World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
In agriculture and forestry, broadcast seeding is a method of seeding that involves scattering seed, by hand or mechanically, over a large area. This is in contrast to: precision seeding, where seed is placed at depth. Broadcast seeding is of particular use in establishing dense plant spacing, as for cover crops and lawns. In comparison to traditional drill planting, broadcast seeding will require 10–20% more seed. It's simpler and easier than traditional row sowing. Broadcast seeding works best for plants that do not require singular spacing or that are more thinned later. After broadcasting, seed is lightly buried with some type of raking action done using vertical tillage tools. Utilizing these tools increases the success rate of germination by increasing seed-to-soil contact. Seeds sown in this manner are distributed unevenly; this method may not ensure. Incorrect depth, if too deep, would result in germination that would not allow the young plant to break the surface of the soil and prevent sprouting.
If they are not sown evenly there would be a lack of various nutrients from sunlight, oxygen etc in many crops or plants. In addition, it is worth noting. Only smaller seeds will sprout and continue to grow when planted by way of broadcasting. In general, the larger the seed, the deeper it can be planted
A cover crop is planted to manage soil erosion, soil fertility, soil quality, weeds, diseases and wildlife in an agroecosystem—an ecological system managed and shaped by humans. Cover crops may be an off-season crop planted after harvesting the cash crop; the cover crop may grow over winter. Although cover crops can perform multiple functions in an agroecosystem they are grown for the sole purpose of preventing soil erosion. Soil erosion is a process. Dense cover crop stands physically slow down the velocity of rainfall before it contacts the soil surface, preventing soil splashing and erosive surface runoff. Additionally, vast cover crop root networks help anchor the soil in place and increase soil porosity, creating suitable habitat networks for soil macrofauna, it keeps the enrichment of the soil good for the next few years. One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility; these types of cover crops are referred to as "green manure." They are used to manage a range of soil micronutrients.
Of the various nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in crop production. Green manure crops are grown for a specific period, plowed under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and quality; the stalks left block the soil from being eroded. Green manure crops are leguminous, meaning they are part of the Fabaceae family; this family is unique in that all of the species in it set pods, such as bean, lentil and alfalfa. Leguminous cover crops are high in nitrogen and can provide the required quantity of nitrogen for crop production. In conventional farming, this nitrogen is applied in chemical fertilizer form; this quality of cover crops is called fertilizer replacement value. Another quality unique to leguminous cover crops is that they form symbiotic relationships with the rhizobial bacteria that reside in legume root nodules. Lupins is nodulated by the soil microorganism Bradyrhizobium sp..
Bradyrhizobia are encountered as microsymbionts in other leguminous crops of Mediterranean origin. These bacteria convert biologically unavailable atmospheric nitrogen gas to biologically available ammonium through the process of biological nitrogen fixation. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process, an energy-intensive method developed to carry out industrial nitrogen fixation and create chemical nitrogen fertilizer, most nitrogen introduced to ecosystems arose through biological nitrogen fixation; some scientists believe that widespread biological nitrogen fixation, achieved through the use of cover crops, is the only alternative to industrial nitrogen fixation in the effort to maintain or increase future food production levels. Industrial nitrogen fixation has been criticized as an unsustainable source of nitrogen for food production due to its reliance on fossil fuel energy and the environmental impacts associated with chemical nitrogen fertilizer use in agriculture; such widespread environmental impacts include nitrogen fertilizer losses into waterways, which can lead to eutrophication and ensuing hypoxia of large bodies of water.
An example of this lies in the Mississippi Valley Basin, where years of fertilizer nitrogen loading into the watershed from agricultural production have resulted in a hypoxic "dead zone" off the Gulf of Mexico the size of New Jersey. The ecological complexity of marine life in this zone has been diminishing as a consequence; as well as bringing nitrogen into agroecosystems through biological nitrogen fixation, types of cover crops known as "catch crops" are used to retain and recycle soil nitrogen present. The catch crops take up surplus nitrogen remaining from fertilization of the previous crop, preventing it from being lost through leaching, or gaseous denitrification or volatilization. Catch crops are fast-growing annual cereal species adapted to scavenge available nitrogen efficiently from the soil; the nitrogen tied up in catch crop biomass is released back into the soil once the catch crop is incorporated as a green manure or otherwise begins to decompose. An example of green manure use comes from Nigeria, where the cover crop Mucuna pruriens has been found to increase the availability of phosphorus in soil after a farmer applies rock phosphate.
