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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Adsorption

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface. This process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent; this process differs from absorption, in which a fluid is dissolved by or permeates a liquid or solid, respectively. Adsorption is a surface phenomenon; the term sorption encompasses both processes. Similar to surface tension, adsorption is a consequence of surface energy. In a bulk material, all the bonding requirements of the constituent atoms of the material are filled by other atoms in the material. However, atoms on the surface of the adsorbent are not wholly surrounded by other adsorbent atoms and therefore can attract adsorbates; the exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is classified as physisorption or chemisorption. It may occur due to electrostatic attraction. Adsorption is present in many natural, physical and chemical systems and is used in industrial applications such as heterogeneous catalysts, activated charcoal and using waste heat to provide cold water for air conditioning and other process requirements, synthetic resins, increasing storage capacity of carbide-derived carbons and water purification.

Adsorption, ion exchange and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. Pharmaceutical industry applications, which use adsorption as a means to prolong neurological exposure to specific drugs or parts thereof, are lesser known; the word "adsorption" was coined in 1881 by German physicist Heinrich Kayser. The adsorption of gases and solutes is described through isotherms, that is, the amount of adsorbate on the adsorbent as a function of its pressure or concentration at constant temperature; the quantity adsorbed is nearly always normalized by the mass of the adsorbent to allow comparison of different materials. To date, 15 different isotherm models have been developed; the first mathematical fit to an isotherm was published by Freundlich and Kuster and is a purely empirical formula for gaseous adsorbates: x m = k P 1 / n, where x is the mass of adsorbate adsorbed, m is the mass of the adsorbent, P is the pressure of adsorbate, k and n are empirical constants for each adsorbent–adsorbate pair at a given temperature.

The function is not adequate at high pressure because in reality x / m has an asymptotic maximum as pressure increases without bound. As the temperature increases, the constants k and n change to reflect the empirical observation that the quantity adsorbed rises more and higher pressures are required to saturate the surface. Irving Langmuir was the first to derive a scientifically based adsorption isotherm in 1918; the model applies to gases adsorbed on solid surfaces. It is a semi-empirical isotherm with a kinetic basis and was derived based on statistical thermodynamics, it is the most common isotherm equation to use due to its simplicity and its ability to fit a variety of adsorption data. It is based on four assumptions: All of the adsorption sites are equivalent, each site can only accommodate one molecule; the surface is energetically homogeneous, adsorbed molecules do not interact. There are no phase transitions. At the maximum adsorption, only a monolayer is formed. Adsorption only occurs on localized sites on the surface, not with other adsorbates.

These four assumptions are all true: there are always imperfections on the surface, adsorbed molecules are not inert, the mechanism is not the same for the first molecules to adsorb to a surface as for the last. The fourth condition is the most troublesome, as more molecules will adsorb to the monolayer; the Langmuir isotherm is nonetheless the first choice for most models of adsorption and has many applications in surface kinetics and thermodynamics. Langmuir suggested that adsorption takes place through this mechanism: A g + S ⇌ A S, where A is a gas molecule, S is an adsorption site; the direct and inverse rate constants are k and k−1. If we define surface coverage, θ, as the fraction of the adsorption sites occupied, in the equilibrium we have: K = k k − 1 = θ P, or θ = K P 1 + K P

Brian Taylor (filmmaker)

Brian Taylor is an American film director, camera operator, producer. He is best known for collaborating with Mark Neveldine in the writing/directing team Neveldine/Taylor. Taylor attended the Los Angeles Film School in Hollywood and began his career as a cinematographer, working on independent films and low-budget shorts. In the early 2000s, Taylor united with Mark Neveldine to form the directing team Neveldine/Taylor. Known for their aggressive, high energy camerawork, the team signed with @radical.media in 2004 as commercial directors. They shot campaigns for Nike, Powerade and many others before moving to the big screen in 2006 with their first feature, Crank. According to Taylor, the high adrenaline Crank was written as "an attack on studio filmmaking." The film spawned a sequel, Crank: High Voltage that Quentin Tarantino called “The Gremlins 2 of action movies.” The team pioneered the RED ONE camera on the dystopian science fiction mashup Gamer trekked across Europe with Nicolas Cage on Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance.

