An aerial tramway, sky tram, cable car, ropeway or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. With this form of lift, the grip of an aerial tramway cabin is fixed onto the propulsion rope and cannot be decoupled from it during operations. In comparison to gondola lifts, aerial tramways provide lower line capacities and higher wait times and are unable to turn corners; because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French and German names, téléphérique and Seilbahn are also used in an English language context. Cable car is the usual term in British English, as in British English the word tramway refers to a railed street tramway while in American English, cable car may additionally refer to a cable-pulled street tramway with detachable vehicles; as such, careful phrasing is necessary to prevent confusion. It is sometimes called a ropeway or incorrectly referred to as a gondola lift.
A gondola lift has cabins suspended from a continuously circulating cable whereas aerial trams shuttle back and forth on cables. In Japan, the two are considered as the same category of vehicle and called ropeway, while the term cable car refers to both grounded cable cars and funiculars. An aerial railway where the vehicles are suspended from a fixed track is known as a suspension railway. An aerial tramway consists of one or two fixed cables, one loop of cable, one or two passenger or cargo cabins; the fixed cables provide support for the cabins while the haulage rope, by means of a grip, is solidly connected to the truck. An electric motor drives the haulage rope. Aerial tramways are constructed as reversible systems. Aerial tramways differ from gondola lifts. Two-car tramways use a jig-back system: A large electric motor is located at the bottom of the tramway so that it pulls one cabin down, using that cabin's weight to help pull the other cabin up. A similar system of cables is used in a funicular railway.
The two passenger or cargo cabins, which carry from 4 to over 150 people, are situated at opposite ends of the loops of cable. Thus, while one is coming up, the other is going down the mountain, they pass each other midway on the cable span; some aerial trams have only one cabin, which lends itself better for systems with small elevation changes along the cable run. The first design of an aerial lift was by Croatian polymath Fausto Veranzio and the first operational aerial tram was built in 1644 by Adam Wiebe in Gdańsk, it was used to move soil over the river to build defences. It is called the first known cable lift in European history and precedes the invention of steel cables, it is not known. In any case, it would be another 230 years before Germany would get the second cable lift, this newer version equipped with iron wire cable. Other mining systems were developed in the 1860s by Hodgson, Andrew Smith Hallidie. Hallidie went on to perfect a line of mining and people tramways after 1867 in California and Nevada.
See Hallidie ropeway. Tramways are sometimes used in mountainous regions to carry ore from a mine located high on the mountain to an ore mill located at a lower elevation. Ore tramways were common in the early 20th century at the mines in South America. One can still be seen in the San Juan Mountains of the US state of Colorado. Over one thousand mining tramways were built around the world—Spitsbergen, Alaska, New Zealand and Gabon; this experience was replicated with the use of tramways in the First World War on the Isonzo Front in Italy. The German firm of Bleichert built hundreds of freight and military tramways, built the first tourist tramway at Bolzano/Bozen, in Tyrolian Austria in 1913. Other firms entered the mining tramway business—Otto, Breco Ropeways Ltd. Ceretti and Tanfani, Riblet for instance. A major British contributor was Bullivant who became a constituent of British Ropes in 1924; the perfection of the aerial tramway through mining led to its application in other fields including logging, sugar fields, beet farming, tea plantations, coffee beans and guano mining.
A resource on the history of aerial tramways in the mining industry is "Riding the High Wire, Aerial Mine Tramways in the West" In the beginning of the 20th century the rise of the middle class and the leisure industry allowed for investment in sight-seeing machines. Prior to 1893 a combined goods and passenger carrying cableway was installed at Gibraltar, its passengers were military personnel. An 1893 industry publication said of a two-mile system in Hong Kong that it "is the only wire tramway, erected for the carriage of individuals" Going to the Isle of Dogs by Lesser Columbus, Bullivant & Co. 1893 page 10. This item can be accessed through an original held by the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. After the pioneer cable car of 1907 at mount Ulia by Torres Quevedo others to the top of high peaks in the Alps of Austria and Switzerland resulted, they were much cheaper to build than the earlier rack railway. One of the first trams was at Chamonix, while others in Garmisch soon followed.
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The Sleeping Beauty is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, first performed in 1890. The music was composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky; the score was completed in 1889, is the second of his three ballets. The original scenario was conceived by Ivan Vsevolozhsky, is based on Charles Perrault's La Belle au bois dormant; the choreographer of the original production was Marius Petipa. The premiere performance took place at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg on January 15, 1890; the work has become one of the classical repertoire's most famous ballets. Tchaikovsky was approached by the Director of the Imperial Theatres in St. Petersburg, Ivan Vsevolozhsky on 25 May 1888 about a possible ballet adaptation on the subject of the story of Undine, it was decided that Charles Perrault's La Belle au bois dormant would be the story for which Tchaikovsky would compose the music for the ballet. Tchaikovsky did not hesitate to accept the commission, although he was aware that his only previous ballet, Swan Lake, met with little enthusiasm at that stage of his career.
Tchaikovsky based his work on Brothers Grimm's version of Perrault's'Dornröschen'. In that version, the Princess's parents survive the 100-year sleep to celebrate the Princess's wedding with the Prince. However, Vsevolozhsky incorporated Perrault's other characters from his stories into the ballet, such as Puss in Boots, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebird, Ricky of the Tuft and Tom Thumb. Other French fairy tale characters to be featured are Beauty and the Beast, Pretty Goldilocks and The White Cat. Regardless, Tchaikovsky was happy to inform the Director of the Imperial Theatre that he had great pleasure studying the work and came away with adequate inspiration to do it justice; the choreographer was Marius Petipa, ballet master of the Imperial Ballet, who wrote a detailed list of instructions as to the musical requirements. Tchaikovsky worked on the new work at Frolovskoye; the ballet's focus was undeniably on the two main conflicting forces of evil. Act III of the work, takes a complete break from the two motifs and instead places focus on the individual characters of the various court dances.
St. Petersburg premiere Date: 15 January 1890 Place: Imperial Mariinsky Theatre, St. Petersburg Balletmaster: Marius Petipa Conductor: Riccardo Drigo Scene Designers: Henrich Levogt, Ivan Andreyev, Mikhail Bocharov, Matvey Shishkov Costumes: Ivan VsevolozhskyMoscow premiere Date: 17 January 1899 Place: Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre Balletmaster: Aleksandr Gorsky Conductor: Andrey Arends Scene Designers: Anatoliy Geltser, Karl Valts Other notable productions 1896, Milan, La Scala, staged by Giorgio Saracco, Carlotta Brianza as Aurora 1921, Alhambra Theatre, as The Sleeping Princess, Diaghilev production, staged by Nikolay Sergeyev, scenes by Léon Bakst 1937, staged by Catherine Littlefield 1945, San Francisco, staged by Sergei Temoff for the San Francisco Russian Opera and Ballet Association 1946, Royal Opera House debut, performed by the Sadler's Wells Ballet. 1968, with the London Festival Ballet at the Royal Festival Hall 1990, San Francisco, with San Francisco Ballet as choreographed by Helgi Tómasson in tribute to Tchaikovsky, with a focus on maintaining the Russian-French connection 1992, Theater Basel reworked by Youri Vámos with new narrative involving the life of Anna Anderson and her claim to be Grand Duchess Anastasia.
The order of musical numbers has been changed, some numbers omitted with other music by Tchaikovsky added and major set pieces of Petipa's choreography retained, but now placed in different narrative context - performed as Anderson's "memories". This version has been performed by a number of central European ballet companies over the past two decades. 1999, St. Petersburg, Mariinsky Theatre, staged by Sergei Vikharev from Stepanov notations with recreations of the original sets and costumes; the ballet's premiere received more favorable accolades than Swan Lake from the press but Tchaikovsky never had the luxury of being able to witness his work become an instant success in theatres outside of Russia. He died in 1893. By 1903, The Sleeping Beauty was the second most popular ballet in the repertory of the Imperial Ballet, having been performed 200 times in only 10 years. A production mounted at the La Scala in Milan did not arouse much interest and it was not until 1921 that, in London, the ballet gained wide acclaim and a permanent place in the classical repertoire.
