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Admiral (United States)

Admiral is a four-star commissioned naval flag officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks below fleet admiral in the Navy. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U. S. C. § 201 of the U. S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade. Since the five-star grade of fleet admiral has not been used since 1946, the grade of admiral is the highest appointment an officer can achieve in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps. Formally, the term "Admiral" is always used. However, a number of different terms may be used to refer to them informally, since lower-ranking admirals may be referred to as “Admiral”.

These may include “Full Admiral”, “Four-star Admiral”, or “O-10”. The United States Navy did not have any admirals until 1862, because many people felt the title too reminiscent of royalty—such as the British Royal Navy—to be used in the country's navy. Others saw the need for ranks above captain, among them John Paul Jones, who pointed out that the Navy had to have officers who "ranked" with army generals, he felt there must be ranks above captain to avoid disputes among senior captains. The various secretaries of the navy recommended to Congress that admiral ranks be created because the other navies of the world used them and American senior officers were "often subjected to serious difficulties and embarrassments in the interchange of civilities with those of other nations." Congress authorized nine rear admirals on July 16, 1862, although, more for the needs of the expanding navy during the American Civil War than any international considerations. Two years Congress authorized the appointment of a vice admiral from among the nine rear admirals: David Farragut.

Another bill allowed the President of the United States to appoint Farragut to admiral on July 25, 1866, David Dixon Porter to vice admiral. When Farragut died in 1870, Porter became admiral and Stephen C. Rowan was promoted to vice admiral. After they died, Congress did not allow the promotion of any of the rear admirals to succeed them, so there were no more admirals or vice admirals by promotion until 1915 when Congress authorized an admiral and a vice admiral each for the Atlantic and Asiatic Fleets. There was one admiral in the interim, however. In 1899, Congress recognized George Dewey's accomplishments during the Spanish–American War by authorizing the President to appoint him Admiral of the Navy, he held that rank until he died in 1917. Nobody has since held that title. In 1944, Congress approved the five-star grade of fleet admiral; the first to hold it were William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King, Chester W. Nimitz; the Senate confirmed their appointments December 15, 1944. Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey got his fifth star in December 1945.

None have been appointed since. The sleeve stripes now used by admirals and vice admirals in the United States date from March 11, 1869, when General Order Number 90 specified that for their "undress" uniforms admirals would wear a two-inch stripe with three half-inch stripes above it and vice admirals the two-inch stripe with two half-inch stripes above it; the rear admiral got his two-inch stripe and one half-inch stripe in 1866. The sleeve stripes had been more elaborate; when the rear admiral rank started in 1862 the sleeve arrangement was three stripes of three-quarter-inch lace alternating with three stripes of quarter-inch lace. It was some ten inches from top to bottom; the vice admiral, of course, had more stripes and when Farragut became admiral in 1866, he had so many stripes they reached from his cuffs to his elbow. On their dress uniforms the admirals wore bands of gold embroidery of live oak acorns; the admirals of the 1860s wore the same number of stars on their shoulders as admirals of corresponding grades do today.

In 1899, the navy's one admiral and 18 rear admirals put on the new shoulder marks, as did the other officers when wearing their white uniforms, but kept their stars instead of repeating the sleeve cuff stripes. During the 20th century, the ranks of the modern U. S. admiralty were established. An oddity that did exist was that the navy did not have a one-star rank except during World War II when Congress established a temporary war rank of commodore; the one-star rank was established permanently in 1986. U. S. law limits the number of four-star admirals. The total number of active-duty flag officers is capped at 160 for the Navy. For the Army and Air Force, no more than about 25% of the service's active-duty general or flag officers may have more than two stars, statute sets the total number of four-star officers allowed in each service; this is set at 6 four-star Navy admirals. Some of these slots are reserved by statute. For the Navy, the chief of naval operations, vice chief of naval operations.

There are several exceptions to these limits

Robinsons Equitable Tower

The Robinsons Equitable Tower known as the Robinsons PCI Bank Tower, is an office skyscraper located in Pasig, Philippines. It was completed in 1997 and stands at 175 metres, making it the current 2nd-tallest complete building in Pasig, is one of the highest building in the Philippines; the Robinsons Equitable Tower is owned and developed by Robinsons Land Corporation, the real estate arm of JG Summit Holdings. Intended to be a 40-storey condominium project between Robinsons Land Corp. and the former PCI Bank and will follow the original model of the Robinsons Galleria complex. It was changed to a taller office building, different in design as planned; the building was masterplanned by the renowned architectural firm Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, was designed by Philippine architectural firm W. V. Coscolluela & Associates. R. S. Caparros Associates & Company, an established undertook the structural design consulting for the building. Construction Management services were provided by D. A. Abcede & Associates, an established construction management company in the Philippines, the Project Management services were provided by Veldon Corporation Phils. Inc. led by its Project Manager Anthony Gulliver and his Assistant Project Manager Nelson G. Evangelista, MSCE, MBA, MSML, an established project management company, while the general contractor for the project is D.

M. Consunji, Inc. one of the largest construction companies in the country. The building's exterior made use of green-shaded aluminum high-performance glass curtain walls and punched windows, with a sleek semi-circular and cylindrical portion rising from the corner of ADB Avenue and Poveda Drive; the building has a rooftop master antenna provided for the entire building's communication system needs, has a distinctive rooftop crown serving as an architectural highlight to the entire building. Strategically situated along ADB Avenue as part of the Robinsons Galleria complex in Pasig, the Robinsons Equitable Tower is accessible and near major destination in Ortigas Center. Part of the complex is the Robinsons Galleria shopping mall, Galleria Corporate Center, The Holiday Inn hotel, it is near educational institutions like the Saint Pedro Poveda College. With this the building has direct access to more than a hundred shops, dining facilities, travel agencies, appliance centers, service outlets, parcel delivery stations, computer centers, a full-line supermarket and department store, a multi-theater cineplex, a bowling center and a complete family entertainment center.

The building is equipped with a building management system and security system, fire protection safety and CCTV surveillance, ample provision for entrance cables of telephone lines, space provisions for unit owner-supplied variable refrigerant volume airconditioning systems, individual metering systems for effective operation and maintenance. It is equipped with a centrally located service core housing twelve high-speed passenger lifts and one services lift, 4 basement and 5 upper-level parking areas. Robinsons Equitable Tower at Emporis Robinsons Equitable Tower at Skyscraperpage

The Oregon Experiment

The Oregon Experiment is a 1975 book by Christopher Alexander and collaborators Murray Silverstein, Shlomo Angel, Sara Ishikawa, Denny Abrams. It describes an experimental approach to campus community planning at the University of Oregon, in Eugene, Oregon which resulted in a theory of architecture and planning described in the group's published and better-known volumes A Pattern Language and The Timeless Way of Building. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, students and faculty at the University of Oregon protested against log trucks driving through campus. On top of this, buildings created since the end of World War II included Brutalist architecture, aesthetically polarizing; the campus community wanted more control over their lives, their environment. The University administration took the conciliatory measure of hiring an award-winning, radical professor from University of California, Berkeley to design a process by which the community of the university could create its own space; the University of Oregon became the experimental testbed for material that became the bestselling book A Pattern Language.

The book prescribed that "feeling" should be the primary criteria used for making changes to any place. Improvements to the campus should be made first to those places. Patterns, or good solutions to generic problems, should be available in a community encyclopedia. Care should be taken to curb the political power of large monolithic projects. Places should be shaped for people, to make them feel more whole, to nourish them, and people should be involved in the construction of their community. Most new campus buildings at the University of Oregon reflect the influence of participation by user groups. Documentation related to the building of the University of Oregon science complex in the late 1980s describes'pattern language' planning principles in process. Another variety of campus building, reflects only the vision of its donor; the Hatfield-Dowlin Complex, for example, stirred controversy when it was learned that the University of Oregon had no part in planning nor managing construction. The building was presented as a gift.

Jeff Hawkins, Senior Associate Athletic Director of Football Administration and Operations at the University, was quoted as saying, "We are the University of Nike." Hawkins clarified his comment such that he was speaking metaphorically about the shared ideals and passions between the University of Oregon and Nike. Participation of user groups was not mentioned. "New Science Complex: Into the Twenty-First Century." Inquiry. "Interview with Charles Moore.." Places. Bloomer, Kent. "The Confounding Issue of Collaboration Between Architects and Artists." Places. Campbell, Robert. "Knight's Moves." Places. Coffin, Christie Johnson. "Making Places for Scientists." Places. Harby, Stephen. "Using New Buildings to Solve Old Problems." Places. Mosely, John. "From Participation to Ownership: How Users Shape the Science Complex." Places. Pally, Marc. "Finding a Place for Collaboration." Places. Rowe, J. David. "The Roots of Oregon's Planning Tradition." Places. Streisinger, Lotte. "People and Public Art." Places. Wingwall, Alice.

"Cascade Charley." Places. Yudell, Buzz. "Building Unity Through Participation" Places. University of Oregon'Pattern Language FAQ' University of Oregon Planning Office "The Oregon Experiment after 20 years" "Alexander Visits the Oregon Experiment" Architecture of the University of Oregon