Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller, or less in pump-jets, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys, some equipped with sail played an important early role; the first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine, introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors, which appeared in the 1950s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers. Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.
Development in liquefied natural gas fueled engines are gaining recognition for their low emissions and cost advantages. Stirling engines, which are more efficient, smoother running producing less harmful emissions than diesel engines, propel a number of small submarines, its design has yet to be upscaled for larger surface ships. Until the application of the coal-fired steam engine to ships in the early 19th century, oars or the wind were the principal means of watercraft propulsion. Merchant ships predominantly used sail, but during periods when naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galley were preferred for their manoeuvrability and speed; the Greek navies that fought in the Peloponnesian War used triremes, as did the Romans at the Battle of Actium. The development of naval gunnery from the 16th century onward vaulted broadside weight ahead of manoeuvrability. In modern times, human propulsion is found on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats.
Human propulsion includes the push pole and pedals. Propulsion by sail consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays, controlled by lines made of rope. Sails were the dominant form of commercial propulsion until the late nineteenth century, continued to be used well into the twentieth century on routes where wind was assured and coal was not available, such as in the South American nitrate trade. Sails are now used for recreation and racing, although innovative applications of kites/royals, rotorsails, wingsails and SkySails's own kite buoy-system have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings; the development of piston-engined steamships was a complex process. Early steamships were fueled by wood ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships used stern or side paddle wheels; the first commercial success accrued to Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat in US in 1807, followed in Europe by the 45-foot Comet of 1812. Steam propulsion progressed over the rest of the 19th century.
Notable developments include the steam surface condenser, which eliminated the use of sea water in the ship's boilers. This, along with improvements in boiler technology, permitted higher steam pressures, thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion engines; as the means of transmitting the engine's power, paddle wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers. Multiple expansion steam engines became widespread in the late 19th century; these engines exhausted steam from a high pressure cylinder to a lower pressure cylinder, giving a large increase in efficiency. Steam turbines were fueled by coal or fuel oil or nuclear power; the marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons raised the power-to-weight ratio. He achieved publicity by demonstrating it unofficially in the 100-foot Turbinia at the Spithead Naval Review in 1897; this facilitated a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century, rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete. In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships.
Its great advantages were convenience, reduced manpower by removal of the need for trimmers and stokers, reduced space needed for fuel bunkers. In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs led to the demise of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around 1960 have been built with diesel engines; the last major passenger ship built with steam turbines was Fairsky, launched in 1984. Many steam ships were re-engined to improve fuel efficiency. One high-profile example was the 1968 built Queen Elizabeth 2 which had her steam turbines replaced with a diesel-electric propulsion plant in 1986. Most new-build ships with steam turbines are specialist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, certain merchant vessels where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel. New LNG carriers continue to be built with steam turbines; the natural gas is stored in a liquid state in cryogenic vessels aboard these ships, a small amount of'boil off' gas is needed to maintain the pressure and temperature inside the vessels within operating limits.
The'boil off' gas provides the fuel for the ship's boilers, which provide steam for the tu
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012 holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev. Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union, he studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg, he moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%; the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, prudent economic and fiscal policies.
In September 2011, Putin announced. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Experts do not consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated.
Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U. S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have denied and criticized. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina, his birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II. Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD, he was transferred to the regular army and was wounded in 1942. Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.
On 1 September 1960, Putin started near his home. He was one of a few in the class of 45 pupils, not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice judo, he is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin speaks German fluently. Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University in 1970 and graduated in 1975, his thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991. Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, was co-author of the russian constitution, who would be influential in Putin's career. In 1975, Putin trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate, before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.
In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. From 1985 to 1990, he served in East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, "Putin and his colleagues were reduced to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB." According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them. After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.
Active electronically scanned array
An active electronically scanned array is a type of phased array antenna, a computer-controlled array antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antenna. In the AESA, each antenna element is connected to a small solid-state transmit/receive module under the control of a computer, which performs the functions of a transmitter and/or receiver for the antenna; this contrasts with a passive electronically scanned array, in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter and/or receiver through phase shifters under the control of the computer. AESA's main use is in radar, these are known as active phased array radar; the AESA is a more advanced, second-generation of the original PESA phased array technology. PESAs can only emit a single beam of radio waves at a single frequency at a time; the AESA can radiate multiple beams of radio waves at multiple frequencies simultaneously. AESA radars can spread their signal emissions across a wider range of frequencies, which makes them more difficult to detect over background noise, allowing ships and aircraft to radiate powerful radar signals while still remaining stealthy.
Bell Labs proposed replacing the Nike Zeus radars with a phased array system in 1960, was given the go-ahead for development in June 1961. The result was the Zeus Multi-function Array Radar, an early example of an active electronically steered array radar system. ZMAR became MAR when the Zeus program ended in favor of the Nike-X system in 1963; the MAR was made of a large number of small antennas, each one connected to a separate computer-controlled transmitter or receiver. Using a variety of beamforming and signal processing steps, a single MAR was able to perform long-distance detection, track generation, discrimination of warheads from decoys, tracking of the outbound interceptor missiles. MAR allowed the entire battle over a wide space to be controlled from a single site; each MAR, its associated battle center, would process tracks for hundreds of targets. The system would select the most appropriate battery for each one, hand off particular targets for them to attack. One battery would be associated with the MAR, while others would be distributed around it.
Remote batteries were equipped with a much simpler radar whose primary purpose was to track the outgoing Sprint missiles before they became visible to the distant MAR. These smaller Missile Site Radars were passively scanned, forming only a single beam instead of the MAR's multiple beams; the first Soviet APAR, the 5N65, was developed in 1963-1965 as a part of the S-225 ABM system. After some modifications in the system concept in 1967 it was built at Sary Shagan Test Range in 1970-1971 and nicknamed Flat Twin in the West. Four years another radar of this design was built on Kura Test Range, while the S-225 system was never commissioned; the first military ground-based AESA was the J/FPS-3 which became operational with the 45th Aircraft Control and Warning Group of the Japan Self-Defense Forces in 1995. The first series production ship-based AESA was the OPS-24, a fire-control radar introduced on the Japanese Asagiri-class destroyer DD-155 Hamagiri launched in 1988; the first airborne series production AESA was the EL/M-2075 Phalcon on a Boeing 707 of the Chilean Air Force that entered service in 1994.
The first AESA on a combat aircraft was the J/APG-1 introduced on the Mitsubishi F-2 in 1995. The first AESA on a missile is the seeker head for the AAM-4B, an air-to-air missile carried by the Mitsubishi F-2 and Mitsubishi-built McDonnell-Douglas F-15J. US based manufacturers of the AESA radars used in the F-22 and Super Hornet include Northrop Grumman and Raytheon; these companies design and manufacture the transmit/receive modules which comprise the'building blocks' of an AESA radar. The requisite electronics technology was developed in-house via Department of Defense research programs such as MMIC Program. Radar systems work by connecting an antenna to a powerful radio transmitter to emit a short pulse of signal; the transmitter is disconnected and the antenna is connected to a sensitive receiver which amplifies any echos from target objects. By measuring the time it takes for the signal to return, the radar receiver can determine the distance to the object; the receiver sends the resulting output to a display of some sort.
The transmitter elements were klystron tubes or magnetrons, which are suitable for amplifying or generating a narrow range of frequencies to high power levels. To scan a portion of the sky, the radar antenna must be physically moved to point in different directions. Starting in the 1960s new solid-state devices capable of delaying the transmitter signal in a controlled way were introduced; that led to the first practical large-scale passive electronically scanned array, or phased array radar. PESAs took a signal from a single source, split it into hundreds of paths, selectively delayed some of them, sent them to individual antennas; the radio signals from the separate antennas overlapped in space, the interference patterns between the individual signals was controlled to reinforce the signal in certain directions, mute it in all others. The delays could be controlled electronically, allowing the beam to be steered quickly without moving the antenna. A PESA can scan a volume of space much quicker than a traditional mechanical system.
Additionally, thanks to progress in electronics, PESAs added the ability to produce several active beams, allowing them to continue scanning the sky while at the same time focusing smaller beams on certain targets for tracking or guiding
The Russian Navy is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces. It has existed in various forms since 1696, the present iteration of, formed in January 1992 when it succeeded the Navy of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the first iteration of the Russian Navy was established by Peter the Great in October 1696. Ascribed to him is the oft quoted statement: "A ruler that has but an army has one hand, but he who has a navy has both." The symbols of the Russian Navy, the St. Andrew's ensign, most of its traditions were established by Peter I. Neither Jane's Fighting Ships nor the International Institute for Strategic Studies list any standard ship prefixes for the vessels of the Russian Navy; the U. S. government sometimes uses the exonymous prefix "RFS". However, the Russian Navy itself does not use this convention; the Russian Navy possesses the vast majority of the former Soviet naval forces, comprises the Northern Fleet, the Russian Pacific Fleet, the Russian Black Sea Fleet, the Russian Baltic Fleet, the Russian Caspian Flotilla, Naval Aviation, the Coastal Troops.
A rearmament program approved in 2007 placed the development of the navy on an equal footing with the strategic nuclear forces for the first time in Soviet and Russian history. This program, covering the period until 2015, expected to see the replacement of 45 percent of the inventory of the Russian Navy. Out of 4.9 trillion rubles allocated for military rearmament, 25 percent will go into building new ships. "We are building as many ships as we did in Soviet times," First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov said during a visit to Severodvinsk in July 2007, "The problem now is not lack of money, but how to optimize production so that the navy can get new ships three, not five, years after laying them down."The Russian Navy suffered since the dissolution of the Soviet Union due to insufficient maintenance, lack of funding and subsequent effects on the training of personnel and timely replacement of equipment. Another setback is attributed to Russia's domestic shipbuilding industry, reported to have been in decline as to their capabilities of constructing contemporary hardware efficiently.
Some analysts say that because of this Russia's naval capabilities have been facing a slow but certain "irreversible collapse". Some analysts say that the recent rise in gas and oil prices has enabled a sort of renaissance of the Russian Navy due to increased available funds, which may allow Russia to begin "developing the capacity to modernize". In August 2014, Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said that Russian naval capabilities would be bolstered with new weapons and equipment within the next six years in response to NATO deployments in eastern Europe and recent developments in Ukraine; the origins of the Russian navy may be traced to the period between the 6th century. The first Slavic flotillas consisted of small sailing ships and rowboats, seaworthy and able to navigate in riverbeds. During the 9th through 12th centuries, there were flotillas in the Kievan Rus' consisting of hundreds of vessels with one, two, or three masts. Riverine vessels in 9th century Kievan Rus guarded trade routes to Constantinople.
The citizens of Novgorod are known to have conducted military campaigns in the Baltic Sea —although contemporary Scandinavian sources state that the fleet was from Karelia or Estonia. Lad'ya was a typical boat used by the army of Novgorod. There were smaller sailboats and rowboats, such as ushkuys for sailing in rivers and skerries, nosads, used for cargo transportation. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Cossacks conducted military campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire, using sailboats and rowboats; the Don Cossacks called. These boats were capable of transporting up to 80 men; the Cossack flotillas numbered 80 to 100 boats. The centralized Russian state had been fighting for its own access to the Baltic Sea, Black Sea and Sea of Azov since the 17th Century. By the end of that century, the Russians had accumulated some valuable experience in using riverboats together with land forces. Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, the construction of the first three-masted ship to be built within Russia was finished in 1636.
She was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein with a European design. She was christened the Frederick. In 1667–69, the Russians tried to build naval ships in a village of Dedinovo on the shores of the Oka River for the purpose of defending the trade routes along the Volga River, which led to the Caspian Sea. In 1668, they built a 26-gun ship, the Oryol, a yacht, a boat with a mast and bowsprit, a few rowboats. During much of the seventeenth century Russian merchants and Cossacks, using koch boats, sailed across the White Sea, explored the rivers Lena and Indigirka, founded settlements in the region of the upper Amur. Unquestionably the most celebrated Russian explorer was Semyon Dezhnev, who, in 1648, sailed the entire length of present-day Russia along the Arctic coast. Rounding the Chukotsk Peninsula, Dezhnev passed through the Bering Sea and sailed into the
A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual and infrared methods. These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section reduction is a new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or millennia. In designing a ship with reduced radar signature, the main concerns are radar beams originating near or above the horizon coming from distant patrol aircraft, other ships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles with active radar seekers. Therefore, the shape of the ship avoids vertical surfaces, which would reflect any such beams directly back to the emitter. Retro-reflective right angles are eliminated to avoid causing the cat's eye effect. A stealthy ship shape can be achieved by constructing the hull and superstructure with a series of protruding and retruding surfaces.
Furthermore, round shapes on the ship are eliminated or covered up, examples include smokestacks and gun turrets. Cavities that present a horizontal face are to be eliminated since they act like a trap and are visible to radar. To get around these limitations many ships use features such as panels that cover reflective surfaces or use alternate designs of hardware; every effort must be made to have the smallest gaps on the ship as possible. Common hull shapes include tumblehome hull designs which slope inward from the waterline, SWATHhulls which allow for better stability when using a tumblehome hull; these RCS design principles were developed by several navies independently in the 1980s using work done on aircraft RCS reduction as the starting point. The developed U. S. Zumwalt-class destroyer — or DD — is the US version of a stealth ship. Despite being 40% larger than an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer the radar signature is more akin to a fishing boat, according to a spokesman for Naval Sea Systems Command.
The tumblehome hull reduces radar return and the composite material deckhouse has a low radar return. Water sleeting along the sides, along with passive cool air induction in the mack reduces infrared signature. Overall, the destroyer's angular build makes it "50 times harder to spot on radar than an ordinary destroyer; the Swedish Navy's Visby class corvette is designed to elude visual detection, radar detection, acoustic detection, infrared detection. The hull material is a sandwich construction comprising a PVC core with a carbon fibre and vinyl laminate. Avoidance of right angles in the design results in a smaller radar signature, reducing the ship's detection range. Britain's Type 45 anti-air warfare destroyer has similarities to the Visby class, but is much more conventional, employing traditional steel instead of carbon fiber. Like Visby, its design reduces the use of right angles. Taiwan's' Tuo Chiang-class stealth corvette are a class of fast stealth multi-mission corvettes in service with the Republic of China Navy.
The ships is designed to have a low radar cross-section and evade radar detection making it difficult to detect the ship when operating closer to the coastline Sea Shadow, which utilizes both tumblehome and SWATH features, was an early U. S. exploration of stealth ship technology. Stealth technology represents more than just a low RCS; some of the techniques used include muffled exhaust systems, modified propeller shapes, pump-jets. The shape of the hull can have a great effect on the reduction of the noise from a ship. Another major element is signal emission control. Modern warships emit lots of electromagnetic radiation in the form of radar and bleed-off from the ship's electrical systems. All of this can be used to track a ship and thus modern stealth ships have a mode that switches as much of the electronic emissions off, the downside of course is that the ship has to rely on passive sensors and can't send messages further than line of sight. Of great importance is thermal emissions. A heat signature can make a ship stand out like a candle in a dark ocean making it easier to spot and because it is possible to see infra-red emissions through features that would hide a ship such as fog, or a smoke screen, many detection platforms like patrol aircraft, UAV's, satellites have the ability to see multiple bands in the infrared spectrum including heat.
This necessitates the control of these emissions. The most common way is to mix any hot gasses emitted by the main source of heat, the engines exhaust with cold air to dilute the signature and make it harder to pick out the ship from the background warmth. Another method vents the exhaust into the water. For the hull water can be distributed across the hull of the ship cooling the ship. Another less crucial but still relevant part of a stealth ship is visual camouflage; this area is the oldest form of stealth, with records going back as far as the writing of ancient mariners using visual tricks to make their ships harder to spot. Though still relevant this area has taken on lesser importance with the advent of long-range radar. Just like choices in shaping, the choice of materials affects the RCS of a ship. Composites such as fiberglass and carbon fiber are great blockers of radar and give smaller vessels an advantage in further RCS reductions. However, composites are fragile and unsuited to l
The Kamov Ka-27 is a military helicopter developed for the Soviet Navy, in service in various countries including Russia, Vietnam, South Korea, India. Variants include the Ka-29 assault transport, the Ka-28 downgraded export version, the Ka-32 for civilian use; the helicopter was developed for anti-submarine warfare. Design work began in 1969 and the first prototype flew in 1973, it was intended to replace the decade-old Kamov Ka-25, is similar in appearance to its predecessor due to the requirements of fitting in the same hangar space. Like other Kamov military helicopters it has coaxial rotors, removing the need for a tail rotor. Ka-32 variants, e.g. the Klimov-powered Ka-32A11BC, have been certified for commercial operations throughout the world, notably in Canada and Europe. A Russian Navy Ka-27 helicopter from the Russian Udaloy-class destroyer Severomorsk conducted interoperability deck landing training on board the American command ship USS Mount Whitney on 22 July 2010. Ka-32A11BC multipurpose helicopters have been operated in Portugal for over five years.
In 2006, KAMOV JSC won the tender for the supply of Ka-32A11BC firefighting helicopters, to replace Aérospatiale SA 330 Pumas, which have high operating costs. The Ka-32A11BC features a high power-to-weight ratio and ease of handling, owing to its coaxial rotor design; the rotors' diameters are not associated tail boom. The Ka-32A11BC may be equipped with the Bambi Bucket suspended fire-fighting system of up to five tons capacity; the service life has been extended to up to 32,000 flight hours. Since the 1990s, China has purchased the Ka-28 export version and Ka-31 radar warning version for the PLAN fleet. Ka-31 purchases were first revealed in 2010, it is believed that Chinese Ka-28s have been equipped with more enhanced avionics compared to Ka-28s exported to other countries. In 2013, Russia tested the new Kamov Ka-27M with an active electronically scanned array radar; the basis of the modernization of the Ka-27M is installed on the helicopter airborne radar with an active phased array antenna FH-A.
This radar is part of the command and tactical radar system that combines several other systems: acoustic, signals intelligence and radar. All the information on them is displayed on the display instrumentation. Ka-32s are used for construction of transmission towers for overhead power lines, as it has somewhat higher lift capacity than the Vertol 107. In Canada, the Ka-32 is used for selective logging as it is able to lift selective species vertically. In August 2013, a Kamov Ka-32, C-GKHL operating in Bella Coola, British Columbia, experienced failure of one of its Klimov TV3-117BMA engines; the subsequent technical investigation indicated that there was poor quality control in the assembly of the compressor turbine, leading to failure of the complete unit after several compressor blades separated. Ka-27s have been used by the Syrian Navy during the ongoing Syrian Civil War. Ka-25-2 First prototype. Ka-27K Anti-submarine warfare prototype. Ka-27PL Anti-submarine warfare helicopter. Ka-27PS Search and rescue helicopter, ASW equipment winch fitted.
Ka-27PV Armed version of the Ka-27PS. Ka-27M The latest modification of the helicopter, equipped with radar and tactical command systems that include the following systems: acoustic sensors, magnetometric sensors, signals intelligence, FH-A radar with active phased array antenna; the radar is mounted under the fuselage and provides all-around vision in the search and detection of surface and ground targets. Serial upgrading of Ka-27Ms to the level of combatant helicopters was planned to begin in 2014. By the end of 2016, 46 Ka-27PLs had been scheduled for modernization, commissioned by the Russian Navy; the first eight serial Ka-27M were transferred in December 2016. Mass production approved in June 2017 and started in early 2018. A new delivery of 5 helos in October 2018. Half of the fleet is modernized as of December 2018. Ka-28 Export version of the Ka-27PL. Ka-29TB Assault transport helicopter, with accommodation for two pilots and 16 troops. Ka-252RLD A radar picket variant of the Ka-31 early warning helicopter first displayed in 2008.
RLD designation: radiolokatsyonnogo dozora. Two units delivered to Russian MoD by 2010. Ka-32A Civil transport helicopter. Initial production version. Ka-32A1 Fire fighting helicopter, equipped with a helicopter bucket. Ka-32A2 Police version, equipped with two searchlights and a loudspeaker. Ka-32A4 Special search and rescue and evacuation version. Ka-32A7 Armed version developed from the Ka-27PS. Ka-32A11BC Canadian, European-certified version with Klimov TV3-117MA engines and Glass Cockpit. Ka-32A12 approved version. KA-32C Little-known custom version. Ka-32M Projected development with 1839kW TV3-117VMA-SB3 engines. Replaced by the Ka-32-10 project. Ka-32S Maritime utility transport and rescue helicopter, fitted with an undernose radar. Ka-32T Utility transport helicopter, with accommodation for two crew and 16 passengers. Ka-32K Flying crane helicopter, fitted with a retractable gondola for a second pilot. AlgeriaAlgerian Air Force ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Navy IndiaIndian Navy LaosLao People's Liberation Army Air Force RussiaRussian Navy Border Service of Russia South KoreaRepublic of Korea Air Force Republic of Korea Coast Guard Korea Forest Service SyriaSyrian Air Force UkraineUkrainian Navy Vietnam Vietnamese Air Force Vietnamese Navy BrazilHelicargo CanadaVancouv
The Sovremenny-class destroyer is a class of anti-surface warship of the Soviet and Russian Navy. The Soviet designation for the class was Project 956 Sarych, while the NATO designation derives from the name of the lead ship, Sovremenny; the ships are named after qualities, with "Sovremenny" translating as "modern" or "contemporary". Most of the ships have been retired from active service, though several remain in commission with the Russian Navy, either in reserve or undergoing overhaul. Another is a museum ship. Four modified ships were delivered to the People's Liberation Army Navy, remain in service; the Sovremenny class were guided missile destroyers tasked with anti-ship warfare, while providing sea and air defense for warships and transports under escort. The class was designed to complement the Udaloy-class destroyers, which were fitted for anti-submarine operations; the project began in the late 1960s when it was becoming obvious in the Soviet Navy that naval guns still had an important role in support of amphibious landings, but existing gun cruisers and destroyers were showing their age.
A new design was started. Single and twin mounts were developed, the twin mount chosen for its superior rate of fire. In 1971 a go-ahead was given for the Severnaya design bureau to design "a ship capable of supporting amphibious landings". At the same time, the United States Navy was constructing new large Spruance-class multi-role destroyers. To respond to this new threat, Project 956 was updated with new air defence suite and new, powerful 3M80 anti-ship missiles. Although the Soviet Navy had moved to gas turbine propulsion for its new warships, steam turbines were selected instead for Project 956: because production of naval gas turbines would have been insufficient for entire program. Lead ship of the class, Sovremenny was laid down in 1976 and commissioned in 1980. A total of 18 were built for the Russian Navy, but only 5 remain in service due to lack of funds and trained personnel. Additional 3 ships are ongoing modernization and overhaul and 2 are laid-up in reserve. All the ships were built by Severnaya Verf 190 St. Petersburg.
These ships have a maximum displacement of 7,940 tons. The ships are 156 metres in length, with a draught of 6.5 metres. They are armed with an anti-submarine helicopter, 48 air defence missiles, eight anti-ship missiles, mines, long-range guns and a sophisticated electronic warfare system. There are a total of three versions of this class: the original Project 956 armed with the 3M80 version of the Moskit anti-ship missile, its successor, the Project 956A, armed with the improved 3M80M version of the Moskit with longer range; the main difference between the two is that the missile launching tubes on Project 956A are longer than that of Project 956 to accommodate the increased size of the newer missile, these launching tubes can be used to fire / store the original 3M80 as well. A third version, Project 956EM developed for the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force was the latest development of this class. Chinese media called the ship "carrier killer"; the ship's combat systems can use target designation data from the ship's active and passive sensors, from other ships in the fleet, from surveillance aircraft or via a communications link from the ship's helicopter.
The multi-channel defence suite is capable of striking several targets simultaneously. The ship is outfitted with the Raduga Moskit anti-ship missile system with two four-cell launchers installed port and starboard of the forward island and set at an angle about 15°; the ship carries a total of NATO designation SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile is sea-skimming with a velocity of Mach 2.5, armed with a 300-kilogram high-explosive or a nuclear 200 kt warhead. The range is from 10 to 120 kilometres; the launch weight is 4,000 kg. Two Shtil surface-to-air missile systems are installed, each on the raised deck behind the twin-barrelled 130 mm guns. Shtil is the export name of NATO reporting name Gadfly; the system uses the ship's three-dimensional circular scan radar for target tracking. Up to three missiles can be aimed simultaneously; the range is up to 30 km against targets with speeds up to 830 metres per second. The ship carries 48 Shtil missiles; the ship's 130-millimetre guns are the AK-130-MR-184. The system includes a computer control system with television sighting.
The gun can be operated in automatic mode from the radar control system, under autonomous control using the turret mounted Kondensor optical sighting system and can be laid manually. Rate of fire is disputed, but various Russian sources credit the weapon with a cyclic rate of 30–40 rounds per minute per barrel, in line with the French Creusot-Loire 100 mm or the Italian OTO Melara 127 mm/54, but faster than the US Mark 45; the ship has four six-barreled 30 mm AK-630 auto-cannon systems. The maximum rate of fire is 5,000 rounds/min. Range is up to 4,000 m for 5,000 m for light surface targets; the gun is outfitted with television detection and tracking. The latest Sovremennys carry the Kashtan CIWS system instead of AK-630; the destroyers have two double 533 mm torpedo tubes and two six-barrel RBU-1000 anti-submarine rocket launchers, with 48 rockets. Range is 1,000 metres; the rocket is armed with a 55 k