Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
Stijn, Baron Coninx is a Belgian film director. He studied film directing at HRITCS. Baron Coninx is best known for his film Daens, nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1992, he was made a Baron by King Albert II of Belgium. 1993: Created Baron Coninx by King Baudouin of Belgium member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts. Servais, his university finals film. Surfing, short film. Hector Koko Flanel Daens When the Light Comes Further Than the Moon To Walk Again, documentary Sister Smile Marina Ay Ramon! Niet Schieten Het Beest Zaman Wildschut De Leeuw van Vlaanderen Skin Blueberry Hill Het Peulengaleis TV series Nefast voor de feestvreugde TV series Stijn Coninx on IMDb Stijn Coninx - Film information from the Belgium government site belgium.be
Jan Decleir is a prolific Belgian movie and stage actor born in Niel, Antwerp. He had his first big role in Fons Rademakers's Mira. Since he has appeared in countless Flemish and Dutch films and TV productions. In the world of theater he gained his fame by acting at the International New Scene for the play Mistero Buffo by Dario Fo. To the larger audiences of television he became known through his role of Sil de strandjutter in 1976 in the named TV series, he starred in Academy Award winning movies including Karakter by Mike van Diem and Antonia and the Oscar-nominated social drama Daens. More he turned down roles in Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut and the James Bond film The World Is Not Enough. Decleir is Belgium's national performer of Sinterklaas since 1993. In 2003 he had the starring role in the critically acclaimed thriller The Memory of a Killer of which the leading American critic Roger Ebert wrote in his review: "Jan Decleir never goes for the easy effect, never pushes too hard, is a rock-solid occupant of his character.
Everything he has to say is embodied, not expressed. Talks are under way for a Hollywood remake, but this performance will not be equaled. Gene Hackman, maybe. Morgan Freeman. Robert Mitchum, if he were alive. Decleir is the real thing." For several years he lead the Studio Herman Teirnlick where he brought in many new teachers: actors from various theater companies. Jan Decleir has been married to Brechtje Louwaard since April 1, 2006, he was married to Caroline van Gastel with whom he has 3 children. Both his siblings - sister Reinhilde Decleir and brother Dirk Decleir have been involved in acting, too. Over the lifespan of his career Jan Decleir has received several prices for his acting, he was awarded with the Best Actor Award for his role in Off Screen at the Montreal World Film Festival. In 2003 he received Golden Calf Culture Prize and in 2007 a Golden Calf for Best Supporting Actor for the movie Wolfsbergen at the Netherlands Film Festival. In 2008 he was awarded with the best actor prize at the Tiburon International Film Festival for his role in Man zkt vrouw.
For his role in The Barons, he received the Magritte Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 2013 he received the Flemish Culture Prize for General Cultural Merit. Heeft geleden onder Pontius Pilatus Geboorte en dood van Dirk Vandersteen jr. Het huis met de maskers De meeuw Klucht van de brave moordenaar Koning Lear Het Helleschip Zeven miljoen molekulen De Familie Tot Mira, aka Mira of de teleurgang van de waterhoek August, August Rolande met de bles De Loteling De Vrek Verloren maandag Verbrande brug Pallieter De man in de rok en de man zonder Niet alle dieven komen ongelegen Als schilders konden spreken Une page d'amour Doodzonde De proefkonijnen Grueten broos Le Grand Paysage d'Alexis Droeven Twee vorstinnen en een vorst Tijd om gelukkig te zijn Het verleden Toute une nuit Maria Danneels Zware jongens De Loteling John The Fearless De Leeuw van Vlaanderen Het gezin van Paemel De Tijger Het eerste mirakel van kindeke Jesus Het Sacrament Koko Flanel Dilemma Anchoress Daens Beck - De gesloten kamer Antonia's Line Camping Cosmos Character S.
Taming the Floods Retour Den Haag Molokai: The Story of Father Damien Shades Kruimeltje Running Free Lijmen/Het Been Mariken De omweg De verlossing Villa des Roses Hop Brush with Fate Rosenstrasse SuperTex Till Eusterspiegel Vlucht der verbeelding De Zaak Alzheimer L'Autre De passievrucht Edelweißpiraten De kus Off screen Een Ander Zijn Geluk Verlengd weekend Het Paard van Sinterklaas Crusade in Jeans Wolfsbergen - see Nanouk Leopold Man zkt vrouw Blind Loft The Barons De schaduw van Bonifatius Nova Zembla Flying Home The Surprise He is known from Flemish TV series such as: Keromar Sil de strandjutter Adriaen Brouwer Klein Londen, Klein Berlijn Moeder, waarom leven wij? Dag Sinterklaas Ons geluk Gaston Berghmans Show Kulderzipken Diamant Grote boze wolf show Stille waters De 9 dagen van de gier Meiden van De Wit Koning van de wereld Als't maar beweegt De kavijaks MARX Risjaar Drei Onvoltooid verleden Bloedarm Lucifer En verlos ons van het kwade All for love Gilles! DE TIJGER Obscene Fabels De parochie van miserie De meeuw Het goudland Jan Decleir on IMDb Jan Decleir on Cinenews
Antoon Stillemans was a Belgian bishop. He was the twenty-fourth bishop of Ghent during 26 years. Stillemans began studies at the St. Joseph Minor Seminary of Sint-Niklaas in 1846. In 1853 he studied at the major seminary in Ghent. in 1860 he earned a doctoral degree in philosophy at Leuven. Stillemans' brother, Pierre-Louis Stillemans became a priest, he was named in 1867 Superior of the St. Joseph Minor Seminary of Sint-Niklaas, for a period of 21 years, he became president of the Major seminary in 1888 and canon of the cathedral chapter of Ghent and member of the episcopal council. He was canon elect after the sudden death of Henri-Charles Lambrecht, he promoted the Gothic Revival, had the current Episcopal Palace in Ghent restyled as well he constructed the new major seminary in Ghent. He named his brother priest Pierre-Louis Stillemans Honorary canon of St-Bavon. During his episcopate he suspended in 1899 under pression of the royal court and Minister Woeste the political priest in Aalst, Adolf Daens.
He promoted the social cultural movement of Flanders. In 1902 he consecrated the Abbey church of Dendermonde. In 1906, he celebrated his golden jubilee of priest and in 1914, his silver jubilee of bishop of Ghent, he was honored with the sacred pallium with papal permission at the end of his career. A street was named in his honor in Sint-Niklaas, as well a colored window inside the town hall, he gifted Sint-Niklaas with a large copy of his portrait; the colors of the city and yellow are reflected in his heraldic episcopal crest. After his death he left his crosier to the main church of Sint-Niklaas, he was succeeded by Mgr. Emiel Jan Seghers. 7 October 1889: Dr Honoris Causa. 1895: Officer in the Order of Leopold. 14 November 1901: Papal Prelat Domestic, assistant of the pontifical throne. 30 November 1911: pallium by pontifical dispensation. Catholic-hierarchy.org lukasweb.be
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church for men founded by Ignatius of Loyola and approved by Pope Paul III. The members are called Jesuits; the society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations. Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, promote ecumenical dialogue. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona, he composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. In 1534, Ignatius and six other young men, including Francis Xavier and Peter Faber and professed vows of poverty and obedience, including a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment. Ignatius's plan of the order's organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the "Formula of the Institute".
Ignatius was a nobleman who had a military background, the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world, where they might be required to live in extreme conditions. Accordingly, the opening lines of the founding document declared that the society was founded for "whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine." Jesuits are thus sometimes referred to colloquially as "God's soldiers", "God's marines", or "the Company", which evolved from references to Ignatius' history as a soldier and the society's commitment to accepting orders anywhere and to endure any conditions. The society participated in the Counter-Reformation and in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council; the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, it is led by a Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome.
The historic curia of Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit mother church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit to be elected Pope, taking the name Pope Francis; as of 2012, the Jesuits formed the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. The Jesuits have experienced a decline in numbers in recent decades; as of 2017 the society had 16,088 members, 11,583 priests and 4,505 Jesuits in formation, which includes brothers and scholastics. This represents a 42.6 percent decline since 1977, when the society had a total membership of 28,038, of which 20,205 were priests. This decline is most pronounced in Europe and the Americas, with modest membership gains occurring in Asia and Africa. There seems to be no "Pope Francis effect" in counteracting the fall of vocations among the Jesuits; the society is divided into 83 provinces along with six independent regions and ten dependent regions. On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and the US.
Their average age was 57.3 years: 63.4 years for priests, 29.9 years for scholastics, 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa; the society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is active in the Philippines and India. In the United States the Jesuits have historical ties to 28 colleges and universities and 61 high schools; the degree to which the Jesuits are involved in the administration of each institution varies. As of September 2018, 15 of the 28 Jesuit universities in the US had non-Jesuit lay presidents. According to a 2014 article in The Atlantic, "the number of Jesuit priests who are active in everyday operations at the schools isn’t nearly as high as it once was". Worldwide it runs 172 colleges and universities. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning, lifelong spiritual and intellectual growth, training men and women for others.