In 1999, the Mariinsky Ballet reconstructed the original 1899 production, including reproductions of the original sets and costumes. Although the 1951 Kirov production by Konstantin Sergeyev is available on DVD/Video, the 1999 "authentic" version, while never commercially released, can be found on YouTube in varying quality; the Sleeping Beauty is Tchaikovsky's longest ballet. The complete score runs 3 hours, it is nearly always cut. At the premiere, Tsar Alexander III summoned Tchaikovsky to the imperial box; the Tsar made the simple remark'Very nice,' which seemed to have irritated Tchaikovsky, who had expected a more favorable response. Strings: Violins I, Violins II, Cellos, Double Basses Woodwinds: Piccolo, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, Cor Anglais, 2 Clarinets, 2 Basso
The Clube Vasco da Gama Bermuda known as Vasco Da Gama FC and Vasco Mariners, are a Bermudian football team. They are playing in the Corona League, the third tier of the Bermudian Football League; the team has had Portuguese players, but more has seen many English and Bermudian players on the club. The Mariners are one of the most successful Bermudian Teams in history, having lifted the Premier League title three times and the Bermuda FA Cup four times, they play games at the BAA Club in Hamilton and their facilities are at the Vasco Da Gama Club. In 2007-08 the Mariners were promoted. In the 1970s, a group of portuguese immigrants coming from Azores started to reunite on the club to organize festivals to celebrate the Portuguese culture on Hawkins Island. In 1978 they decided to create a football program with a professional team playing on Bermuda Football Union and a youth team. Https://web.archive.org/web/20120227032528/http://www.bermudacl.bm/ http://www.rsssf.com/tablesb/bermcuphist.html
Balladyna aka The Bait is a 2009 thriller and directed by Dariusz Zawiślak. The film is based on one of the dramas from the Epoch of the Romanticism - Balladyna, written in Geneva in 1834 by poet and dramatist Juliusz Słowacki. Although the original drama was influenced by William Shakespeare's plays King Lear, A Midsummer Night's Dream and Macbeth, Balladyna is an original romantic work; the plot is set at the time of Poland's origins. There is King Popiel, deprived of power by a usurper. Balladyna, greedy for power, gains it through a number of crimes, including the killing of her sister Alina, the contender to marry Kirkor. In the finale Balladyna dies, struck by divine justice. Faye Dunaway Sonia Bohosiewicz Mirosław Baka Rafał Cieszyński Władysław Kowalski Sławomir Orzechowski Stefan Friedmann Tadeusz Borowski Magdalena Górska New York City, United States Warsaw, Poland Balladyna on IMDb
Bando is a team sport – related to hockey, hurling and bandy –, first recorded in Wales in the eighteenth century. The game is played on a large level field between teams of up to thirty players each of them equipped with a bando: a curve-ended stick resembling that used in field hockey. Although no formal rules are known, the objective of the game was to strike a ball between two marks which served as goals at either end of the pitch. Popular in Glamorgan in the nineteenth century, the sport all but vanished by the end of the century. Now a minority sport, the game is still played in parts of Wales where it has become an Easter tradition. Bando is believed to have common origins with bandy; the game was first recorded in the late eighteenth century, in 1797 a traveller en route from Cowbridge to Pyle noted "the extraordinary barrenness" of the locality in ash and elm trees, hard woods ideal for bando bats, came across hordes of people hastening to the sea shore to watch a game of bando. Whereas the sticks were made of hard wood, the ball, known as a "colby", was of yew, box or crabapple.
The sport was played between local villages, with fierce rivalries in the west of Glamorgan between Baglan and Margam and in mid Glamorgan between Pyle and Llangynwyd. Edward Matthews of Ewenni records that no-one above the age of twelve-month would be seen without a bando stick. Although many pre-industrial games are recorded to be lawless affairs with haphazard rules, the contrary appears true with bando. Once a challenge of a game was made between villages, wagers were set which demanded an agreed set of rules, including the number of players between 20 and 30 and the size of the playing area. Matthews records a playing area of 200 yards, with the goal markers at each end set ten yards apart. Despite a set of rules, the game was still open to violent play with players using their bando sticks to strike their opponents. One of the more notable teams of the time were the "Margam Bando Boys", a team who played on Aberavon Beach; the team are celebrated in a macaronic ballad, "The Margam Bando Boys", written in the earlier part of the nineteenth century."Margam Bando Boys", Bando is believed to be the first mass spectator sport of Glamorgan and Wales, in 1817 a match between Margam and Newton Nottage attracted over 3,000 spectators.
The sport remained popular throughout the century with notable personalities known to play the sport including preacher John Elias and future prime minister, David Lloyd George. The sport continued to be played until the second half of the nineteenth century, but was beginning to be replaced by other sports; the game survived in the Aberavon area until the death of Theodore Talbot, the captain of the Margam Bando Boys in 1876. Talbot, the son of Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot and heir to the Margam Estate was a supporter of the sport, his death coincided with the coming of the Mansel, Avon Vale and Taibach tinworks; the employees turned to a new sport spreading through south Wales, rugby union, with Aberavon Rugby Football Club forming in 1876. Now a minority sport, the game survives as an amateur game in parts of Wales, some small-scale attempts have been made to revive the game in the country. Despite having no religious links with Easter, the sport became a tradition on the date as part of some parish festivals.
Morgan, Prys, ed.. Glamorgan County History, Volume VI, Glamorgan Society 1780 to 1980. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-904730-05-0. Bando – An ancient manly game Peoples Collection of Wales, brief history of the sport with an image of a bando stick
Mostafa Kemal Madbouly is the current Prime Minister of Egypt. He was appointed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi to succeed Sherif Ismail following his government's resignation in the wake of Sisi's re-election. Madbouly serves in the Egyptian Government as Minister of Housing and Urban Utilities, has briefly served as interim Prime Minister. Madbouly graduated from Cairo University, receiving a master's degree and PhD from the Faculty of Engineering in 1988 and 1997, respectively. From September 2009 until November 2011, Madbouly was the chairman of the General Authority for Urban Planning at the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. From November 2012 until February 2014 he was the regional director for Arab countries at the United Nations Human Settlements Program. In March 2014 he was appointed Minister of Housing under Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab, a post he continued to hold following the appointment of Sherif Ismail as Prime Minister in September 2015. During his tenure as housing minister, the “million housing units” project came to fruition, was one of the major national projects that came into force after President Sisi took office, though the project was former Housing Minister Mohamed Fathy al-Baradei's idea.
For political and social reasons, the project, suggested by Baradie in 2011, stopped during the Muslim brotherhood era, came into force again when Madbouly took office. In November 2017, Madbouly was appointed interim Prime Minister following Sherif Ismail's departure to Germany for medical treatment. On 7 June 2018, President Sisi appointed Madbouly as Prime Minister, succeeding Sherif Ismail who had resigned in the wake of Sisi's re-election in the controversial presidential election. On 9 June, Prime Minister Madbouly reshuffled Egypt's cabinet, replacing eight ministers including Minister of Antiquities Khaled Al-Anany, Minister of Manpower Mohamed Saafan, Minister of Irrigation Mohamed Abdel Aty, Minister of Health Ahmed Emaddin, Minister of Agriculture Abdel Moniem al-Banna, Minister of Higher Education Khaled Abdel Ghaffar, it was reported the same day that the Egyptian Parliament had agreed to his new list of Cabinet Ministers. On 10 June, it was revealed that eight women would serve in his Cabinet, breaking the previous administration's record number of six.
The final list of candidates for ministerial posts includes Assem El-Gazar as minister of housing. The eight women will serve as ministers of investment, health, social solidarity, immigration and culture and the following ministers of Ismail's cabinet will remain in their positions: the ministers of petroleum, education, higher education, foreign affairs, defence, military production and parliamentary affairs On 13 June, it was reported that Madbouly had selected 13 to 16 deputy ministers and that Madbouly and his government would be sworn in by Sisi on 14 June. Madbouly and his cabinet were sworn in by Sisi on 14 June, he will maintain his position as Housing Minister. It was reported, but parliamentary spokesman Salah Hassaballah confirmed these reports to be incorrect. On 23 June, Hassaballah stated that while no date was now scheduled to present the policy statement before Parliament, he expected the Madbouly government to present it in the next week and that the government was unable to prepare it in time for the planned date.
On 30 June it was announced that Madbouly would present its policy statement on 3 July, in order to comply with the Constitutional 20-day deadline upon Cabinet formation. On 3 July 2018, Madbouly issued his policy statement to the Egyptian parliament. In the statement, he declared; the statement was sent to a parliament committee chaired by a House deputy speaker, which will afterwards be followed by a vote of confidence. Article 146 of the constitution stipulates that a newly appointed prime minister must deliver a policy statement before parliament, after which MPs should vote on the policy, in a process that ends within 30 days. On 11 July 2018, First deputy speaker of Egypt's parliament Al-Sayed Al-Sherif, who headed the parliamentary committee tasked with reviewing the Madbouly's policy statement, announced that his committee had completed its review of the statement and recommended a vote of confidence in favor for 15 July. On 25 July 2018, ten days after the intended date, the Egyptian parliament approved both Madbouly's cabinet and his policy statement in a vote of confidence