Windhoek, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres above sea level exactly at the country's geographical centre; the population of Windhoek in 2011 was 325,858, growing continually due to an influx from all over Namibia. The city developed at the site of a permanent hot spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities, it developed after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam, settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. In the decades following, multiple wars and armed hostilities resulted in the neglect and destruction of the new settlement. Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German Army Major Curt von François, when the territory was colonised by the German Empire. Windhoek is the social, economic and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body and cultural institution is headquartered there.
Theories vary on. Most believe. Another theory suggests that Captain Jonker Afrikaner named Windhoek after the Winterhoek Mountains at Tulbagh in South Africa, where his ancestors had lived; the first known mention of the name Windhoek was in a letter from Jonker Afrikaner to Joseph Tindall, dated 12 August 1844. In 1840 Jonker Afrikaner established an Orlam settlement at Windhoek, he and his followers stayed near one of the main hot springs, located in the present-day Klein Windhoek suburb. He built a stone church. Two Rhenish missionaries, Carl Hugo Hahn and Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt, started working there in late 1842. Two years they were driven out by two Methodist Wesleyans, Richard Haddy and Joseph Tindall. Gardens were laid for a while Windhoek prospered. Wars between the Nama and Herero peoples destroyed the settlement. After a long absence, Hahn visited Windhoek again in 1873 and was dismayed to see that nothing remained of the town's former prosperity. In June 1885, a Swiss botanist found only jackals and starving guinea fowl amongst neglected fruit trees.
In 1878, Britain annexed Walvis Bay and incorporated it into the Cape of Good Hope colony in 1884, but Britain did not extend its influence into the interior. A request by merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over what was called German South West Africa in 1884; the borders of the German colony were determined in 1890 and Germany sent a protective corps, the Schutztruppe under Major Curt von François, to maintain order. Von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, strategically situated as a buffer between the Nama and Herero peoples; the twelve strong springs provided water for the cultivation of produce and grains. Colonial Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when von François fixed the foundation stone of the fort, now known as the Alte Feste. After 1907, development accelerated as indigenous people migrated from the countryside to the growing town to seek work. More European settlers arrived from South Africa. Businesses were erected on Kaiser Street, along the dominant mountain ridge over the city.
At this time, Windhoek's three castles, Heinitzburg and Schwerinsburg, were built. The German colonial era came to an end during World War I when South African troops occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of the British Empire. For the next five years, a South African military government administered South West Africa, it was assigned to the United Kingdom as a mandate territory by the newly formed League of Nations, South Africa administered it. Development of the city of Windhoek and the nation to be known as Namibia came to a virtual standstill. After World War II, Windhoek's development gained momentum, as more capital became available to improve the area's economy. After 1955, large public projects were undertaken, such as the building of new schools and hospitals, tarring of the city's roads, the building of dams and pipelines to stabilise the water supply; the city introduced the world's first potable re-use plant in 1958, treating recycled sewage and sending it directly into the town's water supply.
On 1 October 1966 the Administrator of South West Africa granted Windhoek the coat of arms, registered on 2 October 1970 with the South African Bureau of Heraldry. A stylized aloe was the principal emblem, but this was amended to a natural aloe on 15 September 1972; the Coat of Arms is described as "a Windhoek aloe with a raceme of three flowers on an island. Crest: A mural crown Or. Motto: SUUM CUIQUE". Windhoek formally received its town privileges on 18 October 1965 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the second foundation of the town by von François. Since independence in 1990, Windhoek has remained the national capital, as well as the provincial capital of the central Khomas Region. Since independence and the end of warfare, the city has had accelerated development. Expanding the town area has – apart from financial restrictions – proven to be challenging due to its geographical location. In southern and western directions, Windhoek is surrounded by rocky, mountainous areas, which make land development costly.
The southern side is not suitable for industrial development because of the presence of underground aquifers. This leaves the vast Brakwater area north of town the only feasible place for Windhoek's expansion. Windhoek's City Council has plans to dramatica
Fish River (Namibia)
The Fish River is a river in Namibia. It is flowing from the Naukluft Mountains 150 km to the Hardap Dam near Mariental. From there the flow is blocked, all further flow downstream coming from tributaries downstream from the dam; the flow of the river is seasonal. Despite this, the river is the site of the spectacular Fish River Canyon, a canyon 160 km long, at points as much as 550 m deep; the outflow of the Fish River joins the Orange River at the border with South Africa about 100 km from the Atlantic Ocean
German South West Africa
German South West Africa was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919. With an area of 835,100 km², it was one and a half times the size of the mainland German Empire in Europe at the time; the colony had a population of around 2,600 Germans. In 1915, during World War I, German South West Africa was invaded by the Western Allies in the form of South African and British forces. After the war its administration was taken over by the Union of South Africa and the territory was administered as South West Africa under a League of Nations mandate, it became independent as Namibia in 1990. Initial European contact with the areas which would become German South West Africa came from traders and sailors, starting in January 1486 when Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão accompanied by Martin Behaim, landed at Cape Cross. However, for several centuries, European settlement would remain temporary. In February 1805 the London Missionary Society established a small mission in Blydeverwacht, but the efforts of this group met with little success.
