Nukunu are an indigenous Australian people of South Australia, living around the Spencer Gulf which since British settlement has developed to contain the cities of Port Pirie and Port Augusta. Both the Murray River Ngaiawang and the Adelaide region's Kaurna used their variant pronunciation for the Nukuni, namely and nokuna, to signify, an assassin, a mythical figure, given to roaming about at night in search of people to kill. Nukunu language, together with Ngadjuri, with which it has a 90% overlap, is broadly classified by Luise Hercus, following the taxonomy of Wilhelm Schmidt, as belonging to the Miru cluster of the Thura-Yura languages. According to Norman Tindale's calculations, the Nukunu possessed 2,200 square miles of tribal land; this lay on the eastern side of Spencer Gulf, from a point just north of the mouth of the Broughton River and the vicinity of Crystal Brook to Port Augusta. Their eastern extension ran to Melrose, Mount Remarkable and Quorn, they were present at Baroota; the Nukunu were the southeastern-most tribe which adopted not only circumcision but subincision as part of their rite of initiating young males into full tribal status.
The Nukunu took pride in being "ritual purists". A. P. Elkin established that the Nukunu represented the most southeasternly tribe maintaining a matrilineal moiety system, involving two marriage moieties, the Mathari and the Kararru; the system was akin to that existing among the Barngarla and Wailpi. The Nukunu land was full of sacred sites, formed the starting point for the longest songline registered in Australia, the Urumbula songline extending from a large tree, representing the Milky Way, said to stand near the present day Port Augusta Hospital northwards right to the Gulf of Carpentaria; the story cycle dealt with the wanderings of the western quoll. The Arerrnte central desert people retain details of the mythical events which are located far south, in Nukunu tribal lands. Colonization first began in 1849, a late estimate is that the tribe consisted of between 50 ands 100 "souls". Before this, it is thought that the Nukunu had been ravaged by the spread of smallpox from the Murray River, some two decades earlier.
The subsequent transformation of the land for pastoral and wheat-growing purposes devastated the Nukunu. Peter Ferguson and William Younghusband took up a "run" of some 560 square miles from Thalpiri, now known as Port Pyrie to Crystal Brook, stocked with 25,000 sheep and 3400 cattle. In late June 1852 Ferguson, a gaunt Scottish Highlander recorded in colonial memory as "as good-hearted a man as lived", rounded up seven "niggers" after pursuing them to retrieve 54 sheep, taken from his flocks and they were remanded at Clare County Court for trial in Adelaide, but were released after two months when no plaintiffs appeared to assist the prosecution. In 1854, after cattle had been pilfered, together with his stockmen, is reported as having killed a group of local aborigines at Crystal Brook, Writing in 1880, J. C. Valentine stated that only 8 Nukunu had survived these radical upheavals, five men and three women, the rest, in his view, having expired from phthisis; this enclosure of their tribal lands for pastoralism led to the dispossession, decimation, of the Nukunu from the end of the 1840s onwards, small remnants took refuge in scattered camps around Orroroo, Wilmington, Stirling North, Baroota.
Some Nukunu managed to keep alive their direct attachment to their traditional lands by remaining at Port Germein, the Baroota reserve set aside for them, at Port Augusta. With their fragmentation and dispersion, they could no longer adhere to their rigorous rules, subsequently intermarried with people with Narungga and Wirangu descent, while maintaining a keen sense of their Nukunu identity. Wongaidja Nukuna Nukunnu Nugunu Nookoona, Noocoona, Nokunna Nu-guna Pukunna.. Tura. Tyura Doora Eura. Warra Barutadura. Nhantu. Nyilka.. Yartli. Ngami/ngangkayi. Kutnyu
Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park
The Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park is situated 400 km north of Adelaide in the northern central part of South Australia's largest mountain range, the Flinders Ranges. The park covers an area of 912 km², northeast of the small town of Hawker; the Heysen Trail and Mawson Trails pass through the park. The park's most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre covering nearly 80 km², containing the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak. On 12 February 2016 the park was renamed to include the Adnyamathanha word, Ikara, "meeting place", referring to the traditional name for Wilpena Pound; the park centre at Wilpena Pound is accessible by sealed road from Hawker. Other areas in the park can be reached by un-sealed roads, which are accessible by two-wheel drive vehicles except in bad weather or after heavy rain. There are many lookouts, scenic vistas, small canyons and unusual rock formations located in the park; these include Wilpena Pound, Wilkawillina Gorge, Hucks Lookout, Brachina Gorge, Bunyeroo Gorge and Arkaroo Rock.
