École polytechnique is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French scientific and engineering schools, called grandes écoles in French, it is known for its ingénieur polytechnicien scientific degree program, equivalent to both a bachelor and master of science. Its entrance exam, the X-ENS exam, is renowned for its selectivity with a little over 500 admitted students out of the 53 848 students enrolled in the preparatory programs for the French scientific and engineering schools entrance exams; the school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, was a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, the school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, though only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career. Located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the school's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau.
Polytechnique has engaged in several partnerships to improve its international renown. It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading engineering colleges in the Paris region established in 2007. In 2014 it became a founding member of the confederal University of Paris-Saclay. Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies; as of 2018, it is associated with 4 Fields Medal winners and is currently ranked as the world's third-best small university by Times Higher Education's World University Rankings. Every year, many outstanding Polytechnique students earn admissions to the most prestigious academic institutions and graduate programs in the USA and in the UK demonstrating the recognition of the school and its best performing students internationally. During the 19th century, the specific model of École Polytechnique inspired the foundation of other well-known schools named "Polytechnic," such as Polytechnique Montréal, Athens Polytechnic, MIT, EPFL and Caltech.
The history of the École Polytechnique dates back over 200 years, to the time of the French Revolution. In 1794, the École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge at the time of the National Convention, it was renamed École polytechnique one year later. In 1805, Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settled the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris, as a military academy and gave its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire. In 1814, students took part in the Battle of Paris against the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution. In 1848, Polytechnique students were the leaders of the French Revolution of 1848, they were an important part of the post-revolutionary process, with one student becoming part of the post-revolution government. They were given the right to wear a sword as a recognition. During the First World War, students were mobilized and the school building was transformed into a hospital.
More than two hundred students were killed fighting for France during the war. During the Second World War, Polytechnique was moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechniciens were killed during the war, as part of Free French and French Resistance operations, or in Nazi camps. In 1970, École Polytechnique became a state-supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, women were admitted for the first time. In 1976, École Polytechnique moved from Paris to Palaiseau. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand. In 2000, a new cursus was set in place, passing to four years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum. In 2005, École Polytechnique started awarding master's degrees. In 2007, it became a founding member of UniverSud ParisTech. In December 2014, it became a founding member of University of Paris-Saclay. In 1794, Polytechnique was hosted in the Palais Bourbon. One year it moved to Hôtel de Lassay, an hôtel particulier in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus is located near the Panthéon, in rue Descartes, 5, it is nicknamed "Carva" by the students. At 15 kilometres from Paris, the campus of the École Polytechnique is a privileged setting, it offers about 164 ha teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and an exceptional range of sports facilities to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train station is Gare de Lozère. A number of buses connect the École Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau; the campus is close to other great scientific institutions in Saclay and Gif. The campus will be at the heart of the Engineering and Innovation sector of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Major works are in progress to connect it to an automatic metro line direct to Paris. Polytechnique is a higher education establishment running under the supervision of the F
Square des Batignolles
The Square des Batignolles, which covers 16,615 square metres of land, is the largest green space in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. Designed in the naturalistic English-garden style, it lies in the district of Batignolles, near the new Parc Clichy-Batignolles; the origin of the name "Batignolles" may be the Latin word, "batillus", meaning "mill", or, it may be derived from the Provençal word "bastidiole", meaning "small farmhouse". Until the early nineteenth century, the area was deserted countryside with a few scattered farms; the square was established under the Second Empire, at the request of Baron Haussmann, who fulfilled the desire of Napoleon III to establish several English-style gardens in the capital. Napoleon III had acquired a taste for the English garden during his exile in England, prior to 1848; the Square des Batignolles was created by Jean-Charles Alphand, assisted by the engineer, Jean Darcel, the architect, Gabriel Davioud, the horticulturist, Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps, on a tract of land, described as "a vast wasteland".
This was the same team, assembled to design and execute the Bois de Boulogne on the western edge of Paris. In 1860, Napoleon III annexed the district of Batignolles to Paris. In 1862, Jean-Charles Alphand created the Square des Batignolles. Alphand was the engineer for most of the parks built at this time, including the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, Parc Montsouris, others; the mayor of Paris is trying to maintain the Square des Batignolles in the pure Haussmann-Alphand style. This style is most visible in small bridges, concrete designs with plant motifs, faux rocks with the appearance of stratification; the Square des Batignolles was designed as an English garden, a style first made popular by the English landscape architect, Capability Brown. The key to this style is naturalism, a studied, but unselfconscious, attempt to leave the impression that the grounds are untouched by human hands; the landscaper employs his artistry, through the use of various forms of asymmetric balance, to convince the visitor that the apparent wildness and randomness of the terrain is the product of artful Nature, rather than the artifice of Man.
