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Aerojet was an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer based in Rancho Cordova, with divisions in Redmond, Washington and Gainesville in Virginia, Camden, Arkansas. Aerojet was owned by GenCorp. In 2013, Aerojet was merged by GenCorp with the former Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne to form Aerojet Rocketdyne. Aerojet developed from a 1936 meeting hosted by Theodore von Kármán at his home. Joining von Kármán, at the time director of Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, were a number of Caltech professors and students, including rocket scientist and astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky and explosives expert Jack Parsons, all of whom were interested in the topic of spaceflight; the group continued to meet, but its activities were limited to discussions rather than experimentation. Their first design was tested on August 16, 1941, consisting of a small cylindrical solid-fuel motor attached to the bottom of a plane. Takeoff distance was shortened by half, the USAAF placed an order for experimental production versions.

Some aspects of the early operation of the company were described by Kármán in his autobiography: On March 19, 1942, Haley obtained our incorporation papers and the Aerojet Engineering Corporation was launched. I was President. We had three vice-presidents: Parsons and Forman. We issued stock to ourselves, for a brief time Haley seemed to own the entire corporation because, being the only man in the group with cash, he put up all the initial capital. We opened offices on East Colorado Street in Pasadena... we moved to... 285 West Colorado Street... Thus began... the world's largest manufacturer of propellants. In only twenty years it was to grow from six people with a capitalization of $1200 into a 700-million-dollar a year business, a staff of nearly 34,000, a key role in the modern defense picture of the United States. Kármán soon relinquished the presidency: "Haley became Aerojet’s second president on August 26, 1942, he proved to be an incredible administrator." The company expanded and required new facilities: "In October, fifteen employees were drawing paychecks.

By December we had expanded to about one hundred and fifty employees and in January 1943 we moved to Azusa, California." In 1943 the Army Air Forces placed a full order, demanding that 2000 rockets be delivered before year's end. The difficulty of starting out in an industry with no history explains how the founders lost control: Unhappily for us, no bank would lend us money. In the spring of 1944 the officers instructed Haley to seek out new sources of assistance. General Tire was one of his clients and that company showed an interest in Aerojet and began negotiations. In January 1945 General Tire acquired half the stock for $75,000. Parsons and Forman sold their shares, so that, by October, General Tire had control of the majority of Aerojet. Kármán resisted the offers presented to him, until in 1953 when a sizable scholarship fund was offered to be set up as a memorial to his sister Josephine de Karman; the company invested in pure rocket research, developing both a liquid-fueled design and a new solid-fueled design based on a rubber binding agent in partnership with General Tire.

In the immediate post-war era, Aerojet downsized but their JATO units continued to sell for commercial aircraft operating in hot-and-high conditions. By 1950, their research into the rubber binder had led to much larger engines and to the development of the Aerobee sounding rocket. Aerobee was the first US-designed rocket to reach space and completed over 1,000 flights before it was retired in 1985. Aerojet designed and built a total of 1,182 engines for all four incarnations of the Titan rockets, which were used for civilian projects ranging from Gemini's manned flights to solar system explorations including Viking and Cassini; the newly formed US Air Force used Aerojet as the primary supplier on a number of their ICBM projects, including the Titan and Minuteman missiles. They delivered propulsion systems for the US Navy's submarine-launched Polaris missile. A new plant was set up in Sacramento that took over most rocket construction, while the original Azusa offices returned to research. One of Azusa's major projects was the development of the infra-red detectors for the Defense Support Program satellites, used to detect ICBM launches from space.

The new research arm was formed as Aerojet Electro-Systems Corp. and after purchasing a number of ordnance companies, Aerojet Ordnance was created as well. A new umbrella organization oversaw Aerojet General. President Kennedy's challenge to place a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s led to increased civilian work at Aerojet, they had lost contracts for large engines for the Saturn and Nova boosters, being designed in the late 1950s to their rival Rocketdyne, but in the end were selected to develop and build the main engine for the Apollo Command/Service Module. In 1962 they were selected to design a new upper-stage engine to replace the cluster of five J-2s used on the Saturn second stage in the post-Apollo era, but work on their resulting M-1 design was ended in 1965 when it became clear the public's support for a massive space program was waning. Similar work continued in the 1970s, delivering the second-stage motor for the MX missile, the Orbital Maneuvering System for the Space Shuttle, the first US-designed cluster bombs.

A contract for 30-mm ammunition for the A-10 Thunderbolt II was so extensive that new branch plants were set up in Downey and Chino in 1

Joseph Malchow

Joseph Malchow is an American entrepreneur who cofounded the company Publir. Malchow grew up in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. