Altogether at least ten Sadelers worked as engravers, in the Spanish Netherlands, Italy and Austria. The Sadelers were descended from chasers, engravers of armour, from Aalst, Jan de Saeyelleer or Sadeleer had three sons, all usually called Sadeler, Jan I, Aegidius I and Rafael I. Another Sadeler, Marcus or Marco, was a printer and perhaps publisher who was working in Haarlem in c, 1586-87, and is presumed to be a member of the family, though it is not known where he fits in. Jan I was the father of Justus and Marcus Christoph, Aegidius I was the father of Aegidius II. Rafael I was the father of Rafael II, Jan II, Aegidius II was the father of Tobias, who was active from 1670-75 in Vienna. Jan was in Antwerp by 1572, it was the centre of the printmaking world, in that year he became a master of the artists Guild of Saint Luke, and married in Antwerp Cathedral. By 1569 or 1570 he was doing work for the publisher Christopher Plantin and his younger brother Rafael I joined him there, and they continued to work closely together, moving to Cologne in about 1579, but continuing to visit Antwerp.
They first went, accompanied by their nephew Aegidius II, to Verona, Venice from 1596/7, in 1604 Rafael returned to Munich, where he remained for most of the rest of his life, of which the last record comes in 1622. Jans son Marcus, or Marco, remained in Italy as a publisher and artist, three of their best-known prints after the Bassani are known as the Sadeler kitchen scenes. They show respectively Christ in the house of Mary and Martha, at Emmaus, Aegidius Sadeler was a painter, and a leading Northern Mannerist engraver, the best of the dynasty. After a trip to Naples he moved to Prague in 1597 and he lived for some time in the house of Bartholomeus Spranger, whose works he engraved. As the more important figure, references to just Aegidius Sadeler are more likely to mean him than his father and he painted, although no works certainly by him survive. His early works were mostly religious prints after Northern painters, several in sets, in Italy he added Northern painters working in Italy, such as Paul Bril and Denys Calvaert, as well as Italian masters both some generations older (Titian, Raphael and contemporary.
In Prague he engraved the Mannerists of Rudolfs court, but did portraits of notables. He collaborated with Jacobus Typotius on the Prague emblem book, Symbola Divina et Humana, Karen L. and Imhof, Dirk. Christopher Plantin and Engraved Book Illustrations in Sixteenth-Century Europe, Cambridge University Press,2008, ISBN 0-521-85276-5, google books - short biographies, with long lists of works for Plantin, and mentions passim. Bury, The Print in Italy, 1550-1620,2001, British Museum Press, a History of Engraving and Etching, Houghton Mifflin Co. 1923, reprinted Dover Publications,1963 ISBN 0-486-20954-7 Getty Foundation, Union List of Artists Names online Grove Art Online, accessed 13 July 2009 Mayor, Hyatt A
Roelant Savery, was a Flanders-born Dutch Golden Age painter. Like so many artists, he belonged to an Anabaptist family that fled north from the Spanish-occupied Southern Netherlands when Roelant was about 4 years old. He was taught painting by his older brother Jacob Savery and Hans Bol, after his schooling, Savery traveled to Prague around 1604, where he became court painter of the Emperors Rudolf II and Mathias, who had made their court a center of mannerist art. Between 1606-1608 he traveled to Tyrol to study plants, before 1616 Savery moved back to Amsterdam, and lived in the Sint Antoniesbreestraat. In 1618 he settled in Utrecht, where he joined the artists guild a year and his nephew Hans would become his most important assistant. In 1621 Savery bought a house on the Boterstraat in Utrecht. The house had a garden with flowers and plants, where a number of fellow painters. Savery had kept his house in Amsterdam, and had one child baptized in Nieuwe Kerk, Savery was friends with still life painters like Balthasar van der Ast and Ambrosius Bosschaert.
In the 1620s he was one of the most successful painters in Utrecht, though he would have pupils until the late 1630s, amongst which Allaert van Everdingen and Roelant Roghman, he went bankrupt in 1638 and died in Utrecht half a year later. He painted multiple flower still lifes, bouquets in stone niches, sometimes with lizards, insects or fallen petals and regarded as his best work. His unique style of painting, related to the reigning Mannerism, has been popular with collectors and can be found in many museums in Europe. His preparatory drawings are valued highly, among his best-known works are several depictions of the now-extinct dodo painted between 1611 and 1628. Jan Savery was known for his paintings of the dodo, Savery is famous for being the most prolific and influential illustrator of the extinct dodo, having made at least ten depictions, often showing it in the lower corners. A famous painting of his from 1626, now called Edwards Dodo as it was owned by the ornithologist George Edwards, has since become the standard image of a dodo.
