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Adrenochrome is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C9H9NO3 produced by the oxidation of adrenaline. The derivative carbazochrome is a hemostatic medication. Despite a similarity in chemical names, it is unrelated to chromium. In vivo, adrenochrome is synthesized by the oxidation of epinephrine. In vitro, silver oxide is used as an oxidizing agent, its presence is detected in solution by a pink color. The color turns brown upon polymerization. Several small-scale studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s reported that adrenochrome triggered psychotic reactions such as thought disorder and euphoria. Researchers Abram Hoffer and Humphry Osmond claimed that adrenochrome is a neurotoxic, psychotomimetic substance and may play a role in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. In what they called the "adrenochrome hypothesis", they speculated that megadoses of vitamin C and niacin could cure schizophrenia by reducing brain adrenochrome. While the treatment of schizophrenia with such potent anti-oxidants is contested in literature, adrenochrome is not believed to have any psychedelic properties, a number of published papers consider Hoffer's paper a landmark contribution to the notion that impairment of what's now termed the anti-oxidant defense system seems to play a role in schizophrenia.

Adrenochrome is unscheduled by the Controlled Substances Act in the United States. It is not an approved drug product by the Food and Drug Administration, if produced as a dietary supplement it must comply with Good manufacturing practice. Author Hunter S. Thompson mentioned adrenochrome in his book Loathing in Las Vegas; the adrenochrome scene appears in the novel's film adaptation. In the DVD commentary, director Terry Gilliam admits that his and Thompson's portrayal is a fictional exaggeration. In fact, Gilliam insists that the drug is fictional and seems unaware of the existence of a substance with a similar name. Hunter S. Thompson mentions adrenochrome in his book Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail'72. In the footnotes in chapter April, page 140 he says, "It was sometime after midnight in a ratty hotel room and my memory of the conversation is haze, due to massive ingestion of booze and forty cc's of adrenochrome." The harvesting of an adrenal gland from a live victim to obtain adrenochrome for drug abuse is a plot feature in the first episode "Whom the Gods would Destroy", of Series 1 of the British TV series Lewis.

In Anthony Burgess' 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange, "drencrom" is listed as one of the potential drugs that can be added to Moloko Plus at the Korova Milk Bar. In Fear The Walking Dead season 3 episode 14, "During the show and Troy took a strange drug, it was described as an actual human brain stem that contained chemicals from the adrenal gland." Adrenochrome Commentary at Adrenochrome deposits resulting from the use of epinephrine-containing eye drops used to treat glaucoma from the Iowa Eye Atlas

Metcalf, Illinois

Metcalf is a village in Young America Township, Edgar County, United States. The population was 189 at the 2010 census. Metcalf is located at 39°48′4″N 87°48′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Metcalf has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 213 people, 80 households, 61 families residing in the village. The population density was 385.8 people per square mile. There were 93 housing units at an average density of 168.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.53 % 0.47 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.47% of the population. There were 80 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.8% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 2.97. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 18.8% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $29,861, the median income for a family was $32,500. Males had a median income of $21,667 versus $14,583 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,568. About 8.9% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 8.7% of those sixty five or over

David Landsberg

David Landsberg was an American actor, writer and director. He was sometimes credited as Dave Landsburg, he both co-wrote several comedies throughout the 1980s. David Landsberg was born in New York, his parents were Sylvia Lansberg, who had two sons: David and his older brother Joseph. David attended Plainedge High School in North Massapequa, New York, attended what was Hofstra College for two years before servings in the Signal Corps of the US Army in Vietnam from 1966 to 1968, he graduated from the University of Maryland in 1970 with a degree in marketing. Landsberg co-starred and co-wrote the 1986 action-comedy Detective School Dropouts with Lorin Dreyfuss. In 1987 they teamed up again for Dutch Treat. Both films are out of print, he acted in the films Shoot the Moon with Albert Finney and Diane Keaton, Loose Shoes with Bill Murray, Love at First Bite with George Hamilton and Arte Johnson and Skatetown, U. S. A. with Patrick Swayze and Dorothy Stratten. His television credits include a regular role on NBC's C.

P. O. Sharkey and the voice of Woody on Hanna-Barbera's animated series The Buford Files, as well as guest-starring roles on The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Eight Is Enough and Hart to Hart. Landsberg was an executive producer and writer on such series as Cosby, Herman's Head, Daddy's Girls, Love Boat: The Next Wave. In 2010, he wrote the screenplay for Sex Tax: Based on a True Story. Landsberg was married to Jean Hunt from 1966 until their divorce in 1987, they had a daughter, Caryn O'Neill, a son, Daniel Landsberg. Landsberg died at age 73 on August 5, 2018, at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles from complications that arose from surgery for esophageal cancer and interred at Mount Sinai Memorial Park and Mortuary at the Hollywood Hills Location in Los Angeles. David Landsberg on IMDb David Landsberg at Rotten Tomatoes

Perissone Cambio

Perissone Cambio was a Franco-Flemish composer and singer of the Renaissance, active in Venice. He was one of the most prominent students and colleagues of Adrian Willaert during the formative years of the Venetian School, published several books of madrigals in the 1540s. Nothing is known about his early life except that he was either from Flanders or the adjacent French-speaking areas. Two competing mentions of his origin exist in the historical record, one naming him as French and one as Flemish, with the Flemish mention coming from the Venetian Senate. By the early 1540s he had come from his homeland to Venice to study with Willaert, renowned as a teacher; this was near the end of the period during which musicians who received their early training in the Netherlands and adjacent areas left their homelands, going to Italy and other locations where demand for composers and singers was greatest. Perissone became one of Willaert's students, part of a close group which included Girolamo Parabosco, Baldassare Donato, Jacques Buus, Jacques Du Pont, Cipriano de Rore.

During the late 1540s he was the most prolific composer of the group around Willaert, publishing a total of four separate collections of secular music. In 1548 he became a member of the chapel of San Marco di Venezia, on an unpaid basis, an extraordinary event; the doge of Venice, Francesco Donà, intervened on his behalf and made him a paid member of the chapel shortly thereafter. While Perissone's last solo publication was in 1550, he continued as a singer at San Marco and a composer throughout the decade, he sang in the Compagnia di San Marco, a group of musicians associated with San Marco who performed in other locations in Venice. In 1557 he joined the brotherhood of the Scuola di San Marco. Nothing specific is known about his further career, he is believed to have died around 1562. Perissone was one of the followers of Willaert in the early time of development of the Italian madrigal, the period referred to by Alfred Einstein as the "madrigal's age of innocence". Though he was a personal friend, he was not influenced by fellow Willaert student Cipriano de Rore, the principal figure in madrigal composition in the 1550s, whose style marked an extraordinary increase in expressive intensity of the secular vocal form.

In all, Perissone published four books of secular music by himself: a book of villanellas for four voices in 1545, a book of madrigals for four voices in 1547, two books of madrigals for five voices, in 1545 and 1550. Some other individual madrigals appear in collections by others Cipriano de Rore, Perissone wrote a dedicatory letter for one of Rore's books, but only in the alto part-book. If he wrote any sacred music aside from a single five-voice motet setting of Ad Te, Domine, it has not survived. While most of the composers who worked at San Marco in the 16th century left a substantial body of sacred music, Perissone was one of the few who did not. Perissone was a versatile stylist, wrote both light and serious madrigals, with a texture varying from the smooth polyphony of the Netherlanders to bright chordal textures. Sometimes he anticipated harmonic developments of the 17th century, such as when he used the bass voice as a harmonic support rather than as an equal participant in the motivic interplay of a composition.

He was fond of false relations, as in his setting of Gottifredi's Deh, perchè com'è il vostro al nome mio, a madrigal which contains deliberately mis-accented text setting, a characteristic which distinguishes him from his teacher Willaert, more inclined to follow Pietro Bembo's strict advice on text setting. James Haar: "Perissone Cambio", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Allan W. Atlas, Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400–1600. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. 1998. ISBN 0-393-97169-4 Alfred Einstein, The Italian Madrigal. Three volumes. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1949. ISBN 0-691-09112-9 Feldman, Martha. City Culture and the Madrigal at Venice. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. Available on the internet here

2011 South American Beach Soccer Championship

The 2011 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup CONMEBOL qualifier later and known as the 2011 South American Beach Soccer Championship, was the fourth Beach Soccer World Cup qualification championship for South America, held from July 31– August 7 on Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The tournament was scheduled to take place from 7 – 14 May 2011; the qualifiers were not coordinated by CONMEBOL at the time. The event was organised by Beach Soccer Worldwide, under the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup Qualifier title. CONMEBOL began recognising the tournaments in 2013, under the title South American Beach Soccer Championship acknowledging the 2006–11 events as historic editions of the championship. CONMEBOL began organising the qualifiers in 2017, under a new title. A tournament-record nine teams, an increase of one team from the previous CONMEBOL qualifier, have confirmed their participation in the competition. Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela The draw to decide the groups was conducted on June 29, 2011.

All match times were of local time in Rio de Janeiro, being Brasilia Time

App Store (iOS)

The App Store is a digital distribution platform and maintained by Apple Inc. for mobile apps on its iOS operating system. The store allows users to browse and download apps developed with Apple's iOS software development kit. Apps can be downloaded on the iPhone smartphone, the iPod Touch handheld computer, or the iPad tablet computer, some can be transferred to the Apple Watch smartwatch or 4th-generation or newer Apple TVs as extensions of iPhone apps; the App Store was opened on July 2008, with an initial 500 applications available. As of 2017, the store features over 2.2 million apps. Developers have multiple options for monetizing their applications, ranging from free, free with in-app purchases, paid. However, App Store has been criticized for a lackluster development environment, prompting the company in June 2016 to announce a "renewed focus and energy" on the store. Major changes introduced in the following months include ads in search results, a new app subscription model, the ability for developers to respond to customer reviews.

Additionally, Apple began a process to remove old apps that do not function as intended or that don't follow current app guidelines, with app research firms noticing significant numbers of app removals from the store. Furthermore, with the release of iOS 11 in September 2017, App Store received a complete design overhaul, bringing a greater focus on editorial content and daily highlights, as well as a design similar in style to several of Apple's built-in iOS apps; the iPhone App Store opened on July 10, 2008. On July 11, the iPhone 3G came pre-loaded with support for App Store. After the success of Apple's App Store and the launch of similar services by its competitors, the term "app store" has been adopted to refer to any similar service for mobile devices. However, Apple applied for a U. S. trademark on the term "App Store" in 2008, tentatively approved in early 2011. In June 2011, U. S. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton, presiding over Apple's case against Amazon, said she would "probably" deny Apple's motion to stop Amazon from using the "App Store" name.

In July, Apple was denied preliminary injunction against Amazon's Appstore by a federal judge. The term app has become a popular buzzword. "App" has been used as shorthand for "application" since at least the mid-1990s, in product names since at least 2006, for example then-named Google Apps. Apple announced Mac App Store, a similar app distribution platform for its macOS personal computer operating system, in October 2010, with the official launch taking place in January 2011 with the release of its 10.6.6 "Snow Leopard" update. In February 2013, Apple informed developers that they could begin using for links to their apps. In June at its developer conference, Apple announced an upcoming "Kids" section in App Store, a new section featuring apps categorized by age range, the section was launched alongside the release of iOS 7 in September 2013. In November 2014, due to pressure from the European Commission, Apple updated App Store so that all apps that have no charge to download are labeled "Get" instead of the previous "Free", due to many "free" apps' inclusions of paid in-app purchases.

In January 2017, reports surfaced that documentation for a new beta for the then-upcoming release of iOS 10.3 detailed that Apple would let developers respond to customer reviews in the App Store, marking a significant change from the previous limitation, which prevented developers from communicating with users. The functionality was enabled on March 27, 2017 when iOS 10.3 was released to users. Further details were released about reviews for users, including that they will be able to rate and review apps in the apps themselves rather than being redirected to the App Store, that they can mark other users' reviews as "Helpful" or "Not Helpful". Apple published a document describing proper ways to respond for developers, including being timely and concise, prioritize certain forms of reviews through filtering in iTunes Connect, that developer responses go through an approval process before being published. Developers are forbidden from manipulating or incenting feedback. Developer responses are listed in the App Store as a line underneath the respective user's review, users receive a notification/email upon a response from the respective developer, with the option to update their review.

In March 2017, App Store submissions containing pricing details, such as "free", in the name started getting rejected. Developers had been advised in developer guides in iTunes Connect and App Store overview pages that they should refrain from the practice, though apps were still approved. Starting in March, some apps with "free" in their titles were being rejected. In October 2016, in an effort to improve app discoverability, Apple rolled out the ability for developers to purchase advertising spots in App Store to users in the United States; the ads, shown at the top of the search results, are based on relevant keywords, are not used to create profiles on users. Apple expanded search ads to the United Kingdom and New Zealand in April 2017, along with more configurable advertising settings for developers. Search ads were expanded to Canada and Switzerland in October 2017. In December 2017, Apple revamped its search ads program to offer two distinctive versions. Search Ads Basic features an easier setup process and a restricted monthly budget.

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