In February 2012, Taylor signed a seven-figure deal with Sony Pictures to write and direct a film adaptation of the Twisted Metal video game series. The film has not yet been produced. In 2016, Brian teamed up with Grant Morrison to adapt the graphic novel Happy! for Original Films. The series premiered on SyFy in 2017. Brian and Grant went on to adapt Aldous Huxley’s masterpiece Brave New World with Amblin/UCP as a USA series in 2018. In 2017, Taylor wrote and directed the horror comedy film Mom and Dad starring Nicolas Cage, Selma Blair and Anne Winters; the film premiered at Toronto International Film Festival 2017 as part of the Midnight Madness lineup and was released in theaters on January 19, 2018. Brian Taylor at FEARnet Brian Taylor on IMDb

Otsego, Wisconsin

Otsego is a town in Columbia County, United States. The population was 757 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Otsego is located in the town. The villages of Rio and Doylestown lie in the geographic area of the town of Otsego. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.0 square miles, of which, 30.5 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 757 people, 272 households, 212 families residing in the town; the population density was 24.8 people per square mile. There were 287 housing units at an average density of 9.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.89% White, 0.13% African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.92% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 0.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. There were 272 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.0% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families.

18.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $52,500, the median income for a family was $55,125. Males had a median income of $33,875 versus $29,327 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,620. About 1.4% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 1.1% of those age 65 or over

Ingested (band)

Ingested is a British extreme metal band formed in Manchester in 2006. The band was formed in the British city of Manchester in 2006, the group consists of vocalist Jason Evans, guitarists Sean Hynes and Sam Yates, bassist Brad Fuller and drummer Lyn Jeffs, who are all original members. Jeffs and Hynes played in British deathcore act Annotations of an Autopsy. After signing to Candlelight Records and Siege of Amida Records, Ingested released their debut album called Surpassing the Boundaries of Human Suffering in June 2009. Two years Ingested released their second record The Surreption via Siege of Amida. An ep followed in 2013 called Revered by Feared by All. After signing to Century Media, the band released their third full-length album The Architect of Extinction in 2015. In 2016, Ingested signed to Unique Leader Records which will release their fourth LP The Level Above Humen in April 2018. In 2010, Ingested toured throughout Europe for the first time as part of the Bonecrusher Fest, headlined by The Black Dahlia Murder and supported by Carnifex, 3 Inches of Blood and The Faceless.

Tours alongside acts like Annotations of an Autopsy and Martyr Defiled as well as festival appearances at Ghostfest and Extremefest followed. The first USA tour Ingested did was in the Autumn of 2015 on the Devastation on the Nation tour; as they were supporting other extreme metal bands like Origin, Aeon and Soreption. In 2016 Ingested toured North America for the second time, being part of the annual Summer Slaughter Tour, it was announced that Ingested will return to North America including their first appearance in Mexico in mid of 2018 followed by another European tour in support of their fourth record The Level Above Human. In support for The Level Above Human, the band did their first full USA headliner in the Spring of 2018 with Signs of the Swarm and Bodysnatcher, they played on the 2018 Devastation on the Nation tour with bands like Aborted, Disentomb, Venom Prison, Vale of Pnath & Arkiak. Jason Evans, the current vocalist of Ingested couldn't make it to the tour due to personal reasons, his fill in was Jason Keyser of the technical death metal band Origin.