In 1840 the London Missionary Society transferred all of its activities to the German Rhenish Missionary Society. Some of the first representatives of this organisation were Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt and Carl Hugo Hahn, they began founding churches throughout the territory. The Rhenish missionaries had a significant impact on culture and dress, later on politics. During the same time that the Rhenish missionaries were active and farmers were establishing outposts. On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena, renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the gunboat SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the corvettes Leipzig and Elisabeth.
The German flag was raised in South West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin. In October, the newly appointed Commissioner for West Africa, Gustav Nachtigal, arrived on the Möwe. In April 1885, the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft für Südwest-Afrika was founded with the support of German bankers and politicians. DKGSWA was granted monopoly rights to exploit mineral deposits; the new Society soon bought the assets of Lüderitz's failing enterprises. In 1908, diamonds were discovered, thus along with gold, copper and other minerals, diamonds became a major investment. Lüderitz drowned in 1886 while on an expedition to the Orange River; the company bought all of Lüderitz' land and mining rights, following Bismarck's policy that private rather than public money should be used to develop the colonies. In May, Heinrich Ernst Göring was appointed Commissioner and established his administration at Otjimbingwe. On 17 April 1886, a law creating the legal system of the colony was passed, creating a dual system with laws for Europeans and different laws for natives.
Over the following years relations between the German settlers and the indigenous peoples continued to worsen. Additionally, the British settlement at Walvis Bay, a coastal enclave within South West Africa, continued to develop, many small farmers and missionaries moved into the region. A complex web of treaties and vendettas increased the unrest. In 1888 the first group of Schutztruppen—colonial protectorate troops—arrived, sent to protect the military base at Otjimbingwe. In 1890 the colony was declared a German Crown Colony, more troops were sent. In July of the same year, as part of the Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty between Britain and Germany, the colony grew in size through the acquisition of the Caprivi Strip in the northeast, promising new trade routes into the interior. Between August and September 1892, the South West Africa Company Ltd was established by the German and Cape Colony governments, aided by financiers to raise the capital required to enlarge mineral exploitation. German South West Africa was the only German colony.
German settlers were drawn to the colony by economic possibilities in diamond and copper mining, farming. In 1902 the colony had 200,000 inhabitants, although only 2,595 were recorded as German, while 1,354 were Afrikaners and 452 were British. By 1914, 9,000 more German settlers had arrived. There were around 80,000 Herero, 60,000 Ovambo, 10,000 Nama, who were referred to as Hottentots. Through 1893 and 1894, the first "Hottentot Uprising" of the Nama and their legendary leader Hendrik Witbooi occurred; the following years saw many further local uprisings against German rule. Before the Herero and Namaqua genocide of 1904–1907, the Herero and Nama had good reasons to distrust the Germans, culminating in the Khaua-Mbandjeru rebellion; this rebellion, in which the Germans tried to control the Khaua by seizing their property by artificially imposing European legal views of property ownership, led to the largest of the rebellions, known as the Herero Wars of 1904. Remote farms were attacked, and
Lüderitz is a harbour town in the ǁKaras Region of southern Namibia. It lies on one of the least hospitable coasts in Africa, it is a port developed around Shark Island. The town is known for its colonial architecture, including some Art Nouveau work, for wildlife including seals, penguins and ostriches, it is home to a museum, lies at the end of a decommissioned railway line to Keetmanshoop. The bay on which Lüderitz is situated was first known to Europeans when Bartolomeu Dias encountered it in 1487, he erected a padrão on the southern peninsula. In the 18th century Dutch adventurers and scientists explored the area in search of minerals but did not have much success. Further exploration expeditions followed in the early 19th century during which the vast wildlife in the ocean was discovered. Profitable enterprises were set up, including whaling, seal hunting and guano-harvesting. Lüderitz thus began its life as a trading post; the town was founded in 1883 when Heinrich Vogelsang purchased Angra Pequena and some of the surrounding land on behalf of Adolf Lüderitz, a Hanseat from Bremen in Germany, from the local Nama chief Josef Frederiks II in Bethanie.
