He was President of the Royal Academy from 1919 to 1924, and the founding Chairman of the London Society. He returned to London in 1874 to set up his own practice, from the early 1880s, he joined the Royal Institute of British Architects and began working in partnership with Ingress Bell. Their first major commission was a design for the Victoria Law Courts in Birmingham. Towards the end of his career Webb was assisted by his sons, ralph Knott, who designed Londons County Hall, began his work as an apprentice to Webb executing the drawings for his competition entries. He died in Kensington, London, on 21 August 1930 and he served as RIBA President and, having been elected as a full member of the Royal Academy in 1903, served as acting president from 1919 to 1924. He received the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture in 1905 and was the first recipient of the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal in 1907 and he was the first chairman of the London Society in 1912. One of his earliest works was built for the Six Masters of The Royal Grammar School Worcester in 1877 and these almshouses are in the Arts and Crafts style, different from his work.
Webbs first major work was the restoration of the medieval St Bartholomew-the-Great in Smithfield and his brother Edward Alfred Webb was the churchwarden at the time, and his association with the church probably helped the young architect get the job. In London, Webbs best known include the Queen Victoria Memorial and The Mall approach to, and the principal facade of, Buckingham Palace. Webb designed the Victoria and Albert Museums main building, the Royal United Services Institute, Whitehall and he designed the Britannia Royal Naval College, where Royal Naval officers are still trained. He enlarged and sympathetically restored the perpendicular Church of St John Baptist, Worcester, nearby he was responsible for the new church of St. George, consecrated in 1895, which replaced an earlier smaller building in St. Georges Square, Worcester. With his partner Ingress Bell, he extended St Andrews Church, in Fulham Fields, remodelled the chancel, residential commissions included Nos 2 and 4 Blackheath Park, in Blackheath, south-east London.
He designed a library wing, including the Cedar Library, at The Hendre, in March 1889 the consistory of the French Protestant Church of London commissioned Aston Webb to design a new church. It was erected in 1891–93 at 8–9 Soho Square in London, the church is one of Aston Webbs Gothic school works. In 1901 Aston Webb designed the headquarters for a brewery at 115 Tooley Street and this was done as part of the development of More London. Weetman Pearson, 1st Viscount Cowdray, commissioned Webb to undertake major extensions to his property, Dunecht House, Aberdeenshire, at the University of Birmingham, the whole of the original scheme, in the Byzantine style, was the product of the Webb-Bell partnership. This consisted of a building with five radial blocks. The central building of Chancellors Court containing the Great Hall is named after Aston Webb, the main feature is a large dome that sits atop the entrance logia
The new Admiralty Board meets only twice a year, and the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is controlled by a Navy Board. It is common for the authorities now in charge of the Royal Navy to be referred to as simply The Admiralty. The title of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom was vested in the monarch from 1964 to 2011, the title was awarded to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh by Queen Elizabeth II on his 90th birthday. There continues to be a Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom, the office of Admiral of England was created around 1400 although there had already been Admirals of the Northern and Western Seas. In 1546, King Henry VIII established the Council of the Marine, to become the Navy Board, operational control of the Royal Navy remained the responsibility of the Lord High Admiral, who was one of the nine Great Officers of State. In 1628, Charles I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission, the office of Lord High Admiral passed a number of times in and out of commission until 1709 after which the office was almost permanently in commission.
In 1831, the first Navy Board was abolished as a separate entity, in 1964, the Admiralty along with the War Office and the Air Ministry as separate departments of state were abolished, and re-emerged under one single new Ministry of Defence. Within the expanded Ministry of Defence are the new Admiralty Board which has a separate Navy Board responsible for the running of the Royal Navy. The Army Board and the Air Force Board, each headed by the Secretary of State for Defence, the Board of Admiralty consisted of a number of Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. The Lords Commissioners were always a mixture of admirals, known as Naval Lords or Sea Lords and Civil Lords, the quorum of the Board was two commissioners and a secretary. The president of the Board was known as the First Lord of the Admiralty, after 1806, the First Lord of the Admiralty was always a civilian while the professional head of the navy came to be known as the First Sea Lord. The first real concerted effort to organise the Admiralty was started by Henry VIII.
Between 1860 and 1908 there was no study of strategy and of staff work conducted within the naval service. All the navys talent flowed to the great technical universitys and it was perceived by officials within the Admiralty at this time that the running of war was quite a simple matter for any flag officer who required no formal training. The new War Staff had hardly found its feet and it struggled with the opposition to its existence by senior officers they were categorically opposed to a staff. The deficiencies of the system within this department of state could be seen in the conduct of the Dardanelles campaign, there was no mechanisms in place to answer the big strategic questions in 1914 a Trade Division was created. In 1916, Sir John Jellicoe came to the Admiralty, he organized the staff as following, Chief of War Staff, Intelligence, Signal Section, Trade. This for the first time gave the naval staff direct representation on the Board, the would direct all operations and movements of the fleet, while the would be responsible for mercantile movements and anti-submarine operations
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments. It currently has just over 2,000 staff, most of work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Ministers Office are part of the Cabinet Office and this includes working with the Treasury to drive efficiency and reform across the public sector. Other functions include oversight of the Crown Commercial Service and the accreditation of Social Impact Contractors, the department was formed in December 1916 from the secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence under Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary. Traditionally the most important part of the Cabinet Offices role was facilitating collective decision-making by the Cabinet and it contains miscellaneous units that do not sit well in other departments.
For example, The Historical Section was founded in 1906 as part of the Committee for Imperial Defence and is concerned with Official Histories, the Joint Intelligence Committee was founded in 1936 and transferred to the department in 1957. It deals with intelligence assessments and directing the national organisations of the UK. The Ceremonial Branch was founded in 1937 and transferred to the department in 1981 and it was originally concerned with all ceremonial functions of state, but today it handles honours and appointments. In modern times the Cabinet Office often takes on responsibility for areas of policy that are the priority of the Government of the time, the units that administer these areas migrate in and out of the Cabinet Office as government priorities change. The Cabinet Office Ministers are as follows, All of the Cabinet Offices ministers are Cabinet members, the Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service is Sir Jeremy Heywood, the Permanent Secretary and Chief Executive of the Home Civil Service is John Manzoni.
The Cabinet Office supports the work of, the Leader of the House of Commons, the Leader of the House of Lords, and the Whips Office. Cabinet Committees have two key purposes, To relieve the burden on the Cabinet by dealing with business that does not need to be discussed at full Cabinet. Appeals to the Cabinet should be infrequent, and Ministers chairing Cabinet Committees should exercise discretion in advising the Prime Minister whether to allow them. To support the principle of responsibility by ensuring that, even though a question may never reach the Cabinet itself. In this way, the judgement is sufficiently authoritative that Government as a whole can be expected to accept responsibility for it. In this sense, Cabinet Committee decisions have the authority as Cabinet decisions. The main building of the Cabinet Office is at 70 Whitehall, remains of Henry VIIIs tennis courts from the Palace of Whitehall can be seen within the building
The Mall, London
The Mall is a road in the City of Westminster, central London, between Buckingham Palace at its western end and Trafalgar Square via Admiralty Arch to the east. Before it terminates at Whitehall it is met by Horse Guards Road and Spring Gardens where the Metropolitan Board of Works and it is closed to traffic on Sundays, public holidays and on ceremonial occasions. The Mall began as a field for playing pall-mall, in the 17th and 18th centuries it was a fashionable promenade, bordered by trees. C. These routes were intended to be used for major national ceremonies, as part of the development – designed by Aston Webb – a new façade was constructed for Buckingham Palace, and the Victoria Memorial was erected. The Queen Victoria Memorial is immediately before the gates of the Palace, the length of The Mall from where it joins Constitution Hill at the Victoria Memorial end to Admiralty Arch is exactly 0.5 nautical miles. St. Jamess Park is on the side of The Mall, opposite Green Park and St Jamess Palace.
Running off The Mall at its end is Horse Guards Parade. The surface of The Mall is coloured red to give the effect of a giant red carpet leading up to Buckingham Palace and this colour was obtained using synthetic iron oxide pigment from Deanshanger Oxide Works, which was created using the Deanox Process devised by chemist Ernest Lovell. It was David Eccles decision, as Minister of Works from 1951 to 1954 and these scenes were repeated in 2011 for the wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, and again in 2012 for the Queens Diamond Jubilee, and the Jubilee concert. Scheduled buses are not allowed to use the Mall and go past Buckingham Palace except by permission of the monarch and this has only happened twice in history, in 1927 and in 1950. The annual London Marathon finishes on The Mall and it was the start and finish line for the marathon course, the road race, and the race walks of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The womens marathon took place on 5 August and the mens Olympic marathon on 12 August, the mens 20 km walk took place on 4 August, with the mens 50 km walk and womens 20 km walk took place on 11 August.
The Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September, media related to The Mall, London at Wikimedia Commons
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised and he died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords.
Edward was born at 10,48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace and he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle and he was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall, as a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a constitutional monarch.
At age seven, Edward embarked on an educational programme devised by Prince Albert. Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies and he tried to meet the expectations of his parents, but to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, after the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, in October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. Now released from the strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time
Rafael Serrano Quevedo is a Spanish financier and entrepreneur. In August 2013, PIC was granted planning permission by Westminster City Council to restore and convert Admiralty Arch into a 100-room hotel, residences. Rafael Serrano Quevedo was born 9 August 1966 in Madrid, Serrano started his career in 1991 at JP Morgan as an Investment Banker in Capital Markets and International Fund Management. Serrano spent three years in London before moving to the offices on Wall Street, New York, on his return to the UK in 2002, he became the Managing Director of Focus Investment Group, Europe, an investment management company. From 2005 to 2008, Serrano was the Vice-Chairman of the British Red Cross Ball Committee, in 2009, Serrano became the Founder and CEO of Prime Investors Capital Limited, an investment management company focusing on Finance, Private Equity and Property. A number of the projects have reported in the media. Namely, the BVLGARI Hotel and Residences in Knightsbridge, Serrano purchased the 250-year lease of Admiralty Arch from the UK Government in October 2012.
Admiralty Arch is the first major building to be sold by the Government, as part of austerity measures to rationalise their property portfolio and raise funds for the Exchequer. Originally designed by Sir Aston Webb and built by John Mowlen & Co in 1912 in memory of Queen Victoria and it was previously the address of the First Sea Lord and high ranking naval officers. The development of the Admiralty Arch into a Luxury Hotel, Serviced Residences, Serrano is a member of the Investment Property Forum. In early 2014, Rafael Serrano acted as the initiator and adviser for the sale, Rafael Serrano is an advisory member of the William Pitt Group of Chatham House, The Royal Institute of International Affairs. He is a member and supporter of the British Spanish Society in the UK, originally from Madrid, Spain he now lives in London with his wife and two children and Maria Mia
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838.
Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814.
The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found