Cover crops can improve soil quality by increasing soil organic matter levels through the input of cover crop biomass over time. Increased soil organic matter enhances soil structure, as well as the water and nutrient holding and buffering capacity of soil, it can lead to increased soil carbon sequestration, promoted as a strategy to help offset the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Soil quality is managed to produce optimum circumstances for crops to flourish; the principal factors of soil quality are soil salination, pH, microorganism balance and the prevention of soil contamination. By reducing soil erosion, cover crops also reduce both the rate and quantity of water that drains off the field, which would pose environmental risks to waterways and ecosystems downstream. Cover crop biomass acts as a physical barrier between rainfall and the soil surface, allowing raindrops to trickle down through the soil profile; as stated above, cover crop root growth results in the formation of soil pores, which in addition to enhancing soil macrofauna habitat provides pathways for water to filter through the soil profile rather than draini
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks; the lower part of each leaf encloses the stem. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands and tundra; the Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, rice and millet as well as forage, building materials and fuel.
Though they are called "grasses", seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales; the name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, they became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, fossilized dinosaur dung have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and intertidal habitats, are the most widespread plant type. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets: Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago.
Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Wu, You & Li described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation; the authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, therefore all other continents at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probableThe relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more related to each other than to Oryzoideae; this separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years.
According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. King argued that this was the result of more acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in more soil creep. Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs with the following characteristics: The stems of grasses, called culms, are cylindrical and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous, have parallel veins; each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging a blade with entire margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into spikes. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea; the flowers are hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects play a role. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; this complex structure can be seen in the image on the right. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips; this low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in g
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant; the embryo is developed from the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates; the term "seed" has a general meaning that antedates the above – anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or husk, whereas the potato is a tuber.
Many structures referred to as "seeds" are dry fruits. Plants producing berries are called baccate. Sunflower seeds are sometimes sold commercially while still enclosed within the hard wall of the fruit, which must be split open to reach the seed. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits have a hardened fruit layer fused to and surrounding the actual seed. Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed, such as an acorn or hazelnut. Seeds are produced in several related groups of plants, their manner of production distinguishes the angiosperms from the gymnosperms. Angiosperm seeds are produced in a hard or fleshy structure called a fruit that encloses the seeds for protection in order to secure healthy growth; some fruits have layers of both fleshy material. In gymnosperms, no special structure develops to enclose the seeds, which begin their development "naked" on the bracts of cones. However, the seeds do become covered by the cone scales.
Seed production in natural plant populations varies from year to year in response to weather variables and diseases, internal cycles within the plants themselves. Over a 20-year period, for example, forests composed of loblolly pine and shortleaf pine produced from 0 to nearly 5 million sound pine seeds per hectare. Over this period, there were six bumper, five poor, nine good seed crops, when evaluated for production of adequate seedlings for natural forest reproduction. Angiosperm seeds consist of three genetically distinct constituents: the embryo formed from the zygote, the endosperm, triploid, the seed coat from tissue derived from the maternal tissue of the ovule. In angiosperms, the process of seed development begins with double fertilization, which involves the fusion of two male gametes with the egg cell and the central cell to form the primary endosperm and the zygote. Right after fertilization, the zygote is inactive, but the primary endosperm divides to form the endosperm tissue.
This tissue becomes the food the young plant will consume until the roots have developed after germination. After fertilization the ovules develop into the seeds; the ovule consists of a number of components: The funicle or seed stalk which attaches the ovule to the placenta and hence ovary or fruit wall, at the pericarp. The nucellus, the remnant of the megasporangium and main region of the ovule where the megagametophyte develops; the micropyle, a small pore or opening in the apex of the integument of the ovule where the pollen tube enters during the process of fertilization. The chalaza, the base of the ovule opposite the micropyle, where integument and nucellus are joined together; the shape of the ovules as they develop affects the final shape of the seeds. Plants produce ovules of four shapes: the most common shape is called anatropous, with a curved shape. Orthotropous ovules are straight with all the parts of the ovule lined up in a long row producing an uncurved seed. Campylotropous ovules have a curved megagametophyte giving the seed a tight "C" shape.
The last ovule shape is called amphitropous, where the ovule is inverted and turned back 90 degrees on its stalk. In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, this establishes the polarity of the embryo; the upper or chalazal pole becomes the main area of growth of the embryo, while the lower or micropylar pole produces the stalk-like suspensor that attaches to the micropyle. The suspensor absorbs and manufactures nutrients from the endosperm that are used during the embryo's growth; the main components of the embryo are: The cotyledons, the seed leaves, attached to the embryonic axis. There may be two; the cotyledons are the source of nutrients in the non-endospermic dicotyledons, in which case they replace the endosperm, are thick and leathery. In endospermic seeds the cotyledons are papery. Dicotyledons have the point of attachment opposite one another on the axis; the epicotyl, the embryonic axis above the point of attachment of the cotyledon.
