Advanced Mobile Phone System was an analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, introduced in the Americas on October 13, 1983, Israel in 1986, Australia in 1987, Singapore in 1988, Pakistan in 1990. It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America into the 2000s; as of February 18, 2008, carriers in the United States were no longer required to support AMPS and companies such as AT&T and Verizon Communications have discontinued this service permanently. AMPS was discontinued in Australia in September 2000, in Pakistan by October 2004, in Israel by January 2010, Brazil by 2010; the first cellular network efforts began with research conducted at Motorola. In 1960, John F. Mitchell, an electrical engineer who had graduated from the Illinois Institute of Technology, became Motorola's chief engineer for its mobile-communication products. Mitchell oversaw the marketing of the first pager to use transistors. Motorola had long produced mobile telephones for automobiles, but these large and heavy models consumed too much power to allow their use without the automobile's engine running.
Mitchell's team, which included the gifted Dr. Martin Cooper, developed portable cellular telephony, Mitchell was among the Motorola employees granted a patent for this work in 1973; the first call on the prototype connected to a wrong number. While Motorola was developing a cellular phone, from 1968-1983 Bell Labs worked out a system called Advanced Mobile Phone System, which became the first cellular network standard in the United States; the first system was deployed in Chicago, Illinois, in 1979. Motorola and others built the cellular phones for this and other cellular systems. Martin Cooper, a former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, led a team that produced the DynaTAC 8000x, the first commercially available cellular phone small enough to be carried, made the first phone call from it, he introduced the so-called Bag Phone. In 1992, the first smartphone, called IBM Simon, used AMPS. Frank Canova led its design at IBM and it was demonstrated that year at the COMDEX computer-industry trade-show.
A refined version of the product was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator. The Simon was the first device that can be properly referred to as a "smartphone" though that term was not yet coined. AMPS is a first-generation cellular technology that uses separate frequencies, or "channels", for each conversation, it therefore required considerable bandwidth for a large number of users. In general terms, AMPS was similar to the older "0G" Improved Mobile Telephone Service, but used more computing power in order to select frequencies, hand off conversations to PSTN lines, handle billing and call setup. What separated AMPS from older systems is the "back end" call setup functionality. In AMPS, the cell centers could flexibly assign channels to handsets based on signal strength, allowing the same frequency to be re-used in various locations without interference; this allowed a larger number of phones to be supported over a geographical area. AMPS pioneers coined the term "cellular" because of its use of small hexagonal "cells" within a system.
AMPS suffered from many weaknesses compared to today's digital technologies. As an analog standard, it was susceptible to static and noise, there was no protection from'eavesdropping' using a scanner. In the 1990s, an epidemic of "cloning" cost the cellular carriers millions of dollars. An eavesdropper with specialized equipment could intercept a handset's ESN and MDN or CTN; the Electronic Serial Number, a 12-digit number sent by the handset to the cellular system for billing purposes, uniquely identified that phone on the network. The system allowed or disallowed calls and/or features based on its customer file. A person intercepting an ESN/MDN pair could clone the combination onto a different phone and use it in other areas for making calls without paying. Cellular phone cloning became possible with off-the-shelf technology in the 1990s. Would-be cloners required three key items: A radio receiver, such as the Icom PCR-1000, that could tune into the Reverse Channel A PC with a sound card and a software program called Banpaia A phone that could be used for cloning, such as the Oki 900The radio, when tuned to the proper frequency, would receive the signal transmitted by the cell phone to be cloned, containing the phone's ESN/MDN pair.
This signal would feed into the sound-card audio-input of the PC, Banpaia would decode the ESN/MDN pair from this signal and display it on the screen. The hacker could copy that data into the Oki 900 phone and reboot it, after which the phone network could not distinguish the Oki from the original phone whose signal had been received; this gave the cloner, through the Oki phone, the ability to use the mobile-phone service of the legitimate subscriber whose phone was cloned - just as if that phone had been physically stolen, except that the subscriber retained his or her phone, unaware that the phone had been cloned—at least until that subscriber received his or her next bill. The problem became so large; the cellular companies initiated a system called RF Fingerprinting, whereby it could determine subtle differences in the signal of one phone from another and shut down some cloned phones. Some legitimate customers had problems with this though if they made cert
Popof Island is an island in the Shumagin Islands south of mainland Alaska. The largest community in the area, Sand Point, is located on the northwest coast. Popof Island is 10 miles long, 5 miles wide and the peak elevation is 1,550 feet, it is located at 55°18′49″N 160°22′29″W. It has a total population of 952 persons at the 2000 census. Pirate Cove on the island was developed as a major codfish fishing station. A herd of introduced bison is on the uninhabited side of the island and numbers about 120. Popof Island first appeared as a separate political entity on the 1890 U. S. Census with a population of 146. Of these, 135 were White, 7 were Creole, 3 were Asian and 1 was Native; this included 3 settlements on the island: Pirate Cove, which had appeared on the 1880 census separately with 7 residents, located on the northeast side of the island. Census enumerators counted all the ships that were docked at Pirate Cove and those at Sand Point. Beginning in 1900, Popof Island villages reported separately.