In contrast to previous formal gardens, with their geometrically designed parterres and pathways, their clipped shrubbery, the artificiality of their topiary, which reflect an attempt to impose the gardener's will on Nature, the English garden adopts a more cooperative or collaborative approach. The English gardener and landscape architect, Capability Brown, compared his role as a garden designer to that of a poet or composer: "Here I put a comma, when it's necessary to cut the view, I put a parenthesis; the English-garden style relies on symbolism by using objects that are man-made as focal points for gazing at the overall landscape. These human touches take the form of sham ruins. Other man-made features used in these gardens are temples, tea-houses, belvederes and gazebos whose placement invites the visitor to engage the landscape from the most aesthetically pleasing vantage points; these locative devices are supplemented by vast rolling lawns, well-placed copses of trees, quaint stone bridges, pieces of statuary casually installed in the landscape, strategically located ponds and watercourses, small waterfalls, artificial cascades.
Exotic vegetation was planted, both to amaze the senses but to display the power and reach of the Second Empire, capable of gathering and nurturing living species from all over the world. True to the archetype, the Square des Batignolles features extensive rolling lawns and a large pond, fed by a natural stream that courses through the park; the pond is home to large red Japanese carp, known as koi, over three hundred ducks of various species. In the middle of the pond stands a statue created by Louis de Monard in 1930 called Vautours. Elsewhere in the Square is a bust of the poet, Léon Dierx, created by Bony de Lavergne in 1932. For a park of this modest size, there are large undulating lawns here, the many wandering paths are shaded by a remarkable variety of trees. There are oriental plane trees. There is a young giant sequoia, which has yet to become gigantic. There are hazelnut trees from Asia Minor, Siberian elms, Japanese cherry trees, ash trees, black walnuts, others. On top of a small rocky outcrop is a glass-walled gazebo which acts as a greenhouse for a solitary tropical palm tree.
The following tree specimens can be found in the square: four hybrid trees, planted in 1840 and 1880, all between 32 and 38 metres high, one of, 5.90 m in circumference and among the largest in Paris the purple beech, one example of, now gigantic the honey locust, native to North America the Chinese'corkscrew' willow the Turkish hazel ash trees with aucuba-like leaves the Japanese persimmon the trifolia lemon a giant sequoia Square des Batignolles is popular with children. There are several playgrounds, sand-boxes, swings, a carousel with old-fashioned wooden horses, an area for roller skating, ping-pong tables. There are areas for adu
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
Parc Montsouris is a public park in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, at the southern edge of Paris directly south of the center. Opened in 1869, Parc Montsouris is one of the four large urban public parks, along with the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, created by Emperor Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann, at each of the cardinal points of the compass around the city, in order to provide green space and recreation for the growing population of Paris; the park is 15.5 hectares in area, is designed as an English landscape garden. The Park contains a lake, a cascade, wide sloping lawns, many notable varieties of trees and flowers, it is home to a meteorology station, a cafe and a guignol theater. The roads of the park are popular with joggers on weekends; the park is bounded to the south by Boulevard Jourdan and the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris. The "Cité Universitaire" stop on the line on the RER B is located in the center of Parc Montsouris.
According to the official website of the Park and other sources, the name of the park came from an old windmill, called the Moulin de Moque-Souris, which in the 18th century stood not far from the park site at the crossroads of rue d'Alesia and rue de la Tomb-Issoire. Moque-Souris was a common name for windmills in France at the time; the name over time changed from moque-souris to montsouris. Another possible origin of'Montsouris' is common with the name of a former principal roadway, today's rue de la Tombe Issoire: after leaving the city to the south, it passed through a Roman-era cemetery that had fallen into disuse from the 4th century, it may have been one these abandoned tombs that an influential 13th-century writer declared to be the burial place of "Ysoré", a defeated giant of popular legend. No matter the veracity of the story, many of the area's landmarks had taken the'tombe Issoire' name by the 18th century, if'Issoire' emerged from'Ysoré','Montsouris' could be a'mont Ysoré' that evolved over time.
The park was built by Jean-Charles Alphand, the engineer who headed the service of promenades and plantations created by Baron Haussmann, with the assistance of city architect Gabriel Davioud and horticulturist Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps. This was the team which together made the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, the other great landscape parks of the Second Empire; the project was decided in 1865, but construction did not begin until 1867, because of the long negotiations needed to buy the parcels of land needed for the park. The purpose of the park, according to Alphand, was "to bring life and movement to the center of a quarter until left to isolation and abandon. " Unlike the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, the site for the future park did not have any trees or other vegetation. It was occupied by a large stone quarry, to make the work more complicated, it was above a network of tunnels of abandoned mines, which were filled with human skeletons; these tunnels were part of the ossuary of Paris, popularly known as the catacombs of Paris, where the remains of some six million Parisians had been moved at the end of the 18th century.
Before construction of the park could begin, some eight hundred skeletons were removed from the tunnels. The work was complicated by the track of the railroad line which circled Paris, which passed directly through the site. Despite these difficulties, the work went ahead briskly. A one-hectare artificial lake was dug, fed by an artificial stream that passed over an artificial cascade made of rocks and cement. Stairways were constructed up the hills, with rustic-looking railings made of cement formed to resemble logs. Winding roads and paths were built throughout the park. Davioud designed and built picturesque gatehouses, pavilions, a theater, bandstand and a cafe to fit into the landscape. Barillet-Deschamps planted hundreds of trees and bushes, laid out sloping lawns and flowerbeds; every feature of the park was designed to create an idealized natural landscape, with space for both relaxation and recreation, which could be enjoyed by all classes of Parisians. The park was dedicated in 1869, but work on the park continued until 1878.
According to a park legend, on the day of the park official opening someone made a mistake with the plumbing, the water in the artificial lake drained away in a single day. According to the legend, the park engineer was so distraught, it is recorded that the lake did in fact drain accidentally in one day in 1878, but there is no record of a suicide. During the 1871 Paris Commune, the park was the site of a military encampment, witnessed fighting between the army and the Communards. In October 1897, the park was the setting of secret meetings between some of the figures involved in the Dreyfus Affair, including Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy and Max von Schwartzkoppen. During World War II, a French soldier, Pierre Durand, was killed by a bomb in the park. A small monument near the lake remembers this event. In 1942, during the German occupation, one of the main monuments of the park, an 1893 allegorical statue of the French Revolution by sculptor Auguste Paris, was taken away and melted down for its bronze.
For many decades the most famous structure in the park was the Palais du Bardo, a reduced-size replica of the palace of the Bey of Tunis, made of wood and stucco, made for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1867. It was relocated to the pa
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world. Père Lachaise is located in the 20th arrondissement and notable for being the first garden cemetery, as well as the first municipal cemetery in Paris, it is the site of three World War I memorials. The cemetery is on Boulevard de Ménilmontant; the Paris Métro station Philippe Auguste on Line 2 is next to the main entrance, while the station named Père Lachaise, on both Line 2 and Line 3, is 500 metres away near a side entrance. Many tourists prefer the Gambetta station on Line 3, as it allows them to enter near the tomb of Oscar Wilde and walk downhill to visit the rest of the cemetery; the cemetery of Père Lachaise opened in 1804. The cemetery takes its name from the confessor to Louis XIV, Père François de la Chaise, who lived in the Jesuit house rebuilt during 1682 on the site of the chapel; the property, situated on the hillside from which the king watched skirmishing between the armies of the Condé and Turenne during the Fronde, was bought by the city during 1804.
Established by Napoleon during this year, the cemetery was laid out by Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart and extended. Napoleon, proclaimed Emperor by the Senate three days earlier, had declared during the Consulate that "Every citizen has the right to be buried regardless of race or religion”; as the city graveyards of Paris filled, several new, large cemeteries, outside the precincts of the capital, replaced them: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise in the east, Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. Near the middle of the city is Passy Cemetery. At the time of its opening, the cemetery was considered to be situated too far from the city and attracted few funerals. Moreover, many Roman Catholics refused to have their graves in a place that had not been blessed by the Church. During 1804, the Père Lachaise contained only 13 graves; the administrators devised a marketing strategy and during 1804, with great fanfare, organized the transfer of the remains of Jean de La Fontaine and Molière.
The next year there were 44 burials, with 49 during 1806, 62 during 1807 and 833 during 1812. In another great spectacle of 1817, the purported remains of Pierre Abélard and Héloïse d'Argenteuil were transferred to the cemetery with their monument's canopy made from fragments of the abbey of Nogent-sur-Seine; this strategy achieved its desired effect: people began clamoring to be buried among the famous citizens. Records show that the Père Lachaise contained more than 33,000 graves during 1830. Père Lachaise was expanded five times: during 1824, 1829, 1832, 1842 and 1850. Presently there are more than 1 million bodies buried there, many more in the columbarium, which holds the remains of those who had requested cremation; the Communards' Wall, located within the cemetery, was the site where 147 Communards, the last defenders of the workers' district of Belleville, were shot on May 28, 1871. That day was the last of the "Bloody Week". Today, the site is a traditional rallying point for members of the French political Left.
Adolphe Thiers, the French president who directed "Bloody Week," is interred in the cemetery, where his tomb has been subject to vandalism. A funerary chapel was erected during 1823 by Étienne-Hippolyte Godde at the exact place of the ancient Jesuit house; this same Neoclassical architect created the monumental entrance a few years later. A columbarium and a crematorium of a Neo-Byzantine style were designed in 1894 by Jean-Camille Formigé. Père Lachaise is still an operating cemetery and accepting new burials. However, the rules to be buried in a Paris cemetery are rather strict: people may be buried in one of these cemeteries if they die in the French capital city or if they lived there. Being buried in Père Lachaise is more difficult nowadays as there is a waiting list: few plots are available; the grave sites at Père Lachaise range from a simple, unadorned headstone to towering monuments and elaborate mini chapels dedicated to the memory of a well-known person or family. Many of the tombs are about the size and shape of a telephone booth, with just enough space for a mourner to step inside, kneel to say a prayer, leave some flowers.
The cemetery manages to squeeze an increasing number of bodies into a finite and crowded space. One way it does. At Père Lachaise, it is not uncommon to reopen a grave after a body has decomposed and inter another coffin; some family mausoleums or multi-family tombs contain dozens of bodies in several separate but contiguous graves. Shelves are installed to accommodate them. During recent times, the Père Lachaise has adopted a standard practice of issuing 30-year leases on grave sites, so that if a lease is not renewed by a family, the remains can be removed, space made for a new grave, the overall deterioration of the cemetery minimized. Abandoned remains are boxed and moved to Aux Morts ossuary, in Père Lachaise cemetery. Plots can be bought in perpetuity or for 50, 30 or 10 years, the last being the least expensive option. For the case of mausoleums and chapels, coffins are most of the time below ground. Although some sources incorrectly estimate the number of interred as 300,000 in Père Lachaise, according to the official website of
Square du Temple
The Square du Temple is a garden in Paris, France in the 3rd arrondissement, established in 1857. It is one of 24 city squares planned and created by Georges-Eugène Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand; the Square occupies the site of a medieval fortress in Paris, built by the Knights Templar. Parts of the fortress were used as a prison during the French Revolution, demolished by the mid 19th century; the Knights Templar began in the 12th century, constructing a fort first in Le Marais. In the 13th century, a new fortress was built as their European headquarters; the enclosure, called enclos du Temple featured a number of buildings important to the running of the Order, included a church and a massive turreted keep known as Grosse Tour, a smaller tower called Tour de César. The location of the towers is drawn on the floor in front of rue Eugene Spuller; the heavy doors of the Grosse Tour still exist and are kept at Château de Vincennes whose great keep, attributed to Raymond du Temple, is speculated to have been inspired by the nearby Templar fortress.
The Temple is known for having been the place where the French royal family was jailed at the time of the Revolution. Members of the royal family imprisoned at the Temple's tower were: King Louis XVI, from 13 August 1792 to 21 January 1793, when he was taken to be guillotined at the Place de la Révolution, she was brought to the Conciergerie, from where she was taken to the guillotine. By 1808, the Temple had become a place of pilgrimage for royalists, so Napoleon ordered its demolition, which took two years. Remnants were demolished around 1860 under orders from Napoleon III. Today its location is a station of the Paris Metro, serving the carreau du temple and the Palais de Justice of the third arrondissement; the garden includes a gazebo, a playground for children, lawns with the largest open to the public from April 15 to October 15, fountains and a pond with an artificial waterfall, on rocks from the forest of Fontainebleau. The grid surrounding the square was designed by the architect Gabriel Davioud.
The square contains 200 varieties of plants, including many exotic species, such as hazel, a Ginkgo biloba, a Honey Locust of America, a ptérocaryer Caucasus, goldenrain tree and Chinese quince. In 2007, the square was awarded the "ecological green spaces" awarded by ECOCERT, the international organic certification. There are two statues. One represents the songwriter Pierre-Jean de Béranger, who lived on the nearby street, which took his name; this is the second in his image. A first bronze statue, due to Amédée Doublemard was erected by public subscription opened in 1879 by the newspaper La Chanson and destroyed in 1941, it was replaced in 1953 by the present statue in Henri Lagriffoul. Another statue is made of a bust on a pedestal, registered "At B. Wilhelm founder 1781-1842 The Orphéon French", above a medallion portrait and the text" To Eugene Delaporte propagator 1818-1886 ". On 26 October 2007, a monument was inaugurated on the lawn of the main square of the Temple, it carries the names and ages of 85 "little ones who do not have time to attend school," Jewish children from 2 months to 6 years living in the 3rd arrondissement and deported between 1942 and 1944 and murdered in Auschwitz.
This monument was unveiled in the presence of several hundred people, the elect of the district and the city, representatives of associations and the Sons and Daughters of Jewish Deportees from France. The memorial is one of several honouring; the lists of children were compiled from school and civic records by Serge Klarsfeld. In Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey/Maturin series, Jack Aubrey, Stephen Maturin and a young Lithuanian soldier, are held prisoner at the Temple Prison during its demolition in The Surgeon's Mate; the Temple in art Media related to Temple at Wikimedia Commons