Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus near Santiponce, Spain into a Hispano-Roman family, his father was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian; when Trajan died, his widow claimed that he had nominated Hadrian as emperor before his death. Rome's military and Senate approved Hadrian's succession, but four leading senators were unlawfully put to death soon after, they had opposed Hadrian or seemed to threaten his succession, the senate held him responsible for it and never forgave him. He earned further disapproval among the elite by abandoning Trajan's expansionist policies and territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria and parts of Dacia. Hadrian preferred to invest in the development of stable, defensible borders and the unification of the empire's disparate peoples.
He is known for building Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian energetically pursued personal interests, he visited every province of the Empire, accompanied by an Imperial retinue of specialists and administrators. He encouraged military preparedness and discipline, he fostered, designed, or subsidised various civil and religious institutions and building projects. In Rome itself, he constructed the vast Temple of Venus and Roma. In Egypt, he may have rebuilt the Serapeum of Alexandria, he was an ardent admirer of Greece and sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire, so he ordered the construction of many opulent temples there. His intense relationship with Greek youth Antinous and Antinous' untimely death led Hadrian to establish a widespread cult late in his reign, he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea. Hadrian's last years were marred by chronic illness, he saw the Bar Kokhba revolt as the failure of his panhellenic ideal. He executed two more senators for their alleged plots against him, this provoked further resentment.
His marriage to Vibia Sabina had been childless. Hadrian died the same year at Baiae, Antoninus had him deified, despite opposition from the Senate. Edward Gibbon includes him among the Empire's "Five good emperors", a "benevolent dictator", he has been described as enigmatic and contradictory, with a capacity for both great personal generosity and extreme cruelty and driven by insatiable curiosity, self-conceit, ambition. Modern interest was revived thanks to Marguerite Yourcenar's novel Mémoires d'Hadrien. Hadrian was born on 24 January 76 in Italica in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, he was named Publius Aelius Hadrianus. His father was Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a senator of praetorian rank and raised in Italica but paternally linked, through many generations over several centuries, to a family from Hadria, an ancient town in Picenum; the family had settled in Italica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Hadrian's mother was Domitia Paulina, daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman senatorial family from Gades.
His only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina. Hadrian's great-nephew, Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino would become Hadrian's colleague as co-consul in 118; as a senator, Hadrian's father would have spent much of his time in Rome. In terms of his career, Hadrian's most significant family connection was to Trajan, his father's first cousin, of senatorial stock, had been born and raised in Italica. Hadrian and Trajan were both considered to be – in the words of Aurelius Victor – "aliens", people "from the outside". Hadrian's parents died in 86, he and his sister became wards of Publius Acilius Attianus. Hadrian was physically active, enjoyed hunting. Hadrian's enthusiasm for Greek literature and culture earned him the nickname Graeculus. Trajan married Paulina off to the three-times consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus. Hadrian's first official post in Rome was as a judge at the Inheritance court, one among many vigintivirate offices at the lowest level of the cursus honorum that could lead to higher office and a senatorial career.
He served as a military tribune, first with the Legio II Adiutrix in 95 with the Legio V Macedonica. During Hadrian's second stint as tribune, the frail and aged reigning emperor Nerva adopted Trajan as his heir, he was transferred to Legio XXII Primigenia and a third tribunate. Hadrian's three tribunates gave him some career advantage. Most scions of the older senatorial families might serve one, or at most two military tribunates as a prerequisite to higher office; when Nerva died in 98, Hadrian is said to have hastened to Trajan, to inform him ahead of the official envoy sent by the go
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, or Kotel, known in Islam as the Buraq Wall, is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a small segment of a far longer ancient retaining wall, known in its entirety as the "Western Wall"; the wall was erected as part of the expansion of the Second Jewish Temple begun by Herod the Great, which resulted in the encasement of the natural, steep hill known to Jews and Christians as the Temple Mount, in a large rectangular structure topped by a huge flat platform, thus creating more space for the Temple itself and its auxiliary buildings. For Muslims, it is the site where the Islamic Prophet Muhammad tied his steed, al-Buraq, on his night journey to Jerusalem before ascending to paradise, constitutes the Western border of al-Haram al-Sharif; the Western Wall is considered holy due to its connection to the Temple Mount. Because of the Temple Mount entry restrictions, the Wall is the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray, though the holiest site in the Jewish faith lies behind it.
The original and irregular-shaped Temple Mount was extended to allow for an ever-larger Temple compound to be built at its top. This process was finalised by Herod, who enclosed the Mount with an rectangular set of retaining walls, built to support extensive substructures and earth fills needed to give the natural hill a geometrically regular shape. On top of this box-like structure Herod built a vast paved esplanade. Of the four retaining walls, the western one is considered to be closest to the former Temple, which makes it the most sacred site recognised by Judaism outside the former Temple Mount esplanade. Just over half the wall's total height, including its 17 courses located below street level, dates from the end of the Second Temple period, is believed to have been built around 19 BCE by Herod the Great, although recent excavations indicate that the work was not finished by the time Herod died in 4 BCE; the large stone blocks of the lower courses are Herodian, the courses of medium-sized stones above them were added during the Umayyad era, while the small stones of the uppermost courses are of more recent date from the Ottoman period.
The term Western Wall and its variations are used in a narrow sense for the section traditionally used by Jews for prayer. During the period of Christian Roman rule over Jerusalem, Jews were barred from Jerusalem except to attend Tisha be-Av, the day of national mourning for the Temples, on this day the Jews would weep at their holy places; the term "Wailing Wall" was thus exclusively used by Christians, was revived in the period of non-Jewish control between the establishment of British Rule in 1920 and the Six-Day War in 1967. The term "Wailing Wall" is not used by Jews, not by many others who consider it derogatory. In a broader sense, "Western Wall" can refer to the entire 488-metre-long retaining wall on the western side of the Temple Mount; the classic portion now faces a large plaza in the Jewish Quarter, near the southwestern corner of the Temple Mount, while the rest of the wall is concealed behind structures in the Muslim Quarter, with the small exception of a 25 ft section, the so-called Little Western Wall.
The segment of the Western retaining wall traditionally used for Jewish liturgy, known as the "Western Wall", derives its particular importance to it having never been obscured by medieval buildings, displaying much more of the original Herodian stonework than the "Little Western Wall". In religious terms, the "Little Western Wall" is presumed to be closer to the Holy of Holies and thus to the "presence of God", the underground Warren's Gate, out of reach since the 12th century more so. Whilst the wall was considered Muslim property as an integral part of the Haram esh-Sharif and waqf property of the Moroccan Quarter, a right of Jewish prayer and pilgrimage existed as part of the Status Quo; the earliest source mentioning this specific site as a place of worship is from the 16th century. The previous sites used by Jews for mourning the destruction of the Temple, during periods when access to the city was prohibited to them, lay to the east, on the Mount of Olives and in the Kidron Valley below it.
From the mid-19th century onwards, attempts to purchase rights to the wall and its immediate area were made by various Jews, but none was successful. With the rise of the Zionist movement in the early 20th century, the wall became a source of friction between the Jewish and Muslim communities, the latter being worried that the wall could be used to further Jewish claims to the Temple Mount and thus Jerusalem. During this period outbreaks of violence at the foot of the wall became commonplace, with a deadly riot in 1929 in which 133 Jews were killed and 339 injured. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Eastern portion of Jerusalem was occupied by Jordan. Under Jordanian control Jews were expelled from the Old City including the Jewish quarter, Jews were barred from entering the Old City for 19 years banning Jewish prayer at the site of the Western Wall; this period ended on June 10, 1967, when Israel gained control of the site following the Six-Day War. Three days after establishing control over the Western Wall site the Moroccan Quarter was bulldozed by Israeli authorities to create space for what is now the Western Wall plaza.
Early Jewish texts referred to a "western wall of the Temple", but there is doubt whether the texts were referring to the outer, retaining wall called today "the Western Wal
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.
Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the Middle East corresponding the region of Palestine, as part of the Partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the British Mandate for Palestine. During the First World War, an Arab uprising and the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign; the United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, in the end, the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement—an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further complicating the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. At the war's end the British and French set up a joint "Occupied Enemy Territory Administration" in what had been Ottoman Syria.
The British achieved legitimacy for their continued control by obtaining a mandate from the League of Nations in June 1922. The formal objective of the League of Nations mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, "until such time as they are able to stand alone." The civil Mandate administration was formalized with the League of Nations' consent in 1923 under the British Mandate for Palestine, which covered two administrative areas. During the British Mandate period the area experienced the ascent of two major nationalist movements, one among the Jews and the other among the Arabs; the competing national interests of the Arab and Jewish populations of Palestine against each other and against the governing British authorities matured into the Arab Revolt of 1936–1939 and the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, before culminating in the Civil War of 1947–1948. The aftermath of the Civil War and the consequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War led to the establishment of the 1949 cease-fire agreement, with partition of the former Mandatory Palestine between the newborn state of Israel with a Jewish majority, the Arab West Bank annexed by the Jordanian Kingdom and the Arab All-Palestine Protectorate in the Gaza Strip under Egypt.
Following its occupation by British troops in 1917–1918, Palestine was governed by the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration. In July 1920 a civilian administration headed by a High Commissioner replaced the military administration; the first High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel, a Zionist and a recent British cabinet minister, arrived in Palestine on 20 June 1920 to take up his appointment from 1 July. Following the arrival of the British, the inhabitants established Muslim-Christian Associations in all the major towns. In 1919 they joined to hold the first Palestine Arab Congress in Jerusalem, its aimed at representative government and opposition to the Balfour Declaration. At the First World Congress of Jewish Women, held in Vienna, Austria, 1923, it was decided that: "It appears, therefore, to be the duty of all Jews to co-operate in the social-economic reconstruction of Palestine and to assist in the settlement of Jews in that country." The Zionist Commission formed in March 1918 and became active in promoting Zionist objectives in Palestine.
On 19 April 1920, elections took place for the Assembly of Representatives of the Palestinian Jewish community. The Zionist Commission received official recognition in 1922 as representative of the Palestinian Jewish community. One of the first actions of the newly installed civil administration in 1921 had been to grant Pinhas Rutenberg—a Jewish entrepreneur—concessions for the production and distribution of electrical power. Rutenberg soon established an electric company whose shareholders were Zionist organisations and philanthropists. Palestinian-Arabs saw it as proof; the British administration claimed that electrification would enhance the economic development of the country as a whole, while at the same time securing their commitment to facilitate a Jewish National Home through economic—rather than political—means. Samuel tried to establish self-governing institutions in Palestine, as required by the mandate, but the Arab leadership refused to co-operate with any institution which included Jewish participation.
When Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Kamil al-Husayni died in March 1921, High Commissioner Samuel appointed his half-brother Mohammad Amin al-Husseini to the position. Amin al-Husseini, a member of the al-Husayni clan of Jerusalem, was an Arab nationalist and Muslim leader; as Grand Mufti, as well as in the other influential positions that he held during this period, al-Husseini played a key role in violent opposition to Zionism. In 1922, al-Husseini was elected President of the Supreme Muslim Council, established by Samuel in December 1921; the Council controlled the Waqf funds, worth annually tens of thousands of pounds and the orphan funds, worth annually about £50,000, as compared to the £600,000 in the Jewish Agency's annual budget. In addition, he controlled the Islamic courts in Palestine. Among other functions, these courts had the power to appoint preachers; the 1922 Palestine Order in Council established a Legislative Council, to consist of 23 members: 12 elected, 10 appointed, the High Commissioner.
Of the 12 elected members, eight were to be Muslim Arabs, two Christian Arabs, two Jews. Arabs protested against the distribution of the seats, arguing that as they constituted 88% of the population, having only 43% of the seats was
Jerusalem in Judaism
Since the 10th century BCE Jerusalem has been the holiest city and spiritual center of the Jews. Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness and Jews have always studied and personalized the struggle by King David to capture Jerusalem and his desire to build the Holy Temple there, as described in the Book of Samuel and the Book of Psalms. Many of King David's yearnings about Jerusalem have been adapted into popular songs. Jews believe that in the future the rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem will become the center of worship and instruction for all mankind and Jerusalem will become the spiritual center of the world; the earliest tradition regarding Jerusalem states that Adam, the first man, was created from the same place where in future the Altar would stand in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. After he was ejected from the Garden of Eden, he returned to this spot to offer a sacrifice to God. Cain and Abel brought their offerings on this Altar, it is believed. The Altar in Jerusalem remained as a permanent shrine where all people could worship God until it was destroyed by the Flood.
After the Flood, Noah rebuilt it. The Bible records that Noah blessed his son Shem, which indicated that Jerusalem would be included in Shem's inheritance. Shem and his progeny lived in Jerusalem and set up an academy there where the word of God was taught; when the city became large enough to require government, Shem was crowned king and given the title "Malchi-Tzedek". Tzedek, meaning righteousness, a name used to refer to Jerusalem. In ancient times the city was divided, with the “Lower City” to the east and the “Upper City” on a higher elevation to the west; the eastern section was referred to as Salem, while the upper section which included the place of the Altar was called the Land of Moriah. 340 years after the Flood, Canaanite tribes began to invade the Holy Land and the Amorites occupied the western Upper City and subsequently destroyed the Altar. Shem and his people maintained the academy there; some legends tell that Abraham went to Jerusalem as a young child to study the tradition with Noah and Shem.
God instructed Abraham to leave Mesopotamia and return to the Promised Land. After he was victorious in a war he got caught up in, he was blessed by Shem. Shortly after, eastern Jerusalem – Salem – began to come under the domination of the Philistines who were occupying the area. In order to make peace with them, Abraham went to negotiate with their king Abimelech who assured him safety of Shem's academy; when Abraham’s son and heir Isaac was born, Abimelech approached Abraham in order to make a covenant between them. The treaty stipulated that as long as a descendant of Abimelech dwelt in the land, no descendant of Abraham would wage war against them; this covenant was to be the reason why the Israelites would not capture the eastern part of Jerusalem. When Abraham was told to sacrifice his son, God directed them to Moriah; when the spot where the Altar had stood became apparent to Abraham he rebuilt it and prepared to sacrifice Isaac on it. It was after he passed this last test, he took Shem’s place as the Priest of the Altar on Mount Moriah.
Abraham named Yiru, meaning awe. When this was united with the name of the eastern part of the city, the city got its present name JeruSalem, implying “complete awe of God". Straight after this Abraham purchased the Cave of Machpela in Hebron from Ephron the Hittite who made a treaty with Abraham that his descendants would not take the city of Jerusalem away from the Hittites by force; as a result, the western part of the city was purchased from Ephron’s descendants by the Israelites. Although Jerusalem appears in the Hebrew Bible 669 times, it is not explicitly mentioned in the Pentateuch. Instead when referring to Jerusalem, the placenames Salem and Moriah, the term "the place that God will choose" are used: You shall seek the place where the Lord your God chooses, out of all your tribes, to put His name for His dwelling place. Maimonides cites various reasons why this is so, the first being that if the nations of the world had learned that this place was destined to become the centre of the highest religious ideals they would have occupied it to prevent the Jews from controlling it.
In Judaism it is considered the Written Law, the basis for the Oral Law studied and treasured by Jews and Judaism for three millennia. The Talmud elaborates in great depth the Jewish connection with the city. For example, the book of Psalms, recited and memorized by Jews for centuries, says: "By the rivers of Babylon we sat down and wept when we remembered Zion." "For there they that carried. How shall we sing the LORD's song in a strange land? If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth. Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem. Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones." "O God, the nations have entered into your inheritance, they have defiled the sanctuary of your holiness, they have turned Jerusalem into heaps of rubble...they have shed their blood like water round Jerusalem
Israeli occupation of the West Bank
The Israeli occupation of the West Bank began on 7 June 1967 during the Six-Day War when Israel occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, continues to the present day. The status of the West Bank as an occupied territory has been affirmed by the International Court of Justice and, with the exception of East Jerusalem, by the Israeli Supreme Court, The official Israeli government view is that the law of occupation does not apply and it claims the territories are "disputed". Considered to be a classic example of an "intractable" conflict, the length of Israel's occupation was regarded as exceptional after two decades and is now the longest in modern history. Israel has cited several reasons for retaining the West Bank within its ambit: a claim based on the notion of historic rights to this as a homeland as affirmed in the Balfour Declaration; the most researched modern conflict, controversies abound as to what terminology is the most appropriate, with pro-Israeli sources favouring one set of terms and the Palestinian Authority advocating a different nomenclature.
How the media portrays the conflict, the implications of keywords that dominate the different viewpoints, has led to arguments protesting either a systematic pro-Israeli bias or prejudice against Israel. The domain of public discussion is subject to debate, with some organizations saying that pro-Israeli Jewish students are subject to vilification and harassment on campus, while others note that proposed talks on campus concerning Palestinian issues can be rescinded for fears that audiences might not be able to objectively eavluate the material. Attempts have been made to silence several high-profile critics of Israeli policies in the territories, giving rise to anxieties that the topic itself is at risk, that the political pressures circumscribing research and discussion undermine academic freedom. Among the most controversial policies enacted as part of its occupation, Israel has established numerous Israeli settlements throughout the West Bank, including East Jerusalem; the international community considers these settlements illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this.
The United Nations Security Council has reaffirmed that settlements in that territory are void of legality and are a "flagrant violation of international law", most with United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334. The creation and ongoing expansion of the settlements have led to Israel's policies being criticized as an example of colonialism. Israel has been accused of exercising methods of control in its administration of the occupation that constitute major violations of International human rights law. Israeli settlers and civilians travelling through the West Bank are subject to Israeli civilian law while Palestinian civilians are subject to military law, leading to comparisons to apartheid; the occupation has numerous critics in Israel itself, with some Israel Defense Forces draftees refusing to serve due to their objections to the occupation. Terminology bias, it has been argued, is written into reportage about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, with concerns over language manipulation expressed, with Peter Beinart suggesting there was a pattern of Orwellian "linguistic fraud and a culture of euphemism" at work- Each party has its preferred set of descriptive words.
The word "occupation", once current, has slipped from view in US mainstream reportage, is taboo. A survey of British newspapers readers in 2001 found that only 9% knew that Israel occupied the Palestinian territories; the West Bank vs Samaria. The way the conflict is reported are extensively monitoring and analysed: in addition to Israel's public diplomacy, intent on countering negative press images, there are many private pro-Israeli organizations, among them CAMERA, FLAME, HonestReporting, Palestinian Media Watch, Canary Mission and the Anti-Defamation League which claim much reportage is distorted; the term Pallywood was coined to suggest that Palestinian coverage of their plight is manipulative fake news. John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt have argued that United States media coverage, compared to other countries, tilts in Israel's favour; this view that American media are biased against Palestinians has been challenged by authors who cite research that concluded most mainstream media have a "liberal" bias, a criticism extended to European outlets like Le Monde and the BBC.
Internal Israeli studies have argued that local press coverage has traditionally been conservative, reflecting the tendentious and biased views of the political and military establishment, similar tendencies have been noted in Palestinian reportage. Tamar Liebes, former director of the Smart Institute of Communication at the Hebrew University, argued that Israeli "Journalists and publishers see themselves as actors within the Zionist movement, not as critical outsiders"; the explosive expansion of the Internet has opened up a larger sphere of controversy, with digital forensics on social networks revealing pro
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens in Jerusalem, popularly known as the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo, is a zoo located in the Malha neighborhood of Jerusalem, Israel. It is famous for its Afro-Asiatic collection of wildlife many of which are ascribed in the Hebrew Bible, as well as its success in breeding endangered species. According to Dun and Bradstreet, the Biblical Zoo was the most popular tourist attraction in Israel from 2005 to 2007, logged a record 738,000 visitors in 2009; the zoo had about 55,000 members in 2009. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo opened in September 1940 as a small "animal corner" on Rabbi Kook Street in central Jerusalem; the zoo was founded by Aharon Shulov, a professor of zoology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus. Among Shulov's goals were to provide a research facility for his students. Early on, the zoo ran into several difficulties in its decision to focus on animals mentioned in the Bible. For one, the meaning of many names of animals and birds in Scriptures is uncertain.
More many of the animals mentioned in the Bible are now extinct in Israel due to over-hunting, destruction of natural habitats by rapid construction and development, illegal poisoning by farmers, low birth rate. Zoo planners decided to branch beyond biblical animals and include worldwide endangered species as well; the presence of the animal corner generated many complaints from residents in adjoining buildings due to the smell and noise, as well as the perceived danger of animal escapes. Due to the complaints, the zoo relocated in 1941 to a 4.5-dunam lot on Shmuel HaNavi Street. Here, complaints were heard from the neighbors, but the zoo remained at this site for the next six years. In 1947 the zoo, which by now had 122 animals, relocated to a plot of land on Mount Scopus provided by Hebrew University, it remained there from 1947 to 1950. Its occupancy coincided with the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the siege of Jerusalem, when food for the city's population was at a premium. Zookeepers resorted to hunting down stray dogs near garbage dumps in order to feed the carnivorous animals.
Many of the carnivores died anyway, other, non-dangerous species had to be released. As part of the Israel-Jordan Armistice Agreements of 1949, access to Mount Scopus was restricted; the United Nations helped the zoo relocate to a 15-hectare lot in Givat Komuna, adjacent to the present-day neighborhoods of Romema and Ezrat Torah. According to Shulov, when the zoo arrived in Romema, only two wolves, one hyena, one lion and one leopard were left; the zoo remained in Romema from 1950 to 1991. About 30 percent of its attendance came from Haredi families from northern Jerusalem and Muslim families from East Jerusalem—two population groups that do not participate in the city's cultural offerings; the zoo grew to 28 acres and more than 200 species, including most of the 130 animals mentioned in the Bible. Thanks to its breeding program, 11 species that had disappeared from Israel were reintroduced into nature reserves around the country, including the Syrian brown bear, the addax, two types of fallow deer.
Through gifts, trades with other zoos, its success at breeding, the zoo's collection exceeded 500 animals by 1967. During the Six-Day War, however, 110 animals were killed by stray bullets; the zoo was administered by a nonprofit corporation with representatives from Hebrew University, the Jerusalem Municipality, the Israeli Ministries of Tourism and Education. From a financial standpoint, the zoo had little money. Shulov, who retired as director in 1983 served as director without pay; the zoo was considered inferior to the zoos of Tel Aviv and Haifa. Jerusalem mayor Teddy Kollek, who took office in 1965, became one of the zoo's main supporters and fund-raisers through his Jerusalem Foundation. Kollek promoted the idea of moving the zoo to a larger location and upgrading it to a state-of-the-art institution, as well as a tourist site that would appeal to secular and religious Jewish families and Arab families alike. Around 1990, under the auspices of the Jerusalem Foundation, the Tisch family of New York agreed to pay $5 million toward the $30 million cost of the project.
Another $10 million was raised through sale of the lot in Romema, converted to housing. The Jerusalem municipality, the Israel Ministry of Tourism, the Jerusalem Foundation, private sponsors contributed; the zoo closed its site in Romema in 1991 and reopened in the Malha valley, 7 kilometres southwest of the city center, in 1993. The zoo, renamed the Tisch Family Zoological Gardens in Jerusalem, but still called the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo by the general public, opened for a preview period on 28 February 1993, it opened on 9 September 1993. Designed by Miller-Blum & Associates Landscape Architects, constructed by the Moriah Jerusalem Development Corporation, the zoo sits on 62 acres in a valley surrounded by the hillside neighborhoods of Malha and Givat Masua; the park is landscaped with trees and shrubs native to Israel, many of which are mentioned in the Bible. The zoo is built on two main levels. A motorized train takes visitors on a circular route from the lower level to the upper level; the entire park is wheelchair-accessible.