The park has some stone ruins from early European settlement and Aboriginal rock art sites. A rock formation called. Camping is permitted at many locations in the park; the Flinders Ranges are composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline. This thick sequence of sediments were deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian 540 million years ago, the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny where the geosynclinal sequence was folded and faulted into a large mountain range. Since this time the area has undergone erosion resulting in the low ranges today. Most of the high ground and ridgetops in the Flinders are sequences of quartzites that outcrop along strike; the high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. The same formation forms many of the other high parts of the Flinders, including the high plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range.
Cuesta forms are very common in the Flinders. The flora of the Flinders Ranges is composed of species adapted to a semi-arid environment such as cypress-pine and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers and ferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as waterholes. Since the eradication of dingos and the establishment of permanent waterholes for stock, the numbers of red kangaroos, western grey kangaroos and euros in the Flinders Ranges have increased; the yellow-footed rock-wallaby, which neared extinction after the arrival of Europeans due to hunting and predation by foxes, has now stabilized. Other endemic marsupials include planigales. Echidnas are the sole monotreme species in the park. Insectivorous bats make up significant proportion of mammals in the area. Reptiles include goannas, dragon lizards and geckos; the streambank froglet is an endemic amphibian. There are a large number of bird species including various parrots, the wedge-tailed eagles and small numbers of waterbirds.
The land within the national park has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it contains an sustainable population of the range-restricted short-tailed grasswren. There are a number of heritage-listed sites within the national park: Eddie Pumpa Outstation Hayward Homestead Ruins Impact Ejecta Horizon Late Precambrian Shales Geological Site Enorama Mail Station and Rubbish Dump Oraparinna Diapir Wilpena Homestead Complex Wilpena Pound Stromatolites in the Precambrian Trezona Formation, Enorama Creek Wills Homestead Complex Ruins Appealinna Mine Ruins and Miners Hut Wilkawillina Archaeocyathae Geological Site Dingley Dell Homestead Ruins Hill's Cottage, Wilpena Pound Enorama Diapir Oraparinna Station Blacksmith's Shop Protected areas of South Australia Cazneaux Tree Arkaroola Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park Mawson Plateau Mount Chambers Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park official website Flinders Rangers & Outback at SouthAustralia.com Flinders Ranges National Park page on ProtectedPlanet
Federal Court of Australia
The Federal Court of Australia is an Australian superior court of record which has jurisdiction to deal with most civil disputes governed by federal law, along with some summary criminal matters. Cases are heard at first instance by single Judges; the Court includes an appeal division referred to as the Full Court comprising three Judges, the only avenue of appeal from which lies to the High Court of Australia. In the Australian court hierarchy, the Federal Court occupies a position equivalent to the Supreme Courts of each of the states and territories. In relation to the other Courts in the federal stream, it is equal to the Family Court of Australia, superior to the Federal Circuit Court, it was established in 1976 by the Federal Court of Australia Act. The Chief Justice of the Federal Court is James Allsop; the Federal Court has no inherent jurisdiction. Its jurisdiction flows from statute; the Court's original jurisdiction include matters arising from Commonwealth legislation such as, for example, matters relating to taxation, trade practices, native title, intellectual property, industrial relations, corporations and bankruptcy.
The Federal Court of Australia has appellate jurisdiction from the Federal Circuit Court of Australia on all matters, with the exception of family law, where the Family Court of Australia has appellate jurisdiction. The Court exercises general appellate jurisdiction in criminal and civil matters on appeal from the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island. Other federal courts and tribunals where the Court exercises appellate jurisdiction include the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority and the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission; the jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Australia includes the jurisdiction exercised by two former federal courts, the Federal Court of Bankruptcy and the Commonwealth Industrial Court. The Federal Court of Bankruptcy had jurisdiction in bankruptcy matters and was created in 1930; the jurisdiction in bankruptcy was transferred to the Federal Court of Australia on its establishment in 1977. The Commonwealth Industrial Court was established in 1956 as a result of the Boilermaker's case, where the High Court held that a Chapter III Court could not exercise a non-judicial power, the arbitral function, because of the constitutional separation of powers in Australia.
The judicial functions were given to the newly created Commonwealth Industrial Court and the arbitral functions were given to Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission. The Court was renamed the Australian Industrial Court in 1973. In 1977 the jurisdiction of the Australian Industrial Court was transferred to the Federal Court of Australia. In 1993 the industrial relations jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Australia was transferred to the Industrial Relations Court of Australia, transferred back to the Federal Court of Australia in 1996; the last judge of the Industrial Relations Court, Anthony North, retired in September 2018. Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Adelaide HobartDuncan Kerr List of judges of the Federal Court of Australia List of Federal Court of Australia cases Federal Court of Australia Full text of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976
Department for Environment and Water (South Australia)
The Department for Environment and Water is a department of the Government of South Australia. Created on 1 July 2012 by the merger of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Department for Water as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, it was given its present name on 22 March 2018, it is responsible for ensuring that South Australia's natural resources are managed productively and sustainably, while improving the condition and resilience of the state's natural environment. Following the Liberal Party's victory in the 2018 state election, the department was renamed as the Department for Environment and Water on 2 March 2018. On 23 December 1971, a new department called the Department of Environment and Conservation was created by the amalgamation of the Museum Department and the State Planning Office, part of the Department of the Premier and of Development. On 18 December 1975, the Department of Environment and Conservation was renamed as the Department for the Environment following a merger with the Botanic Garden Department.
On 11 May 1981, the Department for the Environment and the Department of Urban and Regional Affairs were merged with the Department of Environment and Planning, created on 7 August 1980 when it only consisted of the office of its first permanent head. On 8 October 1992, the Department of Environment and Planning was abolished on 8 October 1992 and its parts were distributed to new entities including the Department of Environment and Land Management which included the entirety of the former Department of Lands, abolished on 8 October 1992. On 1 October 1993, the Department of Environment and Land Management was renamed as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 23 October 1997, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was abolished and replaced in part by the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs which included “employees” of other abolished “Administrative Units” such as the Department of State Aboriginal Affairs and the Department of Mines and Energy.
In 1999, the Department for Environment and Aboriginal Affairs became the Department for Environment and Heritage. On 1 July 2010, the Department for Environment and Heritage was renamed for the second time as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. On 1 July 2012, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources became the Department of Environment and Natural Resources after acquiring the roles and responsibilities of the former Department of Water. Protected areas of South Australia State Herbarium of South Australia List of environmental ministries Water Witch Friends of Parks National Parks and Wildlife Service Australasian Fire and Emergency Service Authorities Council Premier's Climate Change Council The Department for Environment and Water. Government of South Australia. Retrieved 24 March 2018
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
The Flinders Ranges are the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts about 200 km north of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over 430 km from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna, its most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre that covers 80 km2, contains the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak which adjoins the Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park. The northern ranges are protected by the Arkaroola Protection Area and the Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park; the southern ranges are notable for the Pichi Richi scenic railway and Mount Remarkable National Park. The Adnyamathanha people are the indigenous inhabitants of the range. Several small areas in the Ranges have protected area status; these include the Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park near Wilpena Pound, the Mount Remarkable National Park in the south near Melrose, the Arkaroola Protection Area in the north, The Dutchmans Stern Conservation Park west of Quorn, the Mount Brown Conservation Park south of Quorn.
The Heysen Trail and Mawson Trail run for several hundred kilometres along the ranges, providing scenic long distance routes for walkers and horse-riders. The Flinders Ranges are composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline; this thick sequence was deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny, when this sequence of rocks was folded and faulted into a large mountain range; the area has undergone subsequent erosion resulting in the low ranges today. Most of the high ground and ridgetops are sequences of quartzites; the high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. Synclines form other high parts of the Flinders, including the plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range. Cuesta forms are very common; the Ranges are renowned for the Ediacara Hills, South-west of Leigh Creek, where in 1946 some of the oldest fossil evidence of animal life was discovered.
Similar fossils have subsequently been found in the ranges, although their locations are kept secret to protect the sites. In 2004 a new geological period, the Ediacaran Period, was created to mark the appearance of Ediacara biota; the region has a semi-arid climate with cool winters. Summer temperatures exceed 38 °C, while winters have highs around 13–16 °C, depending on the elevation. Although rainfall is erratic, most of the precipitation falls in winter. There are some monsoonal showers and storms that move in from the north during the summer; the area gets around 250 mm of rain annually, at 350 mm. Frost is common on winter mornings and temperatures have dropped as low as −8 °C. Snow has been recorded in the Wilpena Pound and at Blinman; the last significant snowfall was in 1995. The flora of the Ranges are species adapted to a semi-arid environment, including sugar gum, cypress-pine and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers and ferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as waterholes.
Since the eradication of dingos and the establishment of permanent waterholes for stock, the number of red kangaroos, western grey kangaroos and wallaroos in the Flinders Ranges has increased. The yellow-footed rock-wallaby, which neared extinction after the arrival of Europeans due to hunting and predation by foxes, has now stabilised. Other endemic marsupials include planigales. Insectivorous bats make up a significant proportion of the mammals. There are a large number of bird species including parrots, emus, the wedge-tailed eagle and small numbers of water birds. Reptiles include goannas, dragon lizards and geckos; the streambank froglet is an endemic amphibian. The Ranges are part of the Tirari–Sturt stony desert ecoregion; the first humans to inhabit the Flinders Ranges were the Adnyamathanha people whose descendants still reside in the area, the Ndajurri people who no longer exist. Cave paintings, rock engravings and other artefacts indicate that the Adnyamathana and Ndajurri lived in the Flinders Ranges for tens of thousands of years.
Occupation of the Warratyi rock shelter dates back 49,000 years. The first European explorers were an exploration party from Matthew Flinders' seagoing visit to upper Spencer Gulf aboard HMS Investigator, they climbed Mount Brown in March 1802. In the winter of 1839 Edward John Eyre, with five men, two drays and ten horses, further explored the region, setting out from Adelaide on 1 May; the party set up a depot near Mount Arden, explored the surrounding region and upper Spencer Gulf, before heading east to the Murray River and returning to Adelaide. There are records of squatters in the Quorn district as early as 1845, the first pastoral leases were granted in 1851. William Pinkerton is credited as being the first European to find a route through the Flinders Ranges via Pichi Richi Pass. In 1853 he drove 7,000 sheep along the eastern plains of the range to where Quorn would be built 25 years later. In 1851 Wilpena and Aroona were established as sheep stations, within a few years other runs were marked out through the hills and along the adjoining eastern and western slopes.
In 1852 Kanyaka Station was established by Hugh Proby. During the late 1870s the push to open agricultural land for wheat north of the Goyder's Line h
Lake Torrens is a large ephemeral endorheic salt lake in central South Australia. After extreme rainfall events, the lake flows out through the Pirie-Torrens Corridor to the Spencer Gulf. Lake Torrens lies between the Arcoona Plateau to the west and the Flinders Ranges to the east, about 65 kilometres north of Port Augusta and about 345 kilometres north of the Adelaide city centre; the lake is 30 metres above sea level, with a maximum depth of 1 m. It is located within the boundaries of Lake Torrens National Park. Lake Torrens stretches 250 kilometres in length and 30 kilometres in average width, it is Australia's second largest lake when filled with water and encompasses an area of 5,745 square kilometres. The Lake Torrens catchment is an endorheic basin. 35,000 years ago, the lake water was fresh to brackish, but has become saline since. The traditional owners of the area are the Arabunna peoples to the north, the Kokatha to the west and the Kyuni to the east; the first European to see the lake was Edward Eyre in 1839 who spotted the salt bed from Mount Arden at the head of the Spencer Gulf.
Eyre named the lake after Colonel Robert Torrens, one of the founders of the South Australian colony. The lake filled in 1897 and again in April 1989; the 1989 filling resulted in the lake outflowing through the Pirie-Torrens Corridor to the Spencer Gulf, suggesting it did so in 1897 as well. It has a thin salt crust with red-brown clays beneath, which are boggy; the area around the lake is sparsely vegetated with samphire and bluebush. In April 2013, the full extent of Lake Torrens was gazetted by the Government of South Australia as a locality with the name Lake Torrens; the full extent of Lake Torrens has been protected as a national park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 since 1991. Lake Torrens is part of an area known as the Inland Saline Lakes, listed in the Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia since at least 1995. Lake Torrens has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area known as the Lake Torrens Important Bird Area because it supported up to 100,000 breeding banded stilts during the major filling event of 1989.
It may support over 1% of the world population of red-capped plovers. Cinnamon quail-thrushes are common in the IBA. Lake Eyre List of lakes of South Australia