The plumule, the tip of the epicotyl, has a feathery appearance due to the presence of young leaf primordia at the apex, will become the shoot upon germination. The hypocotyl, the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the cotyledon, connecting the epicotyl and the radicle, being the stem-root transition zone; the radicle, the basal tip of the hy
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
An agricultural drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle applied to farming in order to help increase crop production and monitor crop growth. Sensors and digital imaging capabilities can give farmers a richer picture of their fields; this information may prove useful in improving farm efficiency. Agricultural drones let; this bird's-eye view can reveal many issues such as irrigation problems, soil variation, pest and fungal infestations. Multispectral images show a near-infrared view as well as a visual spectrum view; the combination shows the farmer the differences between healthy and unhealthy plants, a difference not always visible to the naked eye. Thus, these views can assist in assessing crop production. Additionally, the drone can survey the crops for the farmer periodically to their liking. Weekly, daily, or hourly, pictures can show the changes in the crops over time, thus showing possible “trouble spots”. Having identified these trouble spots, the farmer can attempt to improve crop management and production.
As drones entered use in agriculture, the Federal Aviation Administration encouraged farmers to use this new technology to monitor their fields. However, with the unexpected boom of agricultural drones, the FAA retracted such encouragement, pending new rules and regulations. With incidents such as drones crashing into crop dusters, it was vital for the FAA and the AFBF to agree on regulations that would allow the beneficial use of such drones in a safe and efficient manner. Although the American Farm Bureau Federation would like small adjustments to some of the restrictions that have been implemented, they are happy that the agricultural industry can use this new machinery without the worry of facing any legal issues. Other companies might start flying their drones in unregulated areas to survey their competition and get to know the condition of crops and agricultural yield; such a scenario could lead to compromising vital company secrets. People want to know that they are safe and protected, so the burden doesn’t just fall on the farmer, but on many of those around the farmer, too.
The use of agricultural drones has social implications. One benefit is that they are able to control the use of pesticides properly; this allows minimizing the environmental impact of pesticides. However, drones don't need access authority to flying overs someone's property at under 400 feet altitude, they may have microphones and cameras attached, the resulting concern for potential privacy violation has caused some opposition towards drones. There is a lot of room for growth with agricultural drones. With technology improving, imaging of the crops will need to improve as well. With the data that drones record from the crops the farmers are able to analyze their crops and make educated decisions on how to proceed given the accurate crop information. Software programs for analyzing and correcting crop production have the potential to grow in this market. Farmers will fly a drone over their crops identify an issue in a specific area, take the necessary actions to correct the problem; this gives the farmer time to focus on the big picture of production instead of spending time surveying their crops.
Additional uses include keeping track of livestock, surveying fences, monitoring for plant pathogens. Quantix by AeroVironment eBee by senseFly Lancaster 5 by PrecisionHawk AgDrone by HoneyComb Sentera by Phoenix 2 AgEagle RX60 Albatross UAV by Applied Aeronautics Aerial seeding Agricultural robot Environmental monitoring Mechanised agriculture Precision agriculture Reference page: Anderson, C.. Agricultural drones. Technology Review, 117, 58-60. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1534143322 Bring in the drones: flying robots could be a valuable tool for crop surveillance.. The Free Library.. Retrieved Sep 18 2016 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Bring+in+the+drones%3a+flying+robots+could+be+a+valuable+tool+for+crop...-a0423047794 Farmers and Ranchers Will Soar with Agricultural Drones.. Farm & Ranch Guide. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.farmandranchguide.com/news/crop/farmers-and-ranchers-will-soar-with-agricultural-drones/article_f75aa1ea-edc0-11e4-9e5b-2f201d97d1e1.html Global Market for agricultural drones is expected to reach $3.69 billion by 2022.
Retrieved September 10, 2016, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1780742295 Hetterick, H. & Reese, M.. Ohio Ag Net | Ohio's Country Journal. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://ocj.com/2013/05/drones-can-be-positive-and-negative-for-the-ag-industry/ Penhorwood, J.. Ohio Ag Net | Ohio's Country Journal. Retrieved September 25, 2016, from http://ocj.com/2016/06/drones-in-agriculture-ready-for-takeoff-with-new-faa-rules/ Worldwide Agricultural Drones Market Analysis and Forecasting Report.. Retrieved September 10, 2016, from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1795453515