Vodka is a clear distilled alcoholic beverage originating from Poland and Russia, composed of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, it is made by distilling the liquid from cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented, though some modern brands, such as Ciroc, CooranBong, Bombora, use fruits or sugar as the base. Since the 1890s, the standard Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Icelandic, Lithuanian, Slovak and Ukrainian vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume, a percentage misattributed to Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Meanwhile, the European Union has established a minimum alcohol content of 37.5% for any European vodka to be named as such. But beverages sold as vodka in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%. With these loose restrictions, most commercial vodka contains 40% alcohol. Vodka is traditionally drunk "neat" or "straight", though it is served freezer chilled in the vodka belt countries of Belarus, Finland, Lithuania, Norway, Russia and Ukraine.
It is used in cocktails and mixed drinks, such as the Vodka martini, Vodka Tonic, Greyhound, Black or White Russian, Moscow Mule, Bloody Mary, Bloody Caesar. The name vodka is a diminutive form of the Slavic word voda, interpreted as little water: root вод- + -к- + -a; the word vodka was recorded for the first time in 1405 in Akta Grodzkie, the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland. At the time, wódka referred to medicines and cosmetic products, while the beverage was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word vodka written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'. Although the word vodka could be found in early manuscripts and in lubok pictograms, it began to appear in Russian dictionaries only in the mid-19th century, it was attested in Sámuel Gyarmathi's Russian-German-Hungarian glossary of 1799, where it is glossed with Latin vinum adustum. In English literature the word vodka was attested in the late 18th century.
In a book of his travels published in English in 1780, Johann Gottlieb Georgi explained that "kabak in the Russian language signifies a public house for the common people to drink vodka in." William Tooke in 1799 glossed vodka as "rectified corn-spirits". In French, Théophile Gautier in 1800 glossed it as a "grain liquor" served with meals in Poland. Another possible connection of vodka with "water" is the name of the medieval alcoholic beverage aqua vitae, reflected in Polish okowita, Ukrainian оковита, Belarusian акавіта, Scandinavian akvavit. People in the area of vodka's probable origin have names for vodka with roots meaning "to burn": Polish: gorzała. Horílka. Harelka. In Russian during the 17th and 18th centuries, горящѣе вино or горячее вино was used. Others languages include the German Branntwein, Danish brændevin, Dutch: brandewijn, Swedish: brännvin, Norwegian: brennevin. Scholars debate the beginnings of vodka, it is a contentious issue because little historical material is available.
For many centuries, beverages differed compared to the vodka of today, as the spirit at that time had a different flavor and smell, was used as medicine. It contained little alcohol, an estimated maximum of about 14%; the still, allowing for distillation, increased purity, increased alcohol content, was invented in the 8th century. In Poland, vodka has been produced since the early Middle Ages with local traditions as varied as the production of cognac in France, or Scottish whisky; the world's first written mention of the drink and of the word "vodka" was in 1405 from Akta Grodzkie recorder of deeds, in the court documents from the Palatinate of Sandomierz in Poland and it went on to become a popular drink there. At the time, the word wódka referred to chemical compounds such as medicines and cosmetics' cleansers, while the popular beverage known as vodka was called gorzałka, the source of Ukrainian horilka; the word written in Cyrillic appeared first in 1533, in relation to a medicinal drink brought from Poland to Russia by the merchants of Kievan Rus'.
In these early days, the spirits were used as medicines. Stefan Falimierz asserted in his 1534 works on herbs that vodka could serve "to increase fertility and awaken lust". Wodka lub gorzałka, by Jerzy Potański, contains valuable information on the production of vodka. Jakub Kazimierz Haur, in his book Skład albo skarbiec znakomitych sekretów ekonomii ziemiańskiej, gave detailed recipes for making vodka from rye; some Polish vodka blends go back centuries. Most notable are Żubrówka, from
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England. The area included has varied but the defined NUTS 2 statistical unit comprises the counties of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, including the City of Peterborough unitary authority area; the name derives from the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Angles, a tribe whose name originated in Anglia, northern Germany. Definitions of what constitutes; the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia, established in the 6th century consisted of the modern counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and expanded west into at least part of Cambridgeshire. The modern NUTS 2 statistical unit of East Anglia comprises Norfolk and Cambridgeshire; those three counties have formed the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia since 1976, were the subject of a possible government devolution package in 2016. Essex has sometimes been included in definitions of East Anglia, including by the London Society of East Anglians. However, the Kingdom of Essex to the south, was a separate element of the Heptarchy of Anglo-Saxon England and did not identify as Angles but Saxons.