Ignatius laid out his original vision for the new order in the "Formula of the Institute of the Society of Jesus", "the fundamental charter of the order, of which all subsequent official documents were elaborations and to which they had to conform." He ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life, apostolate of the new religious order, its famous opening statement echoed Ignatius' military background: Whoever desires to serve as a soldier of God beneath the banner of the Cross in our Society, which we desire to be designated by the Name of Jesus, to serve the Lord alone and the Church, his spouse, under the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Christ on earth, after a solemn vow of perpetual chastity and obedience, keep what follows in mind. He is a member of a Society founded chiefly for this purpose: to strive for the defence and propagation of the faith and for the progress of souls in Christian life and doctrine, by means of public preaching and any other ministration whatsoever of the Word of God, further by means of ret
The Flemish Movement is the political movement for greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language, for the overall protection of Flemish culture and history, in some cases, for splitting from Belgium and forming an independent state. The Flemish Movement's moderate wing was for a long time dominated by the Volksunie, a party that from its onset in 1954 until its collapse in 2002 advanced the Flemish cause although criticised by hardliners for being too accommodating. After the Volksunie's collapse, the party's representatives were absorbed by other Flemish parties. Today nearly every Flemish party can be considered part of the moderate wing of the Flemish Movement; this wing has many ties with union and industry organisations with the VOKA (network of the Vlaams Economisch Verbond. The Flemish Movement's right wing is dominated by radical right-wing organizations such as Vlaams Belang, Nationalistische Studentenvereniging, several others; the most radical group on the left side is the socialist and Flemish independentist Flemish-Socialist Movement.
The militant wing still comprises several moderate groups such as the New Flemish Alliance, several extra-parliamentary organisations, many of which are represented in the Overlegcentrum van Vlaamse Verenigingen. The most important of these is the Vlaamse Volksbeweging. Today, the militant wing of the Flemish Movement advocates the foundation of an independent Flemish republic, separating from Wallonia; the rightist parties Vlaams N-VA support this view. A part of this militant wing advocates reunion with the Netherlands; this view is shared with several Dutch right-winged activists and nationalists, as well as some mainstream politicians both in the Netherlands and Flanders. The liberal List Dedecker, as well as several representatives of important Flemish parties belonging to the moderate wing, including the Christian Democratic and Flemish party, the Flemish Liberals and Democrats party, and, to a lesser extent, the Different Socialist Party, prefer a confederal organisation of the Belgian state over the current federal organisation.
Such a scheme would make the Flemish government responsible for nearly all aspects of government, whereas some important aspects of government are the responsibility of the Belgian federal government. The Belgian capital of Brussels would remain a city where both Dutch-speaking and French-speaking citizens share equal rights; as of 2010, the confederalist parties make up more than half of the Flemish Parliament, which combined with the separatist parties, would result in about 80% of the Flemish Parliament occupied by parties who wish to see Flanders obtaining greater autonomy than is the case today. Several representatives of the SP. A and, to a lesser extent, the CD&V and VLD parties, prefer an improved federal organisation of the Belgian state over a confederal one; this view is shared with several social and cultural organisations such as the Vermeylenfonds or Willemsfonds, with labor unions, with mutual health insurance organisations. The advocates of this view hope to improve the Belgian institutions.
After the secession of Belgium in 1830, the Orangist sentiment in Flanders for a time sought the restoration of the United Kingdom under the house of Orange. Some of the most prominent Flemish Orangists were Hippolyte Metdepenningen; this sentiment inspired the Greater Netherlands movement, although that movement was not all monarchist. At present there is only little public support in Flanders, so there is hardly any public support for the house of Orange. A confederate state made out of these two nations is the only idea. In 1788 Jan Baptist Chrysostomus Verlooy, a jurist and politician from the Southern Netherlands, wrote an essay titled Verhandeling op d'Onacht der moederlycke tael in de Nederlanden, the first sign of life of the Flemish movement: a plea for the native language, but for freedom and democracy; when the Congress of Vienna created the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, with Protestant Willem I its king, he declared Dutch to be the only official language in all the newly created country.
Wallonia, as well as the Catholic clergy and the bourgeoisie in Brussels and Flanders, spoke French, causing unbalanced representation in the Dutch Parliament. On October 4, 1830, Belgian separatists who were French speaking declared the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands; the Flemish provinces were subordinated by a Belgian army consisting of volunteers from Wallonia, supported by French troops. For example, Ghent was taken by the French Count Pontécoulant with volunteers from Brussels and Paris. Large Flemish cities like Ghent and Antwerp were opposed to separation for economic reasons, they had to deal with rebellious workers who choose the side of the Orangists due to poor harvests. This was, more an act of discontent than an act of rejecting separatism. In Bruges, for instance
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC