Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and an isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak after Mount Everest. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park, the Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as Denali for centuries. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the state of Alaska, prior to this, most Alaskans already referred to the mountain as Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, in 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, which was proven to be false. The first verifiable ascent to Denalis summit was achieved on June 7,1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit. In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, and therefore the most popular currently in use.
On September 2,2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a region that is known as the McKinley cluster. Denali has an elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft. By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a higher base elevation. Denali has two significant summits, the South Summit is the one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft. The North Summit is sometimes counted as a peak and sometimes not, it is rarely climbed. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain, the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes.
Just to the east of the Muldrow, and abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier, the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, and the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range, the Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for high or tall, during the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, which is the Russian translation of Denali
A smartphone is a mobile phone with an advanced mobile operating system that combines features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. Smartphones can access the Internet and can run a variety of third-party software components and they typically have a color display with a graphical user interface that covers more than 76% of the front surface. In 1999, the Japanese firm NTT DoCoMo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country, smartphones became widespread in the late 2000s. Most of those produced from 2012 onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, motion sensors, in the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for regular cell phones in early 2013, devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized by Nikola Tesla in 1909 and Theodore Paraskevakos in 1971 and patented in 1974, and were offered for sale beginning in 1993.
Paraskevakos was the first to introduce the concepts of intelligence, data processing and they were installed at Peoples Telephone Company in Leesburg and were demonstrated to several telephone companies. The original and historic working models are still in the possession of Paraskevakos, the first mobile phone to incorporate PDA features was a prototype developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. It included PDA features and other mobile applications such as maps, stock reports. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator, the Simon was the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a smartphone, although it was not called that in 1994. The term smart phone appeared in print as early as 1995, in the mid-late 1990s, many mobile phone users carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, BlackBerry OS or Windows CE/Pocket PC.
These operating systems would evolve into mobile operating systems, in March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC that supported a Nokia 2110 phone with ROM-based software to support it. It had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls and it was 100% DOS5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a cellular phone based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated PDA based on the PEN/GEOS3.0 operating system from Geoworks. The two components were attached by a hinge in what known as a clamshell design, with the display above. The PDA provided e-mail, address book and notebook applications, text-based Web browsing, when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular phone. In June 1999 Qualcomm released the pdQ Smartphone, a CDMA digital PCS Smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA, subsequent landmark devices included, The Ericsson R380 by Ericsson Mobile Communications.
The first device marketed as a smartphone, it combined the functions of a phone and PDA. The Kyocera 6035 introduced by Palm, combining a PDA with a mobile phone, it operated on the Verizon network, and supported limited Web browsing
Mount Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, Kibo and Shira, is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. It is the highest mountain in Africa, and rises approximately 4,900 m from its base to 5,895 metres above sea level, the first recorded ascent to the summit of the mountain was by Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller in 1889. The mountain is part of the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination, the mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers. Kilimanjaro rises approximately 4,900 m from its base in the plains near the municipality of Moshi to its summit height of 5,895 metres. Kilimanjaro is the highest volcano outside South America, Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano and is composed of three distinct volcanic cones, the highest, Mawenzi at 5,149 metres, and Shira, the shortest at 4,005 metres. Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again, Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibos crater rim. The Tanzania National Parks Authority, a Tanzanian governmental agency, and that height is based on a British Ordnance Survey in 1952.
Since then, the height has been measured as 5,892 metres in 1999,5,891 metres in 2008, the interior of the volcanic edifice is poorly known, given the lack of large scale erosion that could have exposed the interiors of the volcano. Shira is topped by a plateau at 3,800 metres. The remnant caldera rim has been degraded deeply by erosion, before the caldera formed and erosion began, Shira might have been between 4,900 m and 5,200 m high. It is mostly composed of lavas with some pyroclastics. The formation of the caldera was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, two cones formed subsequently, the phonolitic one at the northwest end of the ridge and the doleritic Platzkegel in the caldera centre. Both Mawenzi and Kibo began erupting about 1 million years ago and they are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 metres elevation. The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old, Mawenzi forms a horseshoe shaped ridge with pinnacles and ridges opening to the northeast which has a tower like shape resulting from deep erosion and a mafic dyke swarm.
Several large cirques cut into the ring, the largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge, notable are the Ost and West Barrancos on the northeastern side of the mountain. Most of the side of the mountain has been removed by erosion. Mawenzi has a peak named Neumann Tower. Kibo is the largest cone and is more than 15 miles wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude, the last activity here has been dated to between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago and created the current Kibo summit crater
It is the second highest summit in Ecuador, reaching a height of 5,897 m. It is one of the worlds highest volcanoes, since 1738, Cotopaxi has erupted more than 50 times, resulting in the creation of numerous valleys formed by lahars around the volcano. The last eruption lasted from August 2015 to January 2016, since the recent eruptions, Cotopaxi has been officially closed for climbing by authorities. On a clear day, Cotopaxi is clearly visible on the skyline from Quito and is part of the chain of volcanoes around the Pacific plate known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It has an almost symmetrical cone that rises from a plain of about 3,800 metres. It has one of the few glaciers in the world. At its summit, Cotopaxi has an 800 X550 m wide crater which is 250 m deep, the crater consists of two concentric crater rims, the outer one being partly free of snow and irregular in shape. The crater interior is covered with ice cornices and rather flat, the highest point is on the outer rim of the crater on the north side.
Many sources claim that Cotopaxi means Neck of the Moon in an indigenous language, the mountain was honored as a Sacred Mountain by local Andean people, even prior to the Inca invasion in the 15th century. It was worshiped as “rain sender”, that served as the guarantor of the lands fertility, with 87 known eruptions, Cotopaxi is one of Ecuadors most active volcanoes. The first recorded eruption of Cotopaxi was in 1534, cotopaxis most violent eruptions in historical times occurred in the years 1742,1744,1768, and 1877. The 1744 and 1768 events destroyed the town of Latacunga. The city of Latacunga was again leveled completely due to the mudslide deposits, there was a major eruption from 1903 to 1904, and minor activity persisted until at least 1940 and possibly 1942. The same source reported increased thermal/seismic, non-eruptive activity in 1975 and 2002, in the increased activity of 2002, fumarolic activity and sulfuric emissions increased and ice around the inside and on the southeastern side of the cone started to melt.
However, no eruption was observed. In 2015, two large phreatic eruptions in the morning of the 14th of August marked a new phase of volcanic activity, the volcano remains in a very abnormal situation. In August,2,100 earthquakes were recorded and emission rates of sulfur dioxide reach approximately 20,000 tonnes per day, the government estimates some 300,000 people are at risk from the volcano in the provinces of Cotopaxi, Tungurahua and Pichincha. The first European who tried to climb the mountain was Alexander von Humboldt in 1802, however, in 1858 Moritz Wagner investigated the mountain, but he could not reach the summit either
Eddie Bauer Holdings, Inc. is an American holding company, headquartered in Bellevue, which operates the Eddie Bauer clothing store chain. EBH was formed after Eddie Bauers former parent company, the company was established in 1920 in Seattle by Pacific Northwest outdoorsman, Eddie Bauer. In 1940 Bauer patented the first quilted down jacket and he patented numerous other designs. The company was the first independent company which the United States Army hired and allowed to use a logo on the Army-issued uniform, Bauer retired and sold the company in 1968. General Mills bought the company in 1971, in 1988, Spiegel bought it from General Mills, in 2003, Inc. entered bankruptcy. The Spiegel catalog and all assets were sold, except for Eddie Bauer. In May 2005, Inc. emerged from bankruptcy under the name Eddie Bauer Holdings and is owned primarily by Golden Gate Capital, Eddie Bauer is a minority participant in joint venture operations in Japan and Germany that include retail stores and websites. Eddie Bauers flagship store is in Bellevues Bellevue Square mall, a Midwest Flagship opened in August 2010 at Easton Town Center in Columbus, Ohio.
Eddie Bauer Holdings, Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in Delaware on June 17,2009, in 1920, Eddie Bauer, at the age of 21, established his first store in downtown Seattle. Eddie Bauers Tennis Shop opened in the back of a hunting and fishing store. He first specialized in building and repairing tennis rackets and the shop was open during the tennis season. Eventually Bauer expanded his line of merchandise to include his own golf clubs and fishing tackle. Bauer would go on to develop and patent a standardized shuttlecock, the Bauer Shuttlecock popularized badminton in the United States. After this he began trying to develop alternatives to heavy wool garments used by outdoorsmen at the time and he attempted to offset the bulkiness of down by quilting a down-filled jacket. In 1940, Bauer patented the first quilted goose down-insulated jacket in the United States, design Patent 119,122 and introduced it in his store as The Skyliner. Bauer took out more than 20 patents on various outdoor clothing and sporting equipment between 1934 and 1937, in 1942, the United States Army Air Corps commissioned Eddie Bauer to develop the B-9 Flight Parka.
More than 50,000 parkas were manufactured for World War II airmen, the parka was designed to keep pilots warm at high altitudes. Of all government suppliers, Eddie Bauer alone was granted permission to affix his company logo to his products used by the army
Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres. It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km southeast of Mount Everest, one of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid. Makalu has two subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II lies about 3 km north-northwest of the main summit, rising about 5 km north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, and connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow,7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo. The first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by William Siri in the spring of 1954, the expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, and was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu. They attempted the southeast ridge but were turned back at 7,100 m by a constant barrage of storms, a New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was active in the spring, but did not get very high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse, Makalu was first climbed on May 15,1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco.
Franco, G. Magnone and Sardar Gyaltsen Norbu summitted the next day, followed by Bouvier, S. Coupe and this was an amazing achievement at the time to have the vast majority of expedition members summit, especially on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by 1-2 people at most with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around, the French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse, establishing the standard route. 1955 North Face to Northeast Ridge FA by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of France,1970, Southeast Ridge FA of ridge attempted by the Americans in 1954, was made by Y. Ozaki and A. Tanaka from Japan on May 23,1971, The very technical West Pillar route was climbed in May by Frenchmen B. 1975, South Face - an expedition led by Aleš Kunaver reached the top of Makalu up its steep southern side, the first amongst them was Stane Belak. This was the ascent of an eight-thousand meter peak by a great mountain face.
1976 – South pillar route completed by Czechoslovak expedition, route goes via south butress to Makalu South and via southeast ridge. Makalu South was climbed by 11 expedition members, two of them - Karel Schubert and Milan Kriššák summited main summit together with Jorge Camprubi from Spanish expedition which climbed southeast ridge. Karel Schubert died after bivouac near the summit, the route wasnt repeated till today. 1980, The second ascent of the West Pillar was completed in May by John Roskelley, Chris Kopczynski, James States and Kim Momb, without Sherpa support and without bottled oxygen. 1981, On 15 October renowned Polish climber Jerzy Kukuczka ascended Makalu via a new route up the north-western side, Kukuczka climbed solo, in Alpine style, without supplemental oxygen
One of the principal concepts of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are only available for a short time before they become inaccessible. The prototype for Snapchat was started by Brown and Spiegel as a project for one of Spiegels classes at Stanford, beginning as Picaboo, the idea was to create a selfie app which allowed users to share images that were explicitly short-lived and self-deleting. The temporary nature of the pictures would therefore encourage frivolity and emphasize a more natural flow of interaction, Murphy was eventually brought into the project to write the source code for the application, and Picaboo first launched as an iOS-only app in July 2011 from Evan Spiegels living room. The application was relaunched two months under the name Snapchat, Snapchat evolved into a mix of private messaging and public content, including brand networks and live events such as sports and music. Nevertheless, according to studies conducted in March 2016, the personal oriented messaging was still being accessed by users more than the publicly offered content that was being presented. 24% responded that they accessed all features equally, about three quarters of those surveyed were familiar with the events, media brands, and celebrity content, having a favorable opinion of those areas.
According to documents and deposition statements, Reggie Brown brought the idea for a disappearing pictures application to Evan Spiegel because Spiegel had prior business experience and Spiegel pulled in Bobby Murphy, who had experience coding. Early on, the Snapchat team focused on usability and technical aspects, one exception was the decision to keep a mascot designed by Brown, Ghostface Chillah, named after Ghostface Killah of the hip-hop group Wu-Tang Clan. The project eventually formed the parent company, Snapchat Inc. On May 8,2012, Reggie Brown sent an email to Evan Spiegel during their year at Stanford in which he offered to re-negotiate his equitable share regarding ownership of the company. Lawyers for Snapchat responded by insisting that he had never had any connection to the product. The attorneys accused Brown of committing fraud against Spiegel and Murphy by falsely claiming to be a product inventor. On behalf of their clients, the law firm concluded that Reggie Brown had made no contributions of value or worth, in September 2014, Brown settled with Spiegel and Murphy for $157.5 million and for getting credited as one of the original authors of Snapchat.
In their first blog post, dated May 9,2012, CEO Evan Spiegel described the companys mission and its about communicating with the full range of human emotion—not just what appears to be pretty or perfect. In May 2012,25 images were being sent per second and, as of November 28,2012, users had shared over one billion photos on the Snapchat iOS app, with 20 million photos being shared per day. In November 2012, Spiegel cited problems with userbase scalability as the reason why Snapchat was experiencing some difficulties delivering its images, known as snaps, Snapchat was released as an Android app on October 29,2012. In December 2012, Snapchat added the ability to send video snaps in addition to photos, by holding down on the photo button while inside the app, a video of up to 10 seconds in length can be captured. After a single viewing, the video disappears by default, Spiegel explained that this process allowed the video data to be compressed into the size of a photo
Bottled oxygen (climbing)
Bottled oxygen is oxygen in bottles, a terminology especially for high-altitude climbing. Bottled oxygen may be for a gas, especially for scuba or surgeries. When Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first successful summit of Mount Everest in 1953 they used bottled oxygen and it was noted for its ability to increase the users appreciation of the surroundings. Running out of bottled oxygen was noted as a factor in the 1979 deaths of Ray Genet and Hannelore Schmatz on Mount Everest. By the 21st century one of the oxygen systems on Mount Everest used carbon-fiber aluminum bottles
Orizaba is a city and municipality in the Mexican state of Veracruz. It is located 20 km west of its sister city Córdoba, the city had a 2005 census population of 117,273 and is almost coextensive with its small municipality, with only a few small areas outside the city. The municipalitys population was 117,289 and it has an area of 27.97 km² and it is generally understood that the name Orizaba comes from a Hispanicized pronunciation of the Nahuatl name Ahuilizapan, which means valley of happy waters. Another possibility, however, is the word Harish, this place being the hometown of the first Spanish settlers of Orizaba, the climate is generally pleasant, though often cloudy and rainy, and the soil of the Orizaba valley is extraordinarily fertile. Overlooking the valley from the north is the Pico de Orizaba, in the town of Ixhuatlancillo north of Orizaba, and in a large mountainous area to the south, live many thousands of people who speak a variant of Nahuatl which is often called Orizaba Nahuatl.
A plaque at the Temple of The Immaculate Conception in Huiloapan commemorates this event, during the colonial period, Orizaba became an important city. On January 27,1774, the Spanish king Carlos III conceded town status to Orizaba, in October 1812, José María Morelos captured the city for the insurgent army. In 1821 to the end of the war, Agustín de Iturbide was in Orizaba before, when Lucas Alamán established, in 1836, the first textile factory of Orizaba, the city started its economic life as an industrial city. In 1839 the newspaper La Luz was created and the Veracruz by the governor Francisco Hernández y Hernández gave the name of Veracruz-Llave to this state of Mexico. On May 8,1874, Orizaba was declared the city of Veracruz by the governor Apolinar Castillo. During the government of Porfirio Díaz, Orizaba was declared the most educated city in the Mexican province, the American World War I and World War II transport ship USS Orizaba was named after this town. The industry is focused in the following areas, paper, pharmaceutical and steel sector, soft drinks and food.
Also in the last years the commercial area experiments a significant growth due to the opening of new Malls & Major Retailers. The inquiry disclose that Orizabas Valley will grow 10% in 2013, due to the lack of pollution, the old City Hall El Palacio de Hierro in the centre of the city was designed by Gustave Eiffel. Built with 600 tons of Belgian steel, its parts were shipped from Belgium during the Porfiriato, to be assembled in Orizaba, the palace cost 100,000 pesos a very large sum at the time, considering 1 peso gold was 3 dollars at the time. Unfortunately, Don Manuel Carrillo Tablas died New Years Eve of 1899 without ever having received a cent from the city for his loan. He was a charitable man, having donated the land where the present Cathedral of Orizaba now stands. El Palacio de Hierro served as the City Hall until the city felt it was not large enough for the needs of the local government
Mount Everest, known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in China as Chomolungma/珠穆朗玛峰, is Earths highest mountain. Its peak is 8,848 metres above sea level, Mount Everest is in the Mahalangur Range. The international border between China and Nepal runs across Everests summit point and its massif includes neighbouring peaks Lhotse,8,516 m, Nuptse,7,855 m, and Changtse,7,580 m. In 1856, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India established the first published height of Everest, known as Peak XV, at 8,840 m. The current official height of 8,848 m as recognised by China and Nepal was established by a 1955 Indian survey, in 2005, China remeasured the height of the mountain and got a result of 8844.43 m. An argument regarding the height between China and Nepal lasted five years from 2005 to 2010, China argued it should be measured by its rock height which is 8,844 m but Nepal said it should be measured by its snow height 8,848 m. In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m and Nepal recognises Chinas claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.
In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal and the other from the north in Tibet, as of 2016 there are well over 200 corpses on the mountain, with some of them even serving as landmarks. The first recorded efforts to reach Everests summit were made by British mountaineers, with Nepal not allowing foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. Tragedy struck on the descent from the North Col when seven porters were killed in an avalanche. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953 using the southeast ridge route.
Tenzing had reached 8,595 m the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition, the Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960. In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing 500 kg and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression, several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down. The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas, conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health, nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 240 km distant