Red Cove was abandoned. Pirate Cove appeared once more on the 1920 census. Sand Point became the dominant village on the island, growing from 16 residents in 1900 to 976 by 2010, it incorporated as a city in 1966 and became important enough to be made the equivalent of county seat for the Aleutians East in 1987. As of 2000, all residents of Popof Island reside within the city limits of Sand Point. Popof Island: Blocks 3003 thru 3019, Census Tract 1, Aleutians East Borough, Alaska United States Census Bureau
Margaret Beauchamp was the eldest daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his first wife Elizabeth de Berkeley. As the eldest child of a family without male issue, Margaret was expected to inherit from her father until her stepmother Isabel le Despenser gave him a son, she was the heir-general of Thomas de Berkeley, 5th Baron Berkeley. These lands were claimed by her mother, to whom she and her two sisters were coheirs, her paternal grandfather was Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick who fought for John of Gaunt in Spain and imprisoned in the Tower of London by Richard II and pardoned by Henry IV. However he died. On 6 September 1425 she had married 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. However, Latimer's claim was possessed by his brother, the Earl of Salisbury, as Latimer had been declared insane. By Talbot, she had five children: John Talbot, 1st Viscount Lisle Sir Louis Talbot Sir Humphrey Talbot Lady Eleanor Talbot married to Sir Thomas Butler and alleged mistress to King Edward IV.
Lady Elizabeth Talbot. She married 4th Duke of Norfolk. Lord and Lady Talbot were distantly related to each other, having a shared ancestor in King Edward I and both being descendants of the houses of Clare and Despenser, she received the title of Countess of Clermont through the bravery of her husband during the wars with France. During the troubled years of the Wars of the Roses, the dispute passed from litigation to actual violence. Lord Berkeley sacked Margaret's manor at Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, in return for which her son, the Viscount Lisle, stormed Berkeley Castle and took him prisoner. Margaret succeeded in having Lord Berkeley's wife, Lady Isabel Mowbray, committed to prison, where she died that year. Lord Berkeley married Lady Joan Talbot, Margaret's stepdaughter, in 1457, temporarily quelling the feud, it broke out again in 1463, when 2nd Baron Berkeley, acceded. Litigation continued, on her death in 1468, she left her claims to her grandson Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle.
She was buried in St Faith under St Paul's at London. Camden, William. "Of the Antiquity of Epitaphs in England." A Collection of Curious Discourses. Vol. 1, Ed. Thomas Hearne, Benjamin White, at Horace's Head, London, 1775. Margaret Beauchamp
Matthew Rees is a Welsh footballer who plays for Welsh Premier League side Afan Lido. A former Wales under-21 international, he began his career with Millwall without making a first team appearance. After loan spells with Aldershot Town and Dagenham & Redbridge, he made his debut in the Football League with Swansea City in 2004, making three appearances, he has had spells with Crawley Town, Newport County, Carmarthen Town. Rees began his career as a youth player at Millwall, turning professional in April 2000, captained the club's reserve side. Having not made a first team appearance for the club, he was allowed to join Conference National side Aldershot Town on loan in October 2003, he made his debut for the club in a 3–1 over Halifax Town on 11 October 2003, going on to make ten appearances in all competitions before being recalled from his loan spell by Millwall to cover for an injury crisis after two months. In January 2004, he returned to the Conference on loan with Dagenham & Redbridge, playing in just one match for the club, a 2–0 defeat to Exeter City.
After returning to Millwall, Rees was sent out on loan for the third time during the 2003–04 season, joining his home town club Swansea City. He made a goalscoring debut during a 2–1 defeat to Lincoln City on 10 April 2004 and made two more appearances before the end of the season. Released by Millwall on his return, Rees joined Crawley Town on non-contract terms, he remained with the club until November and, after a brief spell with Newport County, joined Welsh Premier League side Port Talbot Town in December 2004. To date, Rees has made over 150 appearances for the club, becoming the club's all-time record Welsh Premier appearance holder in December 2009, was named Welsh Premier League player of the month for September 2006, he joined Carmarthen Town in June 2012 after the liquidation of Neath and went on to make 73 appearances for the club, scoring 1 goal. In August 2013 he joined Afan Lido. Rees made his debut for the Wales under-21 side on 6 September 2002 as a substitute in place of Rhys Day during a 2–1 defeat to Finland.
He made two further appearances during the 2002–03 season, during 0–0 draw with South Korea, in a game designated as an under-20 international, a 1–0 win over Azerbaijan. In May 2003, despite having not made a professional appearance at club level, he was called up to the senior Wales squad for a friendly match against the United States, remaining on the bench during a 2–0 defeat. Matthew Rees at Soccerbase Welsh Premier profile
Anti-Asian Racism in France refers to discrimination faced by individuals of Asian descent in France. Anti-Asian racism consists of beliefs about people of Asian origin presented in a positive manner, which contain hidden undertones of a negative nature. According to Daniel Tran, of the Chinese Association of France, interviewed by France TV Info, in January 2018: "There are many clichés circulating on Asian people, clichés specific to men and specific to women; the woman rather "nice and docile", who must say "yes" to everything. The man this cliché of "nice". There was an assault in August 2016 of a Chinese designer in Aubervilliers called Zhang Chaolin. Three attackers tried to steal his money, he surrendered to his injuries. It is a racism, seen as less serious because it is trivialized since it has not been accused enough. Gregory B. Lee of the Transtextual and Transcultural Studies Institute, speaking at a conference in Valencia at the Armenian Heritage Center in 2013, notes a deep ignorance of Asia and a social imaginary built from a few biased and stereotypical images.
Mai Lam Nguyen-Conan, declares in January 2017 that anti-Asian racism "is quite close to anti-Semitism. The idea that spread "everywhere", while their logic is that of economic autonomy ". Regarding aggression, "Only a few complaints have been made to the court, because there is a lack of knowledge about French law, the language barrier and a form of fatalism," says Mathilde Pinson; the victims accept these attacks. A Representative Council of Asian Associations of France is created in 2011. After the death of Zhang Chaolin, a 49-year-old Chinese designer assaulted in August 2016 by three men, nearly 2,000 people of Chinese origin gathered in August 2016 in Aubervilliers to protest and their voices were heard on Social network. In June 2013, six Chinese students were assaulted in Gironde. Anti-Chinese racist insults are uttered. April 21, 2015 the spokesperson of the representative Council of Asian associations of France, alert the media on "the outbreak of violence to which Asians are the target".
According to him, Asians are targeted "because they say they have money on them". In 2016 The Chinese community of Aubervilliers is the victim of a large number of attacks. After further attacks, a protest was organized. From November 2015 to August 2016, more than one hundred violent attacks were recorded in Aubervilliers. On August 13, 2016, Chaolin Zhang died as a result of an assault. On August 21, 2016, a protest was organized by the Chinese community. On 29 September 2016, three young people were assaulted and an attacker was released; this was the first time. At the end of May 2019, the Territorial Security Brigade of Vitry-sur-Seine calls for a witness to find the victims of a group of young perpetrators of theft with violence, who targeted people from Asia. Racism in France Human trafficking in France Commission nationale consultative des droits de l'homme International League against Racism and Anti-Semitism Human Rights League
Julio César DePaula is a professional baseball pitcher, a free agent. He appeared in 16 games for the Minnesota Twins in the 2007 season, he became a free agent at the end of the 2008 season and signed a minor league contract with the Tampa Bay Rays on Jan. 6, 2009. He signed with Hanwha Eagles in South Korea on Dec. 10, 2009. He appeared in 41 games for Eagles that season, he was released from Eagles on June 2011, due to poor results. On June 26, 2014 DePaula signed a minor league contract with the Baltimore Orioles, he signed a contract with Brother Elephants in 2015 but was released on January 10, 2015. DePaula signed with the York Revolution of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball for the 2016 season. On April 8, 2016, DePaula signed with the Rieleros de Aguascalientes of the Mexican Baseball League, he was released on April 15, 2016. On May 27, 2017, DePaula was traded from the York Revolution to the Sugar Land Skeeters, he became a free agent after the 2017 season. On July 24, 2018, DePaula signed with the Road Warriors of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball.