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Aelred of Rievaulx

Aelred of Rievaulx. He is regarded by Catholics as a saint. Aelred was born in Hexham, Northumbria, in 1110, one of three sons of Eilaf, priest of St Andrew's at Hexham, himself a son of another Eilaf, treasurer of Durham. In 1095, the Council of Claremont had forbidden the ordination of the sons of priests; this was done in part to end the inheritance of benefices. He may have been educated by Lawrence of Durham, who sent him a hagiography of Saint Brigid. Aelred's early education was at the cathedral school at Durham. Aelred spent several years at the court of King David I of Scotland in Roxburgh from the age of 14, rising to the rank of echonomus before leaving the court at age twenty-four to enter the Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx in Yorkshire. In 1138, when Rievaulx's patron, Walter Espec, was to surrender his castle at Wark to King David of Scotland, Aelred accompanied Abbot William of Rievaulx to the Scottish border to negotiate the transfer, he saw that his reluctance to part from his friends at court, delayed his adopting his monastic calling.

For Aelred, the source and object of true friendship is Christ. In 1142 Aelred travelled to Rome, alongside Walter of London, Archdeacon of York, to represent before Pope Innocent II the northern prelates who opposed the election of Henry de Sully, nephew of King Stephen as archbishop of York; the result of the journey was that Aelred brought back a letter from Pope Innocent summoning the superiors whom Aelred represented to appear in Rome the following March to make their deposition in the required canonical form. The resulting negotiations dragged on for many years. Upon his return from Rome, Aelred became novice master at Rievaulx. In 1143, he was appointed abbot of the new Revesby Abbey, a daughter house of Rievaulx in Lincolnshire. In 1147, he was elected abbot of Rievaulx itself, a position he was to hold until his death. Under his administration, the abbey is said to have grown to some 140 monks and 500 conversi and laymen, his role as abbot required him to travel. Cistercian abbots were expected to make annual visitations to daughter-houses, Rievaulx had five in England and Scotland by the time Aelred held office.

Moreover, Aelred had to make the long sea journey to the annual general chapter of the Order at Cîteaux in France. Alongside his role as a monk and abbot, Aelred was involved throughout his life in political affairs; the fourteenth-century version of the Peterborough Chronicle states that Aelred's efforts during the twelfth-century papal schism brought about Henry II's decisive support for the Cistercian candidate, resulting in 1161 in the formal recognition of Pope Alexander III. Aelred wrote several influential books on spirituality, among them Speculum caritatis and De spiritali amicitia, he wrote seven works of history, addressing three of them to Henry II of England, advising him how to be a good king and declaring him to be the true descendant of Anglo-Saxon kings. In his years, he is thought to have suffered from the kidney stones and arthritis. Walter reports that in 1157 the Cistercian General Council allowed him to sleep and eat in Rievaulx's infirmary. Aelred died in the winter of 1166–7 on 12 January 1167 at Rievaulx.

De spirituali amicitia, considered to be his greatest work, is a Christian counterpart of Cicero’s De amicitia and designates Christ as the source and ultimate impetus of spiritual friendship. Friendship was a recurring theme in Christian monasticism. Gregory of Nazianzus, echoing Aristotle, describes his friendship with Basil the Great as "two bodies with a single spirit", it was at Durham that Aelred first encountered Cicero's Laelius de Amicitia. In Roman terminology "Amicitia" could be between states or individuals, it suggested an equality of status and in practice it might only be an alliance to pursue mutual interests. For Cicero, amicitia involved genuine affection. "But I must at the beginning lay down this principle —friendship can only exist between good men. We mean by the'good' those whose actions and lives leave no question as to their honour, purity and liberality. Adolescent friendships is self-interested comradery. Augustine describes a close friendship he had as a young adult with a colleague.

This was based on love and grew out of shared interests and experiences and what each learned from the other. The third mature phase for Augustine is transcendent in that he loves others "in Christ", in that the focus is on Christ and the point of friendship is to grow closer to Christ with and through friends. In writing of adolescent friendship Augustine said, "For I burnt in my youth heretofore, to be satiated in things below, and what was it that I delighted in, but to love, be loved?"Aelred was influenced by Cicero, but modified his interpretation upon reading Augustine of Hippo's Confessions. In De spirituali amicitiâ, Aelred adopted Cicero's dialogue format. In the Prologue however, he mirrors Augustine's

Richard Arthur Gadbois Jr.