It is housed in the Natural History Museum and this and his other images are the source for many other dodo illustrations
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, the capital of Antwerp province in the region of Flanders. With a population of 510,610, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium and its metropolitan area houses around 1,200,000 people, which is second behind Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde estuary, the Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally. Antwerp has long been an important city in the Low Countries, the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century. The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics, according to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river. He exacted a toll from passing boatmen, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands, eventually the giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giants own hand and flung it into the river.
Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, a longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a period between 600 and 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named Antverpia, but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, and so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, aan t werp is possible. This warp is a hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide. Another word for werp is pol hence polders, historical Antwerp allegedly had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards, the earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks, the name was reputed to have been derived from anda and werpum. The Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century, at the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto I, in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years known as the marquis of Antwerp. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michaels Abbey at Caloes
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian /ˈtɪʃən/, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno, during his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, during the course of his long life, Titians artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his pieces, their loose brushwork. The exact date of Titians birth is uncertain, when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain, to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482 and he was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia.
His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore, Gregorio was a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titians grandfather, were notaries, and the family of four were well-established in the area, at the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter. At that time the Bellinis, especially Giovanni, were the artists in the city. There Titian found a group of men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto, Sebastiano Luciani. Francesco Vecellio, his brother, became a painter of some note in Venice. A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have one of Titians earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, now in the Accademia, a Man with a Quilted Sleeve is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto, but now think it is of Gerolamo Barbarigo, Rembrandt borrowed the composition for his self-portraits.
Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry, distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, one of the earliest known Titian works, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione. In 1507–1508 Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, and some fragments of paintings remain, probably by Giorgione
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. As of 2011, only information about deceased people is included. The system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative, access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface. The project is an undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact. In February 2012, a new project was started called BiographyNed to build a tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time. The main goal of the project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website
Bartholomeus Spranger was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher who became a painter to the imperial court in Prague. His unique style combining elements of Netherlandish painting and Italian influences, in particular the Roman Mannerists, had an important influence on artists in Prague. He trained with Cornelis van Dalem, Jan Mandijn, and Frans Mostaert and he further copied prints of Frans Floris and Parmigianino. He traveled to Paris on 1 March 1565 where he worked for six weeks in the workshop of Marc Duval and he travelled on to Italy, where he first stayed for eight months in Milan. He worked for three months in Parma as an assistant to Bernardino Gatti on the painting of the dome of the Santa Maria della Steccata and he worked on wall paintings in various churches. In Rome he became, like El Greco, a protégé of Giulio Clovio, here he met Karel van Mander who would include a biography of Spranger in the Schilder-boeck. Pope Pius V appointed him court painter in 1570 and he was summoned to Vienna by Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, who died soon after his arrival in 1576.
Rudolf arranged a marriage for him, and his house was a centre for artists in Prague. Sprangers paintings for Rudolf mostly depict mythological nudes in various complex poses and his paintings are the most characteristic of the final phase of Northern Mannerism. By far the best collection is in Vienna and his drawings have great energy, in a very free technique. Spranger worked as a sculptor and he may have a acquired his knowledge of sculpture through his collaboration with the Flemish sculptor Hans Mont, who worked at the Prague court. After Mont left the Prague court, Spranger appears to have worked intermittently as a sculptor for the emperor, a terracotta relief of the Body of Christ Supported by an Angel is by his hand. The Walters Museum holds a bronze Achelous and Deianeira which is attributed to him, there is no record of any sculpture by Spranger in Rudolf II’s collection. Aegidius Sadeler, who lived in his house in Prague for some time, much the best collection is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, mostly from the Imperial collection.
Most museum print rooms will have examples of his prints, there are 3 oil paintings by Spranger in the Blanton Art Museum in Austin, Texas. Rijksmuseum, Bartholomeus Spranger Bartholomeus Spranger on Artcyclopedia
Václav Hollar, was a Czech etcher from Kingdom of Bohemia, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and in Germany as Wenzel Hollar. He was born in Prague, and died in London, being buried at St Margarets Church, after his family was ruined by the Sack of Prague in the Thirty Years War, the young Hollar, who had been destined for the law, determined to become an artist. In 1627 he was in Frankfurt where he was apprenticed to the renowned engraver Matthäus Merian, in 1630 he lived in Strasbourg and Koblenz, where Hollar portrayed the towns and landscapes of the Middle Rhine Valley. In 1633 he moved to Cologne and it was in 1636 that he attracted the notice of the famous nobleman and art collector Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, on an embassy to the imperial court of Emperor Ferdinand II. Employed as a draftsman he travelled with Arundel to Vienna and Prague, in Cologne in 1635, Hollar published his first book. In 1637 he returned him to England where he remained in the Earls household for many years.