When Adolf Lüderitz did not return from an expedition to the Orange River in 1886, Angra Pequena was named Lüderitzbucht in his honour. In 1905, German authorities established a concentration camp on Shark Island; the camp, access to, restricted, operated between 1905 and 1907 during the Herero Wars. Between 1,000 and 3,000 Africans from the Herero and Nama tribes died here as a result of the tragic conditions of forced labour, their labour was used for expansion of the city, port and on the farms of white settlers. In 1909, after the discovery of diamonds nearby, Lüderitz enjoyed a sudden surge of prosperity due to the development of a diamond rush to the area. In 1912 Lüderitz had 1,100 inhabitants, not counting the indigenous population. Although situated in harsh environment between desert and Ocean, trade in the harbour town surged, the adjacent diamond mining settlement of Kolmanskop was built. After the German World War I capitulation South Africa took over the administration of German South West Africa in 1915.
Many Germans were deported from Lüderitz, contributing to its shrinking in population numbers. From 1920 onwards, diamond mining was only conducted further south of town in places like Pomona and Elizabeth Bay; this development led to the loss of Lüderitz' importance as a trading place. Only small fishing enterprises, minimal dock activity and a few carpet weavers remained. In an effort to remove colonial names from the maps of Namibia, in 2013 the Namibian government renamed the constituency ǃNamiǂNûs, its name prior to 1884; the harbour has a shallow rock bottom, making it unusable for modern ships. However, the addition of a new quay has allowed larger fishing vessels to dock at Lüderitz; the town has re-styled itself in an attempt to lure tourists to the area, which includes a new waterfront area for shops and offices. Just outside Lüderitz lies the ghost town of a prominent tourist destination; this bustling diamond town is now abandoned, fights a constant struggle against being buried under the shifting sand dunes of the Namib desert.
The coastline in the area is recognised by Bird Life and other global conservation groups as one of the Important Bird Areas for important coastal seabird breeding. Mercury Island, Ichaboe Island, Halifax Island and the Possession Islands support the entire Namibian breeding population of Cape gannets, 96% of the Namibian population of the endangered African penguin, nearly one quarter of the global breeding population of crowned cormorants. 80% of the global population of the endangered Bank cormorant breeds on Mercury Island and in the Ichaboe Islands. In April 2009, an oil spill from an oil tanker risked hundreds of African penguins and other flora and fauna. Several species of cetaceans, most notably Haviside's dolphins, can be seen close to the shore while larger whales such as southern right, minke, pygmy right, are less common but increasing in numbers. Lüderitz has a desert climate, with moderate temperatures throughout the year; the average annual precipitation is 17 millimetres. Windy and cold conditions can occur due to the cold South Atlantic current on the coast.
Lüderitz is home to the Lüderitz Speed Challenge, the only international sporting event held in the town. This is an annual month-long speed sailing event held in the last quarter of the year under the auspices of the International Sailing Federation World Sailing Speed Record Council. In 1984 Lüderitz was the starting point for explorer and sailor Amyr Klink's successful solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, rowing for 101 days all the way to the Brazilian coast with no other form of propulsion. In October 2011, Turkish-born American adventurer Erden Eruç departed from Lüderitz Bay for the final ocean crossing of his Guinness world record-setting solo human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth. Eruç rowed to South America in an oceangoing rowboat, taking five months for the crossing to the town of Güiria, Venezuela. Construction of a new port at Shearwater Bay, 30 kilometres south of Lüderitz, has been proposed for the export of coal from Botswana with a 1,600-kilometre railway connecting the two.
Lüderitz is the terminus of the 318 kilometres railway line to Seeheim where
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Josef Frederiks II
Joseph Frederiks II, Nama name: ǃKhorebeb-ǁNaixab was a Captain of the ǃAman, a subtribe of the Orlam. He became Captain when his uncle and stepfather David Christian Frederiks was killed in 1880 in the Battle of Otjikango. Frederiks was party to a land sale deal between the Bethanie Orlam and German merchant Adolf Lüderitz that would establish Imperial Germany's colony of German South-West Africa. Lüderitz in May 1883 obtained the area of Angra Pequena from Frederiks for 100£ in gold and 200 rifles. Three months on 25 August, Frederiks sold Lüderitz a stretch of land 140 kilometres wide, between the Orange River and Angra Pequena, for £500 and 60 rifles; the contract between Fredericks and Lüderitz, a map of the sold land This area, for a short period called Lüderitzland and today part of the Sperrgebiet, was far bigger than Frederiks had thought, as the contract specified its width as "20 geographical miles", a term that the tribal chief was not familiar with: 1 German geographical mile equals 7.4 kilometres, whereas the common mile in the territory was the English mile, 1.6 kilometres.
Both Lüderitz and the signing witness, Rhenish missionary Johannes Bam, knew that Chief Frederiks had no idea about geographical miles. He was only concerned about fertile land, the shore of the Atlantic Ocean was of no value to his tribe; when Frederiks became aware of the size of the land he sold, he complained to the German Imperial Government, but Consul-General Gustav Nachtigal died on his return voyage, the complaint was never delivered. In 1887 "even the Colonial Department of the Foreign Office doubted the validity of the treaty". In the wake of the land deal, Frederiks on 28 October 1884 signed a protection treaty with the German Empire, the second of its kind in German South-West Africa, after the treaty with the Rehoboth Basters two weeks prior, he died on 20 October 1893 in his home village Bethanie, Paul Frederiks succeeded him as Chief of the ǃAman
The ǁKaras Region spelled! Karas Region, is the least densely populated of the 14 regions of Namibia; the name assigned to the region reflects the prominence of the Karas mountain range in its southern part. The ǁKaras region includes the magisterial districts of Keetmanshoop, Bethanie, Lüderitz; the name of this region was Karas Region since Namibian independence in 1990. In an effort to consolidate spelling, it was renamed to ǁKaras Region in August 2013.ǁKaras' western border is the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. Its location in Namibia's south means that it shares a long border in the south and east with the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. Domestically, it borders only the Hardap Region, to the north. ǁKaras is subdivided into seven electoral constituencies: Berseba Karasburg East Keetmanshoop Rural Keetmanshoop Urban ǃNamiǂNûs Oranjemund Karasburg WestThe Governor of ǁKaras Region is Lucia Basson, succeeding Bernadus Clinton Swartbooi in 2015. In the 2004 presidential election, the region supported SWAPO's Hifikepunye Pohamba with 65% of the votes.
No other candidate received more than 10%. In the 2015 regional elections, Swapo won all seven constituencies; the region is a predominantly a small stock-farming area, consisting of animals such as sheep or goats. Game farming and irrigation farming along the Naute Dam and the Orange River have gained in importance. Notable characteristics of the region include the harbour town of Lüderitz and its fishing and boat building industry, the diamond areas along the coast—both on and off shore—with Oranjemund as the main centre, mining enterprises in the southern part of Namibia, the Kudu Gas field in the Atlantic Ocean near Lüderitz, small-scale industries in Lüderitz and Keetmanshoop; the Hot Water Springs at Ai-Ais, the Hot Water Springs in Warmbad, the Kokerboom Forest near Keetmanshoop, the Fish River Canyon, the Brukaros Mountain near Berseba, the coastal town Lüderitz, several guest and game farms have become important tourist attractions. The tourism industry has the potential for further expansion.
The economic growth potential of the area is considerable, but needs an intensive general development policy. It is a profitable tax-generating area, which predominantly comes from diamond mining for the central government; the main railway line and two main trunk roads give access to South Africa. Keetmanshoop is considered as the capital of the south and has direct air and road links with Windhoek, its airport suitable for international air traffic. The airfield at Kolmanskop near Lüderitz is visited by Air Namibia on its flights to Cape Town and Windhoek. Well-developed landing facilities exist at Oranjemund. ǁKaras has 49 schools with a total of 20,110 pupils. According to the Namibia 2001 Population and Housing Census, ǁKaras had a population of 69,329 growing at an annual rate of 1.3%. The fertility rate was 3.1 children per woman. About 54% lived in urban areas, while 46% lived in rural areas, with an area of 161,215 km2, the population density was 0.4 persons per km2. By age, 11% of the population was under 5 years old, 20% between 5 and 14 years, 63% between 15 and 59 years, 6% 60 years and older.
The population was divided into 15,481 households, with an average size of 4.1 persons. For those 15 years and older, 69% had never married, 20% married with certificate, 2% married traditionally, 5% married consensually, 1% were divorced or separated, 2% were widowed; the most spoken languages at home were Afrikaans, Nama/Damara and Oshiwambo. For those 15 years and older, the literacy rate was 87%. Nearly 45 % of the population are from white Namibian groups. In terms of education, 52% of girls and 48% of boys between the ages of 6 and 15 were attending school, of those 15 years and older, 77% had left school, 7% were at school, 7% had never attended. In 2001, the employment rate for the labor force was 71% employed and 29% unemployed. For those 15 years old or older and not in the labor force, 28% were students, 40% homemakers, 32% retired or unable to work. According to the 2012 Namibia Labour Force Survey, unemployment in the ǁKaras Region stood at 23.9%. The two studies are methodologically not comparable.
Among households, 94% had safe water, 26% no toilet facility, 50% electricity for lighting, 81% access to radio, 35% had wood or charcoal for cooking. In terms of households' main sources of income, 7% derived it from farming, 69% from wages and salaries, 6% cash remittances, 5% from business or nonfarming, 10% from pension. For every 1,000 live births, 37 female and 56 male infant deaths occurred; the life expectancy at birth was 61 years for females and 54 for males. Among children younger than 15, 4% had lost a mother, 6% a father, 1% were orphaned by both parents. About 3% of the entire population had a disability, of which 22% were deaf, 29% blind, 10% had a speech disability, 13% hand disability, 27% leg disability, 7% mental disability