Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres. Physiologically, it is aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength. Among mammals, humans are well adapted for running significant distances, so among primates; the endurance running hypothesis suggests that running endurance in the genus Homo arose because travelling over large areas improved scavenging opportunities and allowed persistence hunting. The capacity for endurance running is found in migratory ungulates and a limited number of terrestrial carnivores, such as bears, dogs and hyenas. In modern human society, long-distance running has multiple purposes: people may engage in it for physical exercise, for recreation, as a means of travel, for economic reasons, or for cultural reasons. Long distance running can be used as a means to improve cardiovascular health. Running improves aerobic fitness by increasing the activity of enzymes and hormones that stimulate the muscles and the heart to work more efficiently.
Endurance running is a component of physical military training and has been so historically. Professional running is most found in the field of sports, although in pre-industrial times foot messengers would run to deliver information to distant locations. Long-distance running as a form of tradition or ceremony is known among the Hopi and Tarahumara people, among others. Distance running can serve as a bonding exercise for family, friends and has been associated with nation-building; the social element of distance running has been linked with improved performance. In the sport of athletics, long-distance events are defined as races covering three kilometres and above; the three most common types are track running, road running and cross country running, all of which are defined by their terrain – all-weather tracks and natural terrain, respectively. Typical long-distance track races range from 3000 metres to 10,000 metres, cross country races cover 5 to 12 km, while road races can be longer, reaching 100 kilometres and beyond.
In collegiate cross country races in the United States, men race 8000 or 10000 meters, depending on their division, whereas women race 6000 meters. The Summer Olympics features three long-distance running events: the 5000 metres, 10,000 metres and marathon. Since the late 1980s, Kenyans and Ethiopians have dominated in major international long-distance competitions; the high altitude of these countries has been proven to help these runners achieve more success. Mountain air, combined with endurance training, can lead to an increase in red blood cells, allowing more oxygen to be passed through the veins; the majority of these East African successful runners come from three mountain districts that run along the Great Rift Valley. Anthropological observations of modern hunter-gatherer communities have provided accounts for long distance running as a method for hunting among the San of the Kalahari, American Indians, the Australian Aborigines. In this method, the hunter would run at a slow and steady pace between one hour and a few days, in an area where the animal has no place to hide.
The animal, running in spurts, has to stop to pant in order to cool itself, but as the chase goes on it would not have enough time before it has to start running again, after a while would collapse from exhaustion and heat. The body structure of a skeleton of a 12 years old Nariokatome boy is suggested to prove that early humans from 1.5 million years ago were eating more meat and less plants, hunted by running down animals. With developments in agriculture and culture, long distance running took more and more purposes other than hunting: religious ceremonies, delivering messages for military and political purposes, sport; the Old Testament has a few mentions of messengers running to deliver messages. For example, in 2 Samuel 18, two runners, Ahimaaz son of Zadok and a Cushite run to deliver King David the message of the death of his son Absalom. In Jeremia 51:31-32, two running messengers meet each other halfway to deliver the message about the loss of Babylon: 31 One post shall run to meet another, one messenger to meet another, to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, 32 And that the passages are stopped, the reeds they have burned with fire, the men of war are affrighted.
Running messengers are reported from early Sumer, were named lasimu as military men as well as the king’s officials who disseminated documents throughout the kingdom by running. Ancient Greece was famous for its running messengers, who were named hemerodromoi, meaning “day runners”. One of the most famous running messengers is Pheidippides, who according to the legend ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory of the Greek over the Persians in the Battle of Marathon in 490 B. C, he collapsed and died as he delivered the message “we won”. While there are debates around the accuracy of this historical legend, whether Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens or between other cities, how far this was, if he was the one to deliver the victory message, the marathon running event of 26.2 miles / 42.195 km is based on this legend. Humans are considered among the best distance runners among all running animals: game animals are faster over short distances, but they have less endurance than humans.
Unlike other primates whose bodies are suited to walk on four legs or climb trees, the human body has evolved into upright walking and running around 2-3 million years ago. The human body can endure long distance running through the following attributes: Bone and muscle struct
Professional fitness coach
A Professional fitness coach is a professional in the field of fitness and exercise, most instruction, including professional sports club's fitness trainers and aerobics and yoga instructors and authors of fitness instruction books or manuals. Fitness topics may include nutrition, weight-loss, self-help. Fitness careers are distinguished from exercise science careers such as athletic training, however the various types of fitness certifications have more and more in common: the, "distinctions...have become blurred, with more similarities than differences given the common background that all fitness professionals must possess."Fitness professionals screen participants for exercise programs, evaluate various fitness components, prescribe exercise to improve these components, may help clients with specific or chronic conditions. Fitness professionals help challenge an individual by increasing their performance, as compared to when a person would work out on their own, they teach new workouts, how to improve their form and help set and achieve goals.
The key roles and duties of a fitness professional are to: motivate, assist clients and measure heart rates and body fat levels. Trainers need to be patient, well organized and have time management as well as interpersonal skills."You are in a helping profession. Although you are not a social worker, psychologist or guidance counselor, neither are you a technician with advanced training in exercise science, program design and assessment methodology." Notable fitness professionals or former fitness professionals include Richard Simmons, Susan Powter, John Sitaras and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger. Certified fitness professionals must remain up-to-date on all certifications in order to instruct at particular health clubs and gyms. Fitness professionals will have some education in kinesiology and biomechanics to aid in their fitness career. In Canada, Canadian Fitness Education Services provides national fitness leadership program modules to take candidates through the steps in Aquafit, Group Fitness and/or Weight Training Instructor and Personal Trainer national certification.
Personal training, Athletic training, physical therapy are all technically distinct specialties with different processes and requirements for certification. In the United States the main certifying agency for personal trainers is ACSM, while the main certifying agency for athletic trainers is NATA. Obtaining certification or licensure as a physical therapist requires that one attend and graduate from a masters or doctoral program in physical therapy. A coach can help amateur and professional athletes to be successful in a particular sport by teaching them the required skills needed. However, they can coach more than one sport to multiple people, their role involves identifying athletes strengths and weaknesses as well as those of their opponent. Coaches improve the physical condition of an athlete to help increase their full performance. A coach must be ready to work long and irregular hours including evenings and holidays. Coaches are required to be a minimum 18 years of age and have a Bachelor’s degree.
Most national sports teams and professional sportsclubs have professional fitness coaches in order to systematically improve fitness and conditioning. The median annual pay for a personal trainer in the US as of 2017 is $58,875; the highest paid college coach in 2017 was Nick Saban. Fitness professionals receive benefits that can include healthcare, paid time off, a pension. There is the opportunity to accelerate personal achievements and the option to work full-time or part-time. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, "employment of fitness trainers and instructors is projected to grow 8 percent from 2014 to 2024, about as fast as the average for all occupations.” Fitness professionals need to have at least a high school diploma and in some fields, a bachelor’s degree in a related field is required. Additionally, they must be certified in CPR, offered by the American Red Cross among many other classes such as First Aid and AED. Certification, they offer lifeguard training and water safety.
Other qualifications depending on the specific field can include: Board of Certification, provides a program for the entry level fitness professional Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, improves athletic training The American Society of Exercise Physiologists, assists exercise physiologists The America College of Sports Medicine, Exercise trends Fitness culture Physical fitness Personal trainer
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Aerobic gymnastics or sport aerobics is a competitive sport originating from traditional aerobics in which complex, high-intensity movement patterns and elements of varying difficulty are performed to music. The performance area is 7 metres square for juniors or 10 metres square for adults and for aero dance and step. In International competition there are 7 different events: Individual Women, Individual Men, Mixed Pairs, Group and Dance; the last four are regardless of the Genders of the athletes. The performances are made up of four groups of elements; the routine must be performed to music. In the competition, there are specific requirements regarding the outfit, the number of elements performed, the number of lifts performed, the number of elements performed on the floor and much more. Performances are scored in the following areas: artistry, execution and the chair of the judges panel determines the final score deductions based on deductions that change with each code of points. If the combined scores are the same, the tiebreaker is the team with higher execution scores.
The long-term ultimate goal of the sport of aerobic gymnastics is to be included in the Olympic Games. The competitive aerobic gymnastics are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique; the FIG regulates all aspects of international elite competition. Within individual countries, gymnastics is regulated by national federations. In 1995, the FIG recognised sport aerobics as a new competitive gymnastics discipline, organised judges and coaches courses and launched the 1st Aerobic Gymnastics World Championships in Paris. In 1997, the IWGA included Aerobic Gymnastics in its programme of the 5th World Games. Since 1999 The European Union of Gymnastics has been conducting Aerobic European Gymnastics Championships in all uneven years. Leading nations who have provided World Medallists are: Australia, Bulgaria, China, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Romania and Spain; the National Aerobic Championships is a competition of aerobic gymnastics started in 1984 in the United States. Founded by Sport Fitness International, it was the first major championships in the sport predating the Aerobic Gymnastics World Championships by 11 years.
From 1988 onwards the individual events were separated by gender. The sport became popular around the world after it gained popularity in the US when major championships were aired on ESPN during the height of the fitness movement in the US; the sport was added in the biannual Idol Star Athletics Championships for Lunar New Year, 2017 as a male team equivalent to the female individual rhythmic gymnastics, the scores are given in accordance to FIG Standards. Seventeen and ASTRO both scored 19.10 out of 20.00, but since ASTRO scored higher in Execution, ASTRO won the inaugural event. The Federation of International Sports and Fitness is an international non-profit "umbrella organization" active in over 40 countries, it is self-described as "the largest fitness industry organisation in the world" and "the largest instructor certification agency in the world". The Association of National Aerobics Championships http://www.fig-gymnastics.com/site/site/miniSiteNews?id=14712
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more the ability to perform aspects of sports and daily activities. Physical fitness is achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, sufficient rest. Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, to meet emergency situations. Fitness is defined as the state of being fit. Around 1950 consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten; the modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations.
This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness that has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. endurance or strength. A well-rounded fitness program improves a person in all aspects of fitness compared to practicing only one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training. A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual focuses on one or more specific skills, on age- or health-related needs such as bone health. Many sources cite mental and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness; this is presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical and mental fitness. Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging. Working out can help some people sleep better and alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals.
Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases; the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. This publication recommends that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.
New guidelines in the United Kingdom include the following points: The intensity at which we exercise is key, light activity such as strolling and housework is unlikely to have much positive impact on the health of most people. For aerobic exercise to be beneficial it must make you sweat; the more exercise, the better. Everyone should do a minimum of 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise but, the minimum for health benefits. If you can go beyond 150 minutes, you’ll gain more health benefits. Sedentary time is bad for your health for those who are achieving 150 minutes of exercise a week; these guidelines, are now much more in line with those used in the US include recommendations for muscle-building and bone strengthening activities such as lifting weights and yoga.<https://www.nhs.uk/news/lifestyle-and-exercise/major-new-exercise-guidelines-announced/> The US guidelines continue: For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity.
Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Adults should do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits. Cardiorespiratory fitness can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize. Aerobic exercise, which improves cardiorespiratory fitness, involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption; this form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person. It helps increase stamina. Examples are: Jogging -- Running at a gentle pace; this form of exercise is great for maintaining weight. Elliptical training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints; this form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips and ankles.
Walking – Moving at a regular pace for a short, medium or long distance. Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offer numerous different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between walking. Warm up first by walking and switch off between walking f
Cycling called biking or bicycling, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bikers", or less as "bicyclists". Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, "cycling" includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number one billion worldwide, they are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is regarded as a effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion; these lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can increase the areas they can serve.
Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles longer travel time, vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances. Cycling became an activity after bicycles were introduced in the 19th century. Today, over 50 percent of the human population knows. In many countries, the most used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle; these have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road and easing steering at low speeds. Utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis; as the bicycle is so effective as a means of transportation various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles.
Certain countries rely on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a primary form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita and most use bicycles for everyday transport. Road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly; the design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles and reducing air resistance at high speed. The price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate. Being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying; the drivetrain components of the bike should be considered. A middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears. If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing, a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred.
Otherwise, the lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available. Many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. Other possible accessories for the bicycle include front and rear lights, bells or horns, child carrying seats, cycling computers with GPS, bar tape, baggage racks, baggage carriers and pannier bags, water bottles and bottle cages. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a puncture repair kit, a spare inner tube, tire levers and a set of allen keys. Cycling can be more efficient and comfortable with special shoes and shorts. In wet weather, riding can be more tolerable with waterproof clothes, such as cape, jacket and overshoes and high-visibility clothing is advisable to reduce the risk from motor vehicle users. Items required in some jurisdictions, or voluntarily adopted for safety reasons, include bicycle helmets, generator or battery operated lights and audible signalling devices such as a bell or horn.
Extras include a bicycle computer. Bikes can be customized, with different seat designs and handle bars, for example. Many schools and police departments run educational programs to instruct children in bicycle handling skills and introduce them to the rules of the road as they apply to cyclists. In different countries these may be known as bicycle rodeos or operated as schemes such as Bikeability. Education for adult cyclists is available from organizations such as the League of American Bicyclists. Beyond riding, another skill is riding efficiently and safely in traffic. One popular approach to riding in motor vehicle traffic is vehicular cycling, occupying road space as car does. Alternately, in countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, where cycling is popular, cyclists are segregated into bike lanes at the side of, or more separate from, main highways and roads. Many primary schools participate in the national road test in whi