Hannes Arch was an Austrian pilot who competed in the 2007 Red Bull Air Race World Series season following a round of qualification held in Phoenix, Arizona during October 2006. He joined 13 other pilots,2 of them receiving entry after the Arizona qualifying, Arch won the World Championship in the 2008 season. Hannes Arch was born in Leoben, Austria in 1967, hannes Arch died on 8 September 2016 during a helicopter crash in the Austrian Alps during a helicopter delivery of goods to a remote mountain cabin, the Elberfelder Hütte. Shortly after takeoff at about 9, 15pm, the struck the side of a mountain. Arch died of a neck, a passenger survived the crash. Arch was accompanied in the helicopter by the Mountain Huts Owner Reinhard B. a 62-year-old German who runs an Alpine hut which Arch had delivered supplies to, the German was seriously injured in the crash but survived. Hannes Arch was buried in the company of his closest relatives in Troifaiach on 13 September 2016 and he is survived by his girlfriend, Miriam
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
The Aresti Catalog is the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale standards document enumerating the aerobatic manoeuvers permitted in aerobatic competition. The catalog broadly classifies manoeuvers into numbered families, in Aresti notation, solid lines represent upright or positive-g manoeuvers and dashed lines represent inverted or negative-g manoeuvers, these are sometimes depicted in red. Thick dot represents the beginning of the manoeuver, while a short line represents the end. Stalled wing manoeuvers such as spins and snap rolls are represented by triangles, arrows represent rolling manoeuvers with numbers representing the extent and number of segments of the roll. The catalog assigns each manoeuver a unique identifier, called a catalog number, when a basic figure is combined with one or more rolling elements, the resultant figure K is the sum of all component Ks. During an aerobatics competition, judges grade the execution of each manoeuver with a value between 10 and 0, each figures grades are multiplied by its K and summed to yield a total raw score for the flight.
Notational systems for aerobatic manoeuvers have been used since the 1920s, the first system accepted worldwide was published by French aviator François dHuc Dressler in 1955 and 1956. It was used for international competitions through 1962, josé Arestis development of a notation for aerobatic figures began while serving as an instructor in the Jerez Pilot Training School in the 1940s. By the end of 1961 Aresti published a dictionary of some 3,000 aerobatic manoeuvers, employed throughout Spain, the Spanish Aero Club urged its adoption internationally. Though the catalog had grown at one time to some 15,000 manoeuvers, following Arestis death, a court fight ensued between his heirs and FAI, which once provided a free catalog online. The catalog is now available in printed form for a fee from Aresti System S. L. Software is available to design and display aerobatic sequences using Aresti notation, aerobatic maneuver An article explaining Aresti notation
It is sometimes described as a combination of a loop and a roll. The g-force is kept positive on the object throughout the maneuver, the barrel roll is commonly confused with an aileron roll. A more common modern visualization is to imagine an airplane trying to fly in a corkscrew around the line of the direction of travel. Although the maneuver predates the name, the term was first used in 1917, in aviation, the barrel roll is an aerobatic maneuver in which an aircraft performs a helical roll around its relative forward motion, with the nose ending up pointed along the original flightpath. It is performed by doing a combination of a roll and a loop, the maneuver includes a constant variation of aircraft attitude in two or perhaps all three axes. It consists of a rotation along the axis through the application of elevator input. Sometimes rudder input is applied to help assist the roll through the yaw axis, at the midpoint of the roll, the aircraft should be flying inverted, with the nose pointing at roughly a right angle to the general flightpath.
The aircraft will have gained altitude and travelled a distance from the original flightpath. Flying inverted, the plane continues through the roll, descending in altitude, upon completing the roll, the airplane should end up flying along the same flightpath, and at roughly the same altitude at which the maneuver began. The term barrel roll is used, incorrectly, to refer to any roll by an airplane. The barrel roll was called a side somersault. It was first performed in 1905 by Daniel Maloney and he was flying a glider owned by John Joseph Montgomery during an exhibition show, which was lifted by balloon and released. Outside of aerobatic competition, the Boeing 367-80 and Concorde prototype were barrel rolled during testing, the Boeing 367-80 was rolled twice by Tex Johnston in an unauthorized maneuver while demonstrating the aircraft to the International Air Transport Association over Lake Washington, Seattle. Concorde was rolled multiple times by her test pilots, including Jean Franchi, Avro test pilot Roly Falk rolled the Avro Vulcan during a display at the 1955 Farnborough airshow, gaining height during the maneuver.
