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Adoptionism called dynamic monarchianism, is a Christian nontrinitarian theological doctrine which holds that Jesus was adopted as the Son of God at his baptism, his resurrection, or his ascension. Adoptionism is one of two main forms of monarchianism. Adoptionism denies the eternal pre-existence of Christ, although it explicitly affirms his deity subsequent to events in his life, many classical trinitarians claim that the doctrine implicitly denies it by denying the constant hypostatic union of the eternal Logos to the human nature of Jesus. Under adoptionism Jesus is divine and has been since his adoption, although he is not equal to the Father, per "my Father is greater than I". and as such is a kind of subordinationism. Adoptionism is but not always, related to denial of the virgin birth of Jesus; the New Testament writings contain two different Christologies, namely a "low" or adoptionist Christology, a "high" or "incarnation Christology." The "low Christology" or "adoptionist Christology" is the belief "that God exalted Jesus to be his Son by raising him from the dead," thereby raising him to "divine status."

The other early Christology is "high Christology,", "the view that Jesus was a pre-existent divine being who became a human, did the Father’s will on earth, was taken back up into heaven whence he had come," and from where he appeared on earth. The chronology of the development of these early Christologies is a matter of debate within contemporary scholarship. According to the "evolutionary model" c.q. "evolutionary theories," as proposed by Bousset, followed by Brown, the Christological understanding of Christ developed over time, from a low Christology to a high Christology, as witnessed in the Gospels. According to the evolutionary model, the earliest Christians believed that Jesus was a human, exalted, c.q. adopted as God's Son, when he was resurrected, signaling the nearness of the Kingdom of God, when all dead would be resurrected and the righteous exalted. Adoptionist concepts can be found in the Gospel of Mark, in which the birth of Jesus and the epithet "Son of God" are absent in some early manuscripts, suggesting that the concept of the Virgin Birth of Jesus had not been developed or elucidated at the time Mark was written.

Beliefs shifted the exaltation to his baptism and subsequently to the idea of his eternal existence, as witnessed in the Gospel of John. Mark shifted the moment of when Jesus became the son to the baptism of Jesus, still Matthew and Luke shifted it to the moment of the divine conception, John declared that Jesus had been with God from the beginning: "In the beginning was the Word". Since the 1970s, the late datings for the development of a "high Christology" have been contested, a majority of scholars argue that this "High Christology" existed before the writings of Paul; this "incarnation Christology" or "high Christology" did not evolve over a longer time, but was a "big bang" of ideas which were present at the start of Christianity, took further shape in the first few decades of the church, as witnessed in the writings of Paul. According to Ehrman, these two Christologies existed alongside each other, calling the "low Christology" an "adoptionist Christology, "the "high Christology" an "incarnation Christology."

Adoptionist theology may be reflected in canonical epistles, the earliest of which pre-date the writing of the gospels. The letters of Paul the Apostle, for example, do not mention a virgin birth of Christ. Paul describes Jesus as "born of a woman, born under the law" and "as to his human nature was a descendant of David" in the Epistle to the Galatians and the Epistle to the Romans. Many interpreters, take his statements in Philippians 2 to imply that Paul believed Jesus to have existed as equal to God before his incarnation; the Book of Hebrews, a contemporary sermon by an unknown author, describes God as saying "You are my son. The latter phrase, a quote of Psalm 2:7, could reflect an early Adoptionist view; the 2nd-century work Shepherd of Hermas may have taught that Jesus was a virtuous man filled with the Holy Spirit and adopted as the Son. While the Shepherd of Hermas was popular and sometimes bound with the canonical scriptures, it didn't retain canonical status, if it had it. Theodotus of Byzantium, a Valentinian Gnostic, was the most prominent exponent of adoptionsim.

According to Hippolytus of Rome Theodotus taught that Jesus was a man born of a virgin, according to the Council of Jerusalem, that he lived like other men, was most pious. At his baptism in the Jordan the "Christ" came down upon the man Jesus, in the likeness of a dove, but Jesus was not himself God until after his resurrection. Adoptionism was declared heresy at the end of the 2nd century and was rejected by the Synods of Antioch and the First Council of Nicaea, which defined the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and identified the man Jesus with the eternally begotten Son or Word of God in the Nicene Creed; the belief was declared heretical by Pope Victor I. Adoptionism was adhered to by the Jewish Christians known as Ebionites, according to Epiphanius in the 4th century, believed that Jesus was chosen on account of his sinless devotion to the will of God; the Ebionites were a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era. They show strong similarities with the earliest form of Jewish Christianity, their specific theology may have been a "reaction to the law-free Gentile mission."

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Feller College

Feller College known as Institut Feller, was a boarding school founded in 1836 by Mme. Henriette Feller, of Lausanne, a Swiss Protestant missionary whose mission was to save the French-speaking Quebec population from "the idolatry of Catholicism". Beginning as a one-room school it grew to become a significant co-educational institution with imposing four-story central building and adjoining church and several faculty homes; the church is the oldest French Protestant church in Canada. The school produced many French-speaking Baptist ministers up to the time of the Second World War, many of its graduates, both francophones and anglophones, went on to become well known in diverse fields in Canada. Feller ceased operations as a school during the Second World War and was used as a prisoner-of-war camp for German officers, it reopened shortly after the war. After the war Feller accepted many English-speaking students and enjoyed considerable success as a bilingual institution. At the same time, its board had to face the problem of redefining its original mission.

It was unable to adapt to the new realities, it closed in June 1967. The main four-story grey stone building was last used in the summer of 1967 as a hostel for visitors to Montreal's World's Fair: Expo 67. In December 1968 it burned down; this was caught in a dramatic series of photographs A large reunion was held in October 2001 near the school grounds. The community of Grande-Ligne was absorbed into the municipality of St-Blaise-sur-Richelieu in 1968. Three alumni have created web pages in memory of their school

Sayid Abdulloh Nuri

Sayid Abdulloh Nuri transliterated as Abdullah Nuri, led the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan from 1993 until he died of cancer in late 2006. During the Tajik Civil War of 1992 to 1997 he led the United Tajik Opposition. Nuri and President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov ended the civil war by signing the Tajik National Peace Accord in 1997. Nuri was born in Qarateghin Valley, Tajikistan. In 1974 he founded an Islamic education organization. Soviet militia arrested him in 1986 for spreading'religious propaganda', imprisoning him until 1988. Nuri met with Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov in Tehran, Iran on 24 January 1996. Niyazov told Nuri that a CIS summit in Moscow, Russia agreed to renew the mandate of CIS peacekeepers in Tajikistan. Nuri advocated making Tajikistan an Islamic state. Unlike other militant organizations, after 1997 Nuri embraced a peaceful, gradual change in Tajik laws, telling Radio Free Europe, "Yes, creating an Islamic state is our dream and our hope, but we understand that it can be achieved only stage by stage and in accordance with the wishes of the people of Tajikistan.

We want to build a state that will be within the framework of the constitution."Nuri criticized the Tajik government's expulsion of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, a militant Uzbek Islamic organization, from Tajikistan. He offered to act as a mediator between the Central Asian governments. According to an article in The New York Times, declassified United States government documents show that in July 1996 Nuri contacted Iranian foreign intelligence officials in Taloqan, Afghanistan in an attempt to forge an alliance between the Government of Iran, Nuri's followers, Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden to attack the United States. While Iranian officials offered to meet with Nuri and bin Laden, bin Laden, in Jalalabad, Afghanistan at the time, refused on the grounds that the security risk was too high. On 12 September 2003 the website of Khovar Information Agency news reported that Nuri ordered assassination of Sobirjon Begajanov, chairman of the Jabor Rasul District of Soghd Province. Officials for Khovar said they never approved the article and police never filed charges against Nuri.

Nuri said, "I believe the name of the correspondent is fictitious, he does not exist. That this material was offered by security services about me, the person who convinced 100,000 heavy military opposition groups to lay down arms. I would never." IRP member Shams Sayedov called the report a "provocation connected with the forthcoming elections. Nuri's funeral took place in Tajikistan with thousands in attendance. IRP Deputy Chairman Muhiddin Kabiri called Nuri an "irreplaceable personality, he led his own school in Tajikistan and in the region, which consisted of creating peace and forgiveness and forgetting. The community of Tajikistan did not have this before -- the country had not experienced this sort of thing before, but it showed that Islam is a peace-loving and forgiving religion, I hope that this is his legacy in Tajikistan." Dodajon Ataullo, editor-in-chief of Charoghi Ruz newspaper, "His death is heavy on me painful for me. During his illness, I was always with him. I remember his features, his soulful eyes.

I recognize him not only as one of the biggest politicians, but as one of the major personalities and most beloved figures in Tajikistan's history in the 20th century. That is how I view him." Mahmadsaid Ubaidulloyev, Chairman of the Tajik Parliament, said, "His personal qualities and political charisma raised his authority among the citizens of Tajikistan and the members of the Islamic Renaissance Party. The president of the republic values role, his activities, appreciates and calls attention to his deeds. Today we say goodbye to a famous politician, we respect his role in establishing peace and unity in Tajikistan. We remember his great and historic part and his spiritual deeds."

Stora Karlsö

Stora Karlsö is an island off the west coast of Gotland, Sweden. It is known for its rich birdlife with large colonies of common guillemot, flora. Stora Karlsö is the second oldest in the world after Yellowstone National Park. Stora Karlsö is a small Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, situated about 6 km west of the island of Gotland, it is up to 52 m high. Most of the island consists of a limestone plateau, bordered by steep cliffs along the shore, it is covered with alvar, with many juniper bushes and some small groves of deciduous trees. The island is known for its rich birdlife and flora, it has large colonies of common razorbill. In spring, there is an extraordinary number of orchids elder-flowered orchid and early purple orchid. There are several rare plants for Sweden such as Adonis vernalis, Lactuca quercina, hart's-tongue fern and Corydalis gotlandica. There is evidence. During the Middle Ages there was a marble quarry, which gave the material for many of Gotland's churches; the island is a nature reserve, after Yellowstone National Park is the oldest established protected nature area in the world.

From May to August there are tour boats from the village Klintehamn. The Stora Karlsö Lighthouse was built in 1887. A house for the lighthouse keeper was added in the 1930s, which resulted in the island getting its first permanent residents in modern times. Since 1974, the lighthouse is automated and there are no permanent residents on the island; the lighthouse and the surrounded buildings are now listed. Lilla Karlsö Svenska Turistföreningen Media related to Stora Karlsö at Wikimedia Commons


Zinc finger protein ubi-d4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DPF2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the d4 domain family, characterized by a zinc finger-like structural motif; this protein functions as a transcription factor, necessary for the apoptotic response following deprivation of survival factors. It serves a regulatory role in rapid hematopoietic cell growth and turnover; this gene is considered a candidate gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, an inherited cancer syndrome involving multiple parathyroid and pituitary tumors. DPF2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

Water of Leith

The Water of Leith is the main river flowing through Edinburgh, Scotland, to the port of Leith where it flows into the sea via the Firth of Forth. The name Leith may be of Brittonic origin and derived from *lejth meaning'damp, moist', it is less that the name derives from the Old Norse lodda meaning a river. The Gaelic form of the name is Lìte, it rises in the Colzium Springs at Millstone Rig of the Pentland Hills. It travels through Harperrig Reservoir, past the ruins of Cairns Castle, through Balerno, Juniper Green, Slateford, Saughton, Roseburn and on to the nearest it gets to the Edinburgh city centre at the Dean Village, on the site of old watermills in a deep gorge; this ravine is spanned by the Dean Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford, built in 1832 for the road to Queensferry, lies next to the New Town. The river flows on past Stockbridge, Inverleith and Warriston where it passes through shallows at a place known as Puddocky, thought to refer to "puddocks", the Scots language term for frogs, but took its name from the former Paddock Hall, sited nearby.

The river continues past Bonnington, the site of another watermill, to Leith where it widens into the old harbour and port at the Shore. Leith Docks have been extended out into the firth from the old shoreline, there are now plans to discontinue their use as a port and use the area for housing redevelopment. There is a Water of Leith Walkway beside the river for the 12.25 miles from Balerno to Leith, with half a mile of the route on roads. The route forms an attractive haven for wildlife, passing through areas of woodland well separated from roads. For some distance the walkway follows the route of former railway tracks, the remains of tunnels and other features of more than one railway may be seen at many places along the route. A visitor centre is open to the public where the Union Canal passes over the Water of Leith via the Slateford Aqueduct at Slateford, in south-west Edinburgh; the Water of Leith Conservation Trust is dedicated to the enhancement of the river. The Trust provides education programs about the environment.

The river is stocked with brown trout, contains wild grayling, stone loach, three-spined Stickleback and flounder. A few sea-trout run the river, occasional Atlantic salmon are reported, although those from which scale samples have been obtained have turned out to be from other catchments; until the weirs are either demolished or furnished with effective fish-passes, there is little chance of a population of salmon establishing themselves in this river again. Roe deer, badgers and other mammals are seen; the river and its environs are the haunt of a wide variety of woodland and water birds, including kingfishers, wagtails and dippers. Rivers of Scotland Water of Leith Conservation Trust: The River, Visitor Center, Conservation Scottish Government, 16/03/07: Water of Leith Flood Prevention Scheme Water of Leith Water of Leith Millennium Bid document; the bid was successful and paid for new sections of the Visitor Centre. "Forth District Salmon Fishery Board" "River Forth Fisheries Trust"