The county of Essex by itself forms a NUTS 2 statistical unit in the East of England region. Other definitions of the area have been proposed over the years. For example, the Redcliffe-Maud Report in 1969, which followed the Royal Commission on the Reform of Local Government, recommended the creation of eight provinces in England; the proposed East Anglia province would have included northern Essex, southern Lincolnshire and a small part of Northamptonshire as well as Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. The kingdom of East Anglia consisted of Norfolk and Suffolk, but upon the marriage of the East Anglian princess Etheldreda, the Isle of Ely became part of the kingdom; the kingdom was formed about the year 520 by the merging of the North and the South Folk and was one of the seven Anglo-Saxon heptarchy kingdoms. For a brief period following a victory over the rival kingdom of Northumbria around the year 616, East Anglia was the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England, its King Raedwald was Bretwalda.
However, this did not last and over the next forty years East Anglia was defeated by the Mercians twice and continued to weaken in relation to the other kingdoms. In 794, Offa of Mercia had king Æthelberht killed and took control of the kingdom himself. Although independence was temporarily restored by rebellion in 825, on 20 November 869 the Danes killed King Edmund and captured the kingdom. By 917, after a succession of Danish defeats, East Anglia was incorporated into the Kingdom of England by Edward the Elder, afterwards becoming an earldom. Despite some engineering work in the form of sea barriers constructed by the Roman Empire, much of East Anglia remained marshland and bogs until the 17th century. From this point onward a series of systematic drainage projects using drains and river diversions along the lines of Dutch practice, converted the alluvial land into wide swathes of productive arable land. In the 1630s thousands of Puritan families from East Anglia settled in the American region of New England, taking much East Anglian culture with them that can still be traced today.
East Anglia, which based much of its earnings on wool and arable farming, was a rich area of England until the effects of the Industrial Revolution saw manufacturing and development shift to the Midlands and the North. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces constructed many airbases in East Anglia for the heavy bomber fleets of the Combined Bomber Offensive against Nazi-occupied Europe. East Anglia was ideally suited to airfield construction as it comprises large areas of open, level terrain and is close to mainland Europe; the reduced flight time to mainland Europe therefore reduced the fuel load required and enabled a larger bomb load to be carried. Building the airfields was a massive civil engineering project and by the end of the war there was one every 8 miles. Many of these airfields can still be seen today from aerial photographs, a few remain in use today, the most prominent being Norwich International Airport. Pillboxes, which were erected in 1940 to help defend the nation against invasion, can be found throughout the area at strategic points.
East Anglia is bordered to the north and east by the North Sea, to the south by the estuary of the River Thames and shares an undefined land border to the west with the rest of England. Much of northern East Anglia is flat, low-lying and marshy, although the extensive drainage projects of the past centuries make this one of the driest areas in the UK. Inland much of the rest of Suffolk and Norfolk is undulating, with glacial moraine ridges providing some areas of steeper areas relief; the supposed flatness of the Norfolk landscape is noted in literature, such as Noël Coward's Private Lives – "Very flat, Norfolk". On the north-west corner East Anglia is bordered by a bay known as The Wash, where owing to deposits of sediment and land reclamation, the coastline has altered markedly within historical times. Conversely, over to the east on the coast exposed to the North Sea the coastline is subject to rapid erosion and has shifted inland since historic times. Major rivers include Suffolk's Stour, running through country beloved of the painter John Const
Sedum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, members of which are known as stonecrops. The genus has been described as containing up to 600 species updated to 470, they are leaf succulents found in the Northern Hemisphere, but extending into the southern hemisphere in Africa and South America. The plants vary from creeping herbs to shrubs; the plants have water-storing leaves. The flowers have five petals four or six. There are twice as many stamens as petals. Various species classified as Sedum are now in the segregate genera Hylotelephium and Rhodiola. Well-known European species of Sedum are Sedum acre, Sedum album, Sedum dasyphyllum, Sedum reflexum and Sedum hispanicum. Sedum demonstrates a wide variation in chromosome numbers, polyploidy is common. Chromosome number is an important taxonomic feature. Linnaeus described 16 species of European Sedum. There are now thought to be 55 European species. Now in Dudleya: Dudleya caespitosa Dudleya edulis Now in Hylotelephium: Hylotelephium spectabile Hylotelephium telephioides Now in Rhodiola: Rhodiola rhodantha Rhodiola rosea Rhodiola pachyclados Sedum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Grey Chi.
In particular, Sedum spathulifolium is the host plant of the endangered San Bruno elfin butterfly of San Mateo County, California. Sedum lanceolatum is the host plant of the more common Parnassius smintheus found in the Rocky Mountains; as well as Sedum spathulifolium, many other species of Sedum serve the environmental role of host plants for butterflies. For example, the butterfly Callophrys xami uses several species of Sedum, such as Sedum allantoides, for suitable host plants. Many sedums are cultivated as garden plants, due to their interesting and attractive appearance and hardiness; the various species differ in their requirements. Numerous hybrid cultivars have been developed, of which the following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-'Herbstfreude"Bertram Anderson"Matrona"Ruby Glow' The leaves of most stonecrops are edible, excepting Sedum rubrotinctum, although toxicity has been reported in some other species. Sedum reflexum, known as "prickmadam", "stone orpine", or "crooked yellow stonecrop", is used as a salad leaf or herb in Europe, including the United Kingdom.
It has a astringent sour taste. Sedum divergens, known as "spreading stonecrop", was eaten by First Nations people in Northwest British Columbia; the plant is used as a salad herb by the Nisga'a people. It is common in the Nass Valley of British Columbia. Biting Stonecrop contains high quantities of piperidine alkaloids, which give it a sharp, acrid taste and make it somewhat toxic. Sedum can be used to provide a roof covering in green roofs. Ford's Dearborn Truck Plant's living roof has 454,000 square feet of sedum. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars plant in Goodwood, has a 242,000 square feet roof complex covered in Sedum, the largest in the United Kingdom. Nintendo of America's roof is covered in some 75,000 square feet of Sedum; the Javits Center in New York City is covered with 292,000 square feet of Sedum. Media related to Sedum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Sedum at Wikispecies "Sedum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. Drought Smart Plants Sedum Society Sedum Yellow Stonecrop
2012 Summer Olympics
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees participated. Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability; the main focus was a new 200-hectare Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.
The Games made use of venues that existed before the bid. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised highly; the opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors; these were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics. By 15 July 2003, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee, nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2012 Summer Olympics: Havana, Leipzig, Madrid, New York City and Rio de Janeiro. On 18 May 2004, as a result of a scored technical evaluation, the IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Moscow, New York and Paris. All five submitted their candidate files by 19 November 2004 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2005; the Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.
Throughout the process, Paris was seen as the favourite as this was its third bid in recent years. London was seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin, its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2012 on 19 May 2004. In late August 2004, reports predicted a tie between Paris. On 6 June 2005, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities, they did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2004. New York and Madrid received positive evaluations. On 1 July 2005, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote, but my gut feeling tells me that it will be close. It will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."On 6 July 2005, the final selection was announced at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore.
Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New Madrid. The final two contenders were Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2012 Games with 54 votes to 50. Tragically, the celebrations in London were short-lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 24 hours after the announcement; the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, held its first board meeting on 3 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure; the latter was established in April 2006. The Government Olympic Executive, a unit within the Department for Culture and Sport, was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics, it focused on oversight of the Games, cross-programme programme management and the London 2012 Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom.
The organisation was responsible for the supervision of the £9.3 billion of public sector funding. In August 2011, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London due to the 2011 England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games, in spite of the International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games; the IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2
Marks & Spencer
Marks & Spencer Group plc is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in Westminster, London that specialises in selling clothing, home products and luxury food products. It is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. M&S was founded in 1884 by Thomas Spencer in Leeds; the company began to sell branded goods like Kellogg's Corn Flakes in November 2008. M&S has 979 stores across the U. K. including 615 that only sell food products. In 1998, the company became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion, although subsequently it went into a sudden slump, which took the company and its stakeholders by surprise. In November 2009, it was announced that Marc Bolland of Morrisons, would take over as chief executive from executive chairman Stuart Rose in early 2010. In recent years, its clothing sales have fallen whilst food sales have increased after axing the St. Michael brand name for their own brand. On 22 May 2018, it was confirmed. Whether more stores will close is yet to be confirmed.
The company was founded by a partnership between Michael Marks, a Polish Jew from Słonim, Thomas Spencer, a cashier from the English market town of Skipton in North Yorkshire. On his arrival in England, Marks worked for a company in Leeds, called Barran, which employed refugees. In 1884 he met Isaac Jowitt Dewhirst while looking for work. Dewhirst lent Marks £ 5. Dewhirst taught him a little English. Dewhirst's cashier was Tom Spencer, a bookkeeper, whose second wife, helped improve Marks' English. In 1894, when Marks acquired a permanent stall in Leeds' covered market, he invited Spencer to become his partner. In 1901 Marks moved to the Birkenhead open market; the pair were allocated stall numbers 11 & 12 in the centre aisle in 1903, there they opened the famous Penny Bazaar. The company left Birkenhead Market on 24 February 1923; the next few years saw Michael Marks and Tom Spencer open market stalls in many locations around the North West of England and move the original Leeds Penny Bazaar to 20, Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester.
Marks and Spencer, known colloquially as "Marks and Sparks", or "M&S", made its reputation in the early 20th century with a policy of only selling British-made goods It entered into long-term relationships with British manufacturers, sold clothes and food under the "St Michael" brand, introduced in 1928. The brand honours Michael Marks, it accepted the return of unwanted items, giving a full cash refund if the receipt was shown, no matter how long ago the product was purchased, unusual for the time. M&S staff raised £5,000 to pay for a Supermarine Spitfire fighter aircraft called The Marksman in 1941. By 1950 all goods were sold under the "St Michael" label. M&S lingerie, women's clothes and girls' school uniform were branded under the "St Margaret" label until the whole range of general merchandise became "St Michael". Simon Marks, son of Michael Marks, died after fifty-six years' service. Israel Sieff, the son-in-law of Michael Marks, took over as chairman and in 1968, John Salisse became the company Director.
A cautious international expansion began with the introduction of Asian food in 1974. M&S opened stores in continental Europe in Ireland four years later; the company put its main emphasis including a 1957 stocking size measuring system. For most of its history, it had a reputation for offering fair value for money; when this reputation began to waver, it encountered serious difficulties. Arguably, M&S has been an iconic retailer of'British Quality Goods'; the uncompromising attitude towards customer relations was summarised by the 1953 slogan: "The customer is always and right!"Energy efficiency was improved by the addition of thermostatically controlled refrigerators in 1963. M&S began selling Christmas cakes and Christmas puddings in 1958. In an effort to improve the quality of their Swiss rolls, they hired the food expert Nat Goldberg, who made a major improvement across their entire cake range, which had lost the public's favour a few years earlier; as a measure to improve food quality, food labelling was improved and "sell by dates" were phased in between 1970 and 1972.
Smoking was banned from all M&S shops in 1959. In 1972, Marcus Sieff became chairman, remaining in place until 1984, emphasising the importance of good staff relations to the tradition of the store, while extending staff benefits to areas such as restaurants and chiropody. M&S opened its first Asian store in Kabul, Afghanistan in 1960; the company expanded into Canada in 1973, at one point had forty-seven stores across Canada. Despite various efforts to improve its image, the chain was never able to move beyond its reputation there as a stodgy retailer, one that catered to senior citizens and expatriate Britons; the shops in Canada were smaller than British outlets, did not carry the same selection. In the late 1990s, further efforts were made to modernise them and expand the customer base. Unprofitable locations were closed. Nonetheless, the Canadian operations continued to lose money, the last 38 shops in Canada were closed in 1999. Expansion into France began with shops opening in Paris at Boulevard Hauss
Great British Beer Festival
The Great British Beer Festival is an annual beer festival organised by the Campaign for Real Ale. It presents other alcoholic drinks from the UK and beyond; the festival is home to the Champion Beer of Britain awards and is held in August of each year. 2017 marked the 40th anniversary of the GBBF. GBBF's sister festival, the Great British Beer Festival Winter concentrates on beer styles such as porter and stout and is held in February each year. GBBF is styled as the "biggest pub in the world" and offers around 900 different beverages, at least 450 of which are beers from British breweries, as well as around 200 foreign beers from countries including Belgium and the USA, as well traditional British cider and perry; the festival is staffed around 1000 of whom work at the festival. The festival is held during the first full week in August and runs from Tuesday to Saturday; the Tuesday afternoon session is only open to the trade and press, with the Champion Beer of Britain award winners being announced mid-afternoon.
The general public are admitted to afternoon and evening sessions from Tuesday evening until Saturday evening. CAMRA figures show that in 2006, over 66,000 people visited the festival over the course of the week and consumed some 350,000 pints of beer — one pint sold in less than half of every open second. Part of the huge improvement on 2005 was attributed by the festival organiser, Marc Holmes, to the move from Olympia to Earls Court, a much larger and accessible venue. Since 2012 the event remains massively popular; as well as the beer, the festival offers entertainment such as live music and traditional pub games, as well as a variety of food stands. The 2018 festival takes place 7-11 August. CAMRA held their first large beer festival in Covent Garden, London in September 1975, it was a 4-day event. Speaking it was not a GBBF, but it has been considered the forerunner of the festival; the first "proper" GBBF was held in 1977 at Alexandra Palace. The venue has moved between cities since it was first established but has settled in London since 1991.
The only year in which a festival was not held was 1984, due to a fire at the venue. 1977: Alexandra Palace, London 1978: Alexandra Palace, London 1979: Alexandra Palace, London 1980: Alexandra Palace 1981: Queens Hall, Leeds. Great British Beer Festival held outside London for the first time. 1982: Queens Hall, Leeds 1983: Bingley Hall, Birmingham 1984: No event 1985: Metropole, Brighton 1986: Metropole, Brighton 1987: Metropole, Brighton 1988: Queens Hall, Leeds 1989: Queens Hall, Leeds 1990: Metropole, Brighton 1991: Docklands Arena, London 1992: Olympia, London 1993: Olympia, London 1994: Olympia, London 1995: Olympia, London 1996: Olympia, London 1997: Olympia, London 1998: Olympia, London 1999: Olympia, London 2000: Olympia, London 2001: Olympia, London 2002: Olympia, London 2003: Olympia, London 2004: Olympia, London 2005: Olympia, London 2006: Earls Court, London 2007: Earls Court, London Celebrated as the 30th Anniversary of the festival 2008: Earls Court, London 2009: Earls Court, London 2010: Earls Court, London 66,900 people attended 2011: Earls Court, London 62,446 people attended 2012: Olympia, London 2013: Olympia, London 2014: Olympia, London 2015: Olympia, London 2016: Olympia, London 2017: Olympia, London 2018: Olympia, London Champion Beer of Britain National Winter Ales Festival Champion Winter Beer of Britain Campaign for Real Ale GBBF website CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale Festival of Beer: Search for Beer Festivals around the World GBBF for tourists
Gin is a distilled alcoholic drink that derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries. Gin is one of the broadest categories of spirits, all of various origins and flavour profiles, that revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, the drink has evolved from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed based on the older Dutch liquor and became popular in Great Britain when William of Orange became King William III of England. Gin today is produced in subtly different ways, from a wide range of herbal ingredients, giving rise to a number of distinct styles and brands. After juniper, gin tends to be flavoured with botanical/herbal, floral or fruit-flavours or a combination, it is most consumed mixed with tonic water. Gin is often used as a base spirit to produce flavoured gin-based liqueurs such as, for example, Sloe gin, traditionally by the addition of fruit and sugar; the earliest known written reference to genever appears in the 13th-century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme, with the earliest printed recipe for genever dating from 16th-century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec.
The physician Franciscus Sylvius has been falsely credited with the invention of gin in the mid-17th century, although the existence of genever is confirmed in Philip Massinger's play The Duke of Milan, when Sylvius would have been about nine years old. It is further claimed that English soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in 1585, during the Eighty Years' War, were drinking genever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch courage is believed to have originated. According to some unconfirmed accounts Gin originated in Italy. By the mid-17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or malt wine with juniper, caraway, etc. which were sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, stomach ailments and gout. Gin emerged in England in varying forms by the early 17th century, at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. Gin became vastly more popular as an alternative to brandy, when William III, II & I and Mary II became co-sovereigns of England and Ireland after leading the Glorious Revolution.
In crude, inferior forms, where it was more to be flavoured with turpentine. Gin drinking in England rose after the government allowed unlicensed gin production, at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits such as French brandy; this created a larger market for poor-quality barley, unfit for brewing beer, in 1695–1735 thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze.. Because of the low price of gin, when compared with other drinks available at the same time, in the same geographic location, gin began to be consumed by the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, was blamed for various social problems, it may have been a factor in the higher death rates which stabilized London's growing population; the reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane, described by the BBC as "arguably the most potent anti-drug poster conceived."
The negative reputation of gin survives today in the English language, in terms like gin mills or the American phrase gin joints to describe disreputable bars, or gin-soaked to refer to drunks. The epithet mother's ruin is a common British name for gin, the origin of, the subject of ongoing debate; the Gin Act 1736 led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was reduced and abolished in 1742; the Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today. In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled in residential houses and was flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper; as late as 1913, Webster's Dictionary states without further comment, "'common gin' is flavoured with turpentine". Another common variation was to distill in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin.
Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl ether, which forms an azeotrope with ethanol, therefore distils with it. The result is a sweeter spirit, one that may have possessed additional analgesic or intoxicating effects – see Paracelsus. Dutch or Belgian gin known as jenever or genever, evolved from malt wine spirits, is a distinctly different drink from styles of gin. Schiedam, a city in the province of South Holland, is famous for its jenever-producing history; the same for Hasselt in the Belgian province of Limburg. The oude style of jenever remained popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as Holland or Geneva gin in popular, pre-Prohibition bartender guides; the 18th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom gin, which