SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aedui

The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre; the country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border; the Saône formed their eastern border. The Sequani did not reside in the region of the confluence of the Doubs into the Saône and of the latter into the Rhône, as Caesar says that the Helvetii, following the pass between the Jura Mountains and the Rhône southwards, which belonged to the Sequani, plundered the territory of the Aedui; these circumstances explain an apparent contradiction in Strabo, who in one sentence says that the Aedui lived between the Saône and the Doubs, in the next, that the Sequani lived across the Saône. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. Outside of the Roman province and prior to Roman rule, Independent Gaul was occupied by self-governing tribes divided into cantons, each canton was further divided into communes.

The Aedui, like other powerful tribes in the region, had replaced their monarchy with a council of magistrates called grand-judges. The grand-judges were under the authority of the senate; the senate was made up of the descendants of ancient royal families. Free men in the tribes were vassals to the heads of these families in exchange for military and political interests. According to Livy, they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they had attached themselves to the Romans and were honoured with the title of brothers and kinsmen of the Roman people; when the Sequani, their hereditary rivals, with the assistance of a Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus and massacred the Aedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, the Aedui sent Diviciacus, the druid, to Rome to appeal to the senate for help, but his mission was unsuccessful. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. In spite of this, the Aedui joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar, but after the surrender of Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, were glad to return to their allegiance.

Augustus dismantled their native capital Bibracte on Mont Beuvray and substituted a new town with a half-Roman, half-Gaulish name, Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius; the Aedui were the first of the Gauls to receive from the emperor Claudius the distinction of jus honorum, thus being the first Gauls permitted to become senators. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected; the chief magistrate of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus, elected annually, possessed powers of life and death but was forbidden to go beyond the frontier. Certain clientes, or small communities, were dependent upon the Aedui, it is possible that the Aedui adopted many of the governmental practices of the Romans, such as electing magistrates and other officials or it was a natural development in their political system.

It is thought that other Celtic tribes, such as the Remi and the Baiocasses elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. A. E. Desjardins, Geographie de la Gaule, ii. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul

Adam Kilgarriff

Adam Kilgarriff was a corpus linguist, lexicographer and co-author of Sketch Engine. His parents were booksellers, he spent one year as a volunteer in Kenya 1978–1979 began studying at Cambridge University, graduating with a first class BA degree in philosophy and engineering in 1982. His first job was as a Housing Officer for the Quadrant Housing Trust. At the same time he studied at the South West London College. In 1987, he left his job and started an MSc in intelligent knowledge-based systems at the University of Sussex, from where he graduated the following year, continuing a DPhil in computational linguistics with thesis Polysemy. In 2008 he made a return trip to Kenya with his old friend Raphael, he was a participant in the Hastings Half Marathon for many years. In November 2014, he was diagnosed with stage 4 bowel cancer which he succumbed to in May 2015. After the diagnosis he started his own blog where he reflected on his experience with the disease and thoughts on language, corpus linguistics and life and the world in general.

He graduated from University of Sussex and became a lecturer at the University of Brighton in 1995. He was a visiting research fellow in Department of Informatics at the University of Sussex and in School of Modern languages and Cultures at the University of Leeds; the partnership with B. T. S. Atkins and Michael Rundell brought setting up his first company Lexicography MasterClass Ltd in 2002; this company provided training in lexicography and dictionary production. Shortly after the retirement of Sue Atkins, the company was dissolved in 2012. In 2003, he started his own company Lexical Computing Limited delivering tools and services in corpus processing, he himself has been working as a lexicographer for a short period at the Longman Dictionaries. His early research career was associated with word sense disambiguation. Kilgarriff argued against discrete classification of word senses and saw word senses rather as a continuous space of meanings defined by the contexts in which a word appears, his paper "I don't believe in word senses" became soon a state-of-the-art argumentation on the topic.

The work on polysemy brought Kilgarriff to text corpora and corpus linguistics to which he devoted the rest of his career. He was one of the founding members and former chair of the Special Interest Group on Web as Corpus of the Association for Computational Linguistics and one of the founding organizers of SENSEVAL. In the years 2000–2004, he was the president of the Special Interest Group on the Lexicon of the ACL. Kilgarriff was an active member of the European Association for Lexicography, consultant for major publishing houses and reviewer for journals and conferences around that field, he has been working on methods for automatic acquisition of large web corpora and quantitative and qualitative corpus analysis. His work on corpora was connected with their application for computer lexicography. Kilgarriff invented the notion of word sketches, one-page summaries of a word's collocation behaviour in particular grammatical relations, which represent the core part of the Sketch Engine corpus management system.

Adam Kilgarriff's home page Adam Kilgarriff's profile on Google Scholar Structured Bibliography of Adam Kilgarriff written by himself

Provincial Highway 26 (Taiwan)

Provincial Highway 26 is a Taiwanese highway that starts from Fangshan, Pingtung County and ends in Daren, Taitung County. The highway is known as Ping-E Highway for the stretch between Fangshan and Cape Eluanbi in Kenting National Park, Jia-E Highway between Cape Eluanbi and Jialeshui, it is the beaches in Kenting. The route length is 93.5 kilometres. The highway begins at Fenggang, a village in Fangshan, at the intersection with Highway 9. Although signed as an East-West highway, the highway turns southbound towards Kenting National Park, passing through the terminus of Highway 1, which provides access to the major cities in western Taiwan. After passing through Shizi and Checheng, the highway enters Hengchun Township, home to Kenting National Park; the highway passes through most of the tourist destination in the park, including Main Street Kenting, Kenting beach, Cape Maobitou, Cape Eluanbi, among others. After reaching Cape Eluanbi, the highway turns northbound and head towards Jialeshui on the east side of the park.

The highway has a gap between Gangzai in Manzhou Township. The section is unbuilt due to environmental concerns. Instead, drivers will need to take County Route 200A in Gangzai, which connects to County Route 200, to continue along Highway 26; the highway continues as a 1-lane highway from Gangzai to Xuhai in Manzhou Township, before it reaches another unbuilt gap from Xuhai to Xianantian in Daren Township, Taitung. This section, if built, will follow Alangyi Ancient Trail, although environmental concerns terminated the construction of this section. To bypass the gap, drivers will need to take County Route 199A in Xuhai, which connects to County Route 199 and Provincial Highway 9; the stretch of the highway from Xianantian to its terminus at Anshuo, Daren Township, is open to traffic. Highway system in Taiwan