' in that month, with its personnel being posted away. When the TA was reconstituted in 1947, 70th S/L Rgt was reformed at Brighton as 605 Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RA, forming part of 106 AA Bde.

However, in June 1950 it was amalgamated into 344 Light AA/Searchlight Regiment, becoming R Bty of that regiment. Among the first officers commissioned into the regiment on 1 November 1938 was Lieutenant Sir Herbert Latham, 2nd Baronet, MP. In 1941 he was court martialled and found guilty of'improper behaviour' with three gunners and a civilian, for which he was dishonourably discharged and imprisoned. Gen Sir Martin Farndale, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Years of Defeat: Europe and North Africa, 1939–1941, Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1988/London: Brasseys, 1996, ISBN 1-85753-080-2. Norman E. H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988, Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0. Brig N. W. Routledge, History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Anti-Aircraft Artillery 1914–55, London: Royal Artillery Institution/Brassey's, 1994, ISBN 1-85753-099-3 Keith Brigstock'Royal Artillery Searchlights', presentation to Royal Artillery Historical Society at Larkhill, 17 January 2007.

British Military History British Army units from 1945 on Orders of Battle at Patriot Files Royal Artillery 1939–1945

Bernard Blaquart

Bernard Blaquart is a French former professional footballer, the manager of Ligue 1 side Nîmes Olympique. During his playing career he represented Bordeaux, Toulouse and Stade Français, making 100 appearances in the top two divisions of French football. Following his retirement from playing, Blaquart moved into management and coached a number of lower-league clubs including Lunel and Montluçon before joining Ligue 2 outfit Grenoble as reserve team manager in 2004, he was appointed as manager of the senior team for the last 8 matches of the 2005–06 season following the departure of Thierry Goudet to Brest, led the side to a 10th-place finish before returning to his post with the reserves. In 2008, he became Head of Youth Development at Grenoble and held the position for two years before taking up a similar role at Tours. In August 2012, he was given the manager's job at Tours on a full-time basis, replacing the outgoing German coach Peter Zeidler. Bernard Blaquart at Bernard Blaquart at