Richard Arthur Gadbois Jr. was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Born in Omaha, Gadbois received an Artium Baccalaureus from St. John's University in 1955 and a Juris Doctor from Loyola Law School in Los Angeles, California in 1958, he attended the University of Southern California Law School in 1960. He was a deputy state attorney general of California from 1958 to 1959, he was in private practice in Los Angeles from 1960 to 1968. He was a vice president, general counsel and secretary of Denny's, Inc. in La Mirada, California from 1968 to 1971. He was a Judge of the Municipal Court of California, City of Los Angeles from 1971 to 1972, on the Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles from 1972 to 1982. On June 28, 1982, Gadbois was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States District Court for the Central District of California vacated by Judge Irving Hill. Gadbois was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 27, 1982, received his commission on July 28, 1982.

He assumed senior status on January 24, 1996, served in that capacity until his death that year in Los Angeles. Richard Arthur Gadbois Jr. at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Summer (visual novel)

_Summer known as Underbar Summer, is a Japanese adult visual novel developed by Hooksoft, released on July 15, 2005, playable on Windows as a CD. An updated version of the original game, called _Summer Renewal Edition, compatible up to Windows Vista as a DVD, was released on December 21, 2007; the gameplay in _Summer follows a plot line which offers pre-determined scenarios with courses of interaction, focuses on the appeal of the six female main characters. The story revolves around Takumi Kaizu, who after years of making good friends, many of whom are female, is asked by his best male friend Osamu Funada if he likes anyone. With his last summer in high school approaching, Takumi decides to find someone to like by the end of summer vacation. _Summer has had overall well received sales, premiering as the most sold bishōjo game in Japan during the first half of July in 2005, would go on to chart twice more. _Summer has made several transitions into other media, such as a mini four-panel web comic, an manga one-shot published in Kadokawa Shoten's Comp Ace magazine, four character light novels written by Jōji Kamio.

An illustrated story titled _Summer## Official Illust Story was serialized in MediaWorks' Dengeki G's Magazine. A two-episode original video animation was produced. Several drama CDs were released based on the game, including one released as a prologue to the OVA. _ Summer is a romance visual novel. The gameplay requires little interaction from the player as most of the duration of the game is spent on reading the text that will appear on the screen; every so the player will come to a "decision point" where he or she is given the chance to choose from options that are displayed on the screen two to three at a time. During these times, gameplay pauses until a choice is made that furthers the plot in a specific direction, depending on which choice the player makes. There are six main plot lines that the player will have the chance to experience, one for each of the heroines in the story. In order to view the six plot lines to their entirety, the player will have to replay the game multiple times and choose different choices during the decision points in order to further the plot in an alternate direction.

Throughout gameplay, there are scenes depicting a given heroine having sex. However, in the PlayStation 2 port, these scenes are removed; the visual novel features real-time choices, this is when the player given a choice within a time period, varying on the amount of time the player takes to make the choice, it will effect the ensuing dialogue. _Summer's story takes place in a small seaside town during the summer, where Takumi Kaizu is a normal high school student enjoying his final year in school with the rest of his friends. Over the years, he has made good memories with these friends of his, most of whom are girls, though still have no overt feelings of attraction towards any of them. There are six main potential love interests presented to Takumi in _Summer. Konami is the kind and timid childhood friend of Takumi, the main heroine, she will prepare breakfast for him. As a contrast to Konami's gentle personality, her female friend Shino is rough and hot-tempered, but protective of Konami. Takumi has a younger stepsister called Sana, an energetic, fun-loving girl, if not a little lazy for being unable to wake up in the morning without Takumi.

Sana has a best friend called Chiwa, a mysterious and strange girl, known to be unpredictable. An upperclassman called Wakana has an immense crush on Takumi, despite her popularity with boys due to her beauty and elegant personality; the homeroom teacher of Takumi, named Hinako, will be seen trying to find free food because of her money wasting. When Takumi is asked by his best male friend Osamu Funada if he likes anyone, Takumi starts to think about it though is still confused on what to do next. With his last summer in high school approaching, Takumi decides to find someone to like by the end of summer vacation. Takumi starts to take a romantic interest in the girls around him, while his friend Osamu relentlessly searches for a girlfriend as well. Takumi Kaizu Voiced by: Takashi Kondo Takumi is the protagonist of the story, he is a high school student who enjoys the time he's been spending with his close friends and wants it to last as long as it can. Despite having many beautiful girls as good friends, Takumi still has no attraction towards any of them, though when his friend Osamu Funade asks him if there's anyone he likes, he decides to try to find an answer to that question by the end of the next summer vacation, right around the corner.

He has a younger step sister called Sana. Konami Hatano Voiced by: Maki Izumi / Natsumi Yanase Konami is the main heroine who has a quiet, timid personality, though is very helping, she is the seagull-loving childhood friend of Takumi and goes as far as to go over to Takumi's house every morning and make him breakfast. Konami is a close friend of Shino Ebizuka. Shino Ebizuka Voiced by: Mahiru Kaneda / Yuki Kajita Shino is Konami's closest female friend who has a tough person