To do a roll in its purest form, from the pilots perspective. Starting from a flight, the pilot will usually pick such a point on the horizon as a reference. This point can be anything in that area, like a distant lake, mountain peak, the pilot will pull back on the stick, bringing the plane up into a brief climb. As the nose passes through the horizon, the pilot begins to apply aileron input, as the airplane rolls it will continue to pitch in the direction of the lift vector
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
A whifferdill turn refers to any number of fancy aerobatic maneuvers performed in an aerial flight show or while flying aggressively. It is a turn with both horizontal and vertical components, usually performed at the end of one maneuver in preparation for the next. As the plane is climbing the pilot makes a turn reversal, aviators often use the term as slang for any multi-axis movement or comical / interesting / unusual movement. The whifferdill is an aerial warfare maneuver that is used to reverse course in a dogfight with very little loss of energy/airspeed. It is a fundamental maneuver used in air shows, in astronautics, a whifferdill is a maneuver used during orbital rendezvous when the target is on a different orbital plane from the piloted vehicle. Due to the nature of orbits, the target will seem to make a helical motion relative to vehicle as the orbit progresses, a wifferdill maneuver is used to quickly realign the orbital plane of the vehicle with the target and stay near the targets orbital position or mean anomaly.
Due to the time and positional requirements, the maneuver uses a significant amount of fuel. Http, //www. limalima. com/airshow. htm illustrates the Whifferdill in use in an aerobatic routine
Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft altitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, entertainment, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers. An example of a fully aerobatic helicopter, capable of performing loops, the term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis or lateral axis, other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical axis. Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight. In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics, aerobatic training enhances a pilots ability to recover from unusual flight conditions, and thus is an element of many flight safety training programs for pilots.
While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, in the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Among the earliest innovators in aerobatics the Frenchman Euclids name is foremost, maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some of these maneuvers were found to allow aircraft to gain tactical advantage during combat or dogfights between fighter aircraft. Aerobatic aircraft fall into two categories—specialist aerobatic, and aerobatic capable, specialist designs such as the Pitts Special, the Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi Su-26M and Sukhoi Su-29 aim for ultimate aerobatic performance. This comes at the expense of general use such as touring. Flight formation aerobatics are flown by teams of up to sixteen aircraft, some are state funded to reflect pride in the armed forces while others are commercially sponsored. Coloured smoke trails may be emitted to emphasise the patterns flown and/or the colours of a national flag, usually each team will use aircraft similar to one another finished in a special and dramatic colour scheme, thus emphasising their entertainment function.
Teams often fly V-formations — they will not fly directly behind another aircraft because of danger from wake vortices or engine exhaust, aircraft will always fly slightly below the aircraft in front, if they have to follow in line. Aerobatic maneuvers flown in an aircraft are limited in scope as they cannot take advantage of the gyroscopic forces that a propeller driven aircraft can exploit. Jet-powered aircraft tend to fly faster, which increases the size of the figures. Jet aerobatic teams often fly in formations, which restricts the maneuvers that can be safely flown
Slow roll (aeronautics)
A slow roll is a roll made by an airplane, in which the plane makes a complete rotation around its roll axis while keeping the aircraft flying a straight and level flightpath. A slow roll is a maneuver in which an airplane makes a controlled roll by rotating about its longitudinal axis. It is performed by rolling the aircraft at a constant rate, the maneuver consists of quickly moving the aileron input to a desired position and holding it steady while constantly varying the elevator and rudder inputs, counteracting the force of gravity. The slow roll appears similar to the roll, except the roll rate is typically slower. The slow roll produces a constantly shifting load of one g-force on both the pilot and the aircraft, from one g positive in the position to one g negative in the inverted, caused by gravity. At the midpoint of the roll, the pilot will be hanging upside-down by the seatbelt, the rate at which a slow roll can be performed is often determined by skill of the pilot. The better the pilot, the faster the roll can be performed, the slow roll is often used in aerobatic competitions and shows, displaying the pilots ability to control the plane.
Most rolls performed by fighter aircraft are slow rolls or partial slow-rolls, as opposed to an aileron roll. The pilot will continue the roll to the next point, such a roll may consist of any number of points, which are usually evenly spaced, with the most common being the two-point, three-point, and four-point rolls. However, the difficulty in maintaining level flight at the various angles requires the pilot to fully master the slow roll before attempting a hesitation roll, a slow roll typically begins from level flight. The pilot will begin the roll by pitching the aircraft up slightly, generally about 5 to 20 degrees above the horizon. The purpose of the pitch-up is to create an angle of attack. The pilot holds this attitude while applying aileron input, by moving the stick to either the right or the left. As the aircraft begins to roll, the pilot will need to apply the rudder in the direction of the bank, as the aircraft begins to roll from wings-vertical to inverted, the rudder will need to be slowly relaxed to keep the airplane from veering off course.
This is done by pushing the stick forward at the same time the rudder pedal is being released. When in the inverted position, the rudder should be in the neutral position. As the plane continues to roll wings-vertical, the rudder will need to slowly be applied while the elevator is relaxed, as the plane continues the roll to wings-level, upright flight, the rudder will need to be carefully released as positive elevator is applied. An improperly performed slow roll can easily result in a change in heading, before performing the roll, the pilot will often pick a reference point on the horizon, located just above the nose of the plane