In around 1650, probably at the request of Hendrik van der Borcht, he etched a commemorative print done after a design by Cornelius Schut in Arundels honour and dedicated to his widow, Aletheia. Arundel is seated in melancholy mode on his tomb in front of an obelisk, in 1745, George Vertue paid homage to their association in the vignette he published on page one of his Description of the Works of the Ingenious Delineator and Engraver Wenceslaus Hollar. It featured a bust of Arundel in front of a pyramid, symbolizing immortality, surrounded by illustrated books, during his first year in England he created View of Greenwich, issued by Peter Stent, the print-seller. Nearly 3 feet long, he received thirty shillings for the plate, afterwards he fixed the price of his work at fourpence an hour, and measured his time by a sand-glass. On July 4,1641 Hollar married a servant of the Countess of Norfolk and her name was Tracy, they had two children. Lord Arundel left England in 1642, and Hollar passed into the service of the Duke of York and he continued to produce works prolifically throughout the English Civil War, but it adversely affected his income.
Hollar took his setting, presumably symbolizing longer term values, directly from an engraving published in George Sandys Relation of a Journey begun An, Hollar joined the Royalist Regiment and was captured by parliamentary forces in 1645 during the siege of Basing House. After a short time he managed to escape, in Antwerp in 1646, he again met with the Earl of Arundel. In 1652 he returned to London, and lived for a time with Faithorne the engraver near Temple Bar, during the following years many books were published which he illustrated, Ogilbys Virgil and Homer, Stapyltons Juvenal, and Dugdales Warwickshire, St Pauls and Monasticon. His income fell as booksellers continued to decline his work, during this time he lost his young son, reputed to have artistic ability, to the plague. He lived eight years after his return, still working for the booksellers and he died in extreme poverty, his last recorded words being a request to the bailiffs that they would not carry away the bed on which he was dying.
Hollar is interred in St Margarets Church in Westminster and he was one of the best and most prolific artists of his time
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father.
A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino.
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commission
Giuseppe Arcimboldo was an Italian painter best known for creating imaginative portrait heads made entirely of objects such as fruits, flowers and books. Giuseppes father, Biagio Arcimboldo, was an artist of Milan, like his father, Giuseppe Arcimboldo started his career as a designer for stained glass and frescoes at local cathedrals when he was 21 years old. In 1562, he became court portraitist to Ferdinand I at the Habsburg court in Vienna and he was the court decorator and costume designer. Augustus, Elector of Saxony, who visited Vienna in 1570 and 1573, saw Arcimboldos work, at a distance, his portraits looked like normal human portraits. However, individual objects in each portrait were actually overlapped together to various anatomical shapes of a human. They were carefully constructed by his imagination, the assembled objects in each portrait were not random, each was related by characterization. The animal tails, which became the beard of the portrait, were used as dusters, by using everyday objects, the portraits were decoration and still-life paintings at the same time.
His works showed not only nature and human beings, but how closely they were related, after a portrait was released to the public, some scholars, who had a close relationship with the book culture at that time, argued that the portrait ridiculed their scholarship. In fact, Arcimboldo criticized rich people’s misbehavior and showed others what happened at that time through his art. In The Librarian, although the painting might have appeared ridiculous, it contained a criticism of wealthy people who collected books only to own them. Art critics debate whether his paintings were whimsical or the product of a deranged mind, Arcimboldo died in Milan, where he had retired after leaving the Prague service. It was during this last phase of his career that he produced the portrait of Rudolph II. His Italian contemporaries honored him with poetry and manuscripts celebrating his illustrious career, when the Swedish army invaded Prague in 1648, during the Thirty Years War, many of Arcimboldos paintings were taken from Rudolf IIs collection.
His works can be found in Viennas Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Habsburg Schloss Ambras in Innsbruck, in Italy, his work is in Cremona and the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Arcimboldo is known as a 16th-century Mannerist, a transitional period from 1520 to 1590, Mannerism adopted some artistic elements from the High Renaissance and influenced other elements in the Baroque period. A Mannerist tended to close relationships between human and nature. Arcimboldo tried to show his appreciation of nature through his portraits, in The Spring, the human portrait was composed of only various spring flowers and plants. From the hat to the neck, every part of the portrait, even the lips and nose, was composed of flowers, on the other hand, in The Winter, the human was composed mostly of roots of trees