Ingested returned to Europe in the September of 2018. Ingested did their second headliner in the United States known as the "Evisceratour" in the Fall of 2018. Enterprise Earth, I Declare War, Aether and I AM joined up as support. In 2019, Ingested supported Cryptopsy on their Spring European tour. Incite, Demonical and Gloryhole Guillotine joined up on the lineup as well. In April and May 2019, Ingested supported The Black Dahlia Murder on their UK tour. Ingested opened for Despised Icon on their fall 2019 tour in the United States. Kublai Khan and Shadow of Intent joined up as support. Ingested toured Europe in November 2019 on their "Decade Of Human Suffering" Tour performing "Surpassing The Boundaries of Human Suffering" in its entirety. Within Destruction, Signs of the Swarm and Distant accompanied them on this tour, they are continuing this tour in 2020. Surpassing the Boundaries of Human Suffering, Candlelight Records, Siege of Amida Records The Surreption, Siege of Amida Records The Architect of Extinction, Century Media The Level Above Human, Unique Leader Records Stinking Cesspool of Human Remnants, Self Released Revered by No One, Feared by All, Siege of Amida Records Call of the Void, Unique Leader Records North-West Slam Fest, Grindethic Records Current LineupJason Evans - lead vocals Sam Yates - guitars, backing vocals Sean Hynes - guitars, backing vocals Lyn Jeffs - drums Past MembersBrad Fuller - bass Ingested on Facebook Artist profile at Century Media Artist profile at Unique Leader Records

Asus Transformer Pad TF701T

The Asus Transformer Pad TF701T is an Android tablet computer made by Asus, successor to the Asus Transformer Pad Infinity. The Transformer design includes a docking keyboard; the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T was released in the UK in October 2013 and in the U. S. in November 2013. The tablet includes a Tegra 4 T114 processor clocked at 1.9 GHz, an upgraded 2560×1600 pixel resolution screen, increasing the pixel density to 300 PPI and a mobile dock. Asus Transformer Pad TF701T had powerful hardware for its time according to the reviewers and after being discontinued, the users could perform an unofficial system update using CyanogenMod 12.1 which enabled the user to install Android Lollipop 5.1.1. Reception for the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T was mixed; the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T was announced on June 2013. It's the successor to the Asus Transformer Pad Infinity. Asus released the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T on 5th November 2013 taking orders for $449 with 32GB memory model; the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T could be purchased with a mobile dock that featured a laptop-like keyboard.

Its mobile dock’s keyboard offers the user quick access to features such as “Back” button, Wi-Fi, Track pad ON/OFF, Auto-Brightness, Web-browser, Music track options, Volume control, Screen-lock. The tablet has a proprietary charger port, used to connect the tablet to the mobile dock; the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T features a quad–core 1.9 GHz Cortex-A15 processor with 2GB of memory. It is available in 32 or 64 GB storage variants, with expandable microSD card support for up to 64GB, it has a claimed battery life of 17 hours. The tablets body dimensions are 263 x 180.8 x 8.9 mm. It weighs 585 g and has a Super IPS+ LCD, capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors display with the size of 10.1 inches, 295.8 cm2 and a resolution of 2560 x 1600 pixels, 16:10 ratio The display uses Gorilla Glass 2. The main camera has 5 Megapixels and features HDR and can capture video at 1080p@30fps, while its selfie camera has 1.2 Megapixels and can capture video at 720p. The tablet has proprietary charging port which means that tablet cannot be charged with micro USB.

The port is used to connect the tablet to its mobile dock. The mobile dock has a single USB 3.0 port. The Asus Transformer Pad TF701T was released with the Android 4.2.2 Jelly Bean operating system and can be upgraded to Android KitKat 4.4.2. By default the tablet has "ASUS Quick Settings" enabled that changes the default settings dropdown list; the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T has an application, used to monitor the battery percentage of both the tablet itself and the mobile dock. The last software update it received was on 12th February 2015, which improved the tablet’s power consumption as well as its system performance. Since the support for the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T has been discontinued, users can perform an unofficial upgrade using CyanogenMod 12.1 which will enable the user to install Android Lollipop 5.1.1. Reception for the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T was mixed. According to a review on the YouTube channel “ROZETKA”, ”all of the ASUS Transformer devices look the same and their design hasn’t changed for the past three generations.

The tablet doesn’t sit on the mobile dock firmly and dangles around a bit when entering text.” During the same review, the reviewer claimed that the thick bezels around the screen give the tablet a bad look now that most competing devices have thinner, nicer looking bezels. A few other reviewers have praised the device and its mobile dock for its quick access to certain apps. A criticised feature of the Asus Transformer Pad TF701T is its proprietary charging port that cannot be found in public charging spots

Toll-free telephone numbers in the North American Numbering Plan

In the United States of America and other countries participating in the North American Numbering Plan, a toll-free telephone number has one of the area codes 800, 833, 844, 855, 866, 877, 888. Area code 822 is expected to be used in the future, followed by 880 through 887 889. However, 811 is reserved as a three-digit number for various other purposes. In addition, 899 is reserved as a member of the series x9x for future numbering plan expansion. Calls to these numbers are free to the caller if dialed from land-line phones, but may incur mobile airtime charges for cellular phones. Most of the United States and all of Canada uses a flat-rate structure for local calls, which incur no per-call cost to residential subscribers; as regulators in North America had long allowed long-distance calling to be priced artificially high in return for artificially low rates for local service, subscribers tended to make toll calls and to keep them deliberately brief. Some businesses, eager to sell their products to buyers outside the local calling area, were willing to accept collect calls or installed special services, such as Zenith number service, where they paid the cost of receiving telephone enquiries.

All of these calls had to be completed by the switchboard operator. The first automated toll-free numbers were assigned with area code 800, created as inbound Wide Area Telephone Service in 1966 and 1967; these terminated on special fixed-rate trunks which would accept calls from a specified calling area with either no limit or a specific maximum number of hours per month. The billing of calls was not itemized and the expensive fixed-rate line was only within financial reach of large corporations and government agencies. A service provider offered a variety of zones, each costing more than the smaller ones, but adding progressively larger areas from which calls would be accepted for a customer. In the early 1980s, Bell Labs received a patent for what became AT&T's "Advanced 800 Service", a computer-controlled system where any toll-free number could point to any destination number, such as to a small business local number instead of a special InWATS line, an itemized bill generated only for the calls the business received.

By breaking the link between the number's exchange prefix and geographic location, this system opened opportunities for vanity number advertising – an advantage in media like commercial radio where numbers need to be memorable. The toll-free long distance market was opened to competition after 1986 and a RespOrg system instituted in 1993 to provide toll-free number portability between rival carriers using the SMS/800 database. Open competition brought an end to the pattern of long distance subsidizing local service, bringing per-minute charges down to levels where any business could afford to take orders using an 800-number. 800-services were isolated between the US and Canada, but in 1984, an agreement between carriers in the two countries allowed the numbers in each country to be accessible to the other. The arrival of Advanced 800 Service meant that numbers limited for use in Canada became available to American customers, vice versa; the original 800-code operated for over thirty years before its 7.8 million possible numbers were depleted, but new toll-free area codes are being depleted at an increasing rate both by more widespread use of the numbers by voice-over-IP, pocket pagers and small business use, widespread abuse by RespOrgs and subscribers who stockpile the numbers for use in misdial marketing, response tracking for individual advertisements or sale, lease or shared use.

Brokering numbers for sale is illegal, but renting a number or part of a number circumvents these regulations as FCC enforcement is sporadic to minimal. Some geographic area codes are similar to the toll-free codes, e.g. 801, 818, 860. Such similarities have been exploited by fraudsters in international locations that can be direct-dialed with what appear at first glance to be domestic area codes, including 809, 829, 849, which are official prefixes for the Dominican Republic and 876, the area code for Jamaica. Toll-free numbers are sometimes confused with 900-numbers, for which the telephone company bills the callers at rates far in excess of long-distance service rates for services such as recorded information or live chat; these toll-free numbers can be called from any phone in Canada or the U. S. though the owner can put restrictions on their use. Sometimes they accept calls only from either Canada or the U. S. or only from certain states or provinces. Some are not accessible from pay phones.

Calls from pay phones assess the toll-free owner an additional fee in the U. S. as mandated by the FCC. Although toll-free numbers are not accessible internationally, many phone services call through the U. S. and in this case the toll-free numbers become available. Examples of these services are the MCI Worldphone international calling card and any US-based Internet telephone gateway. However, many calling card services charge their own fee when their toll-free numbers are used to make calls or when their toll-free numbers are used from pay phones. From many countries, US toll-free numbers can be dialed, but the caller first gets a recorded announcement that the call is not free. US toll-free numbers could at one time be accessed from certain other countries on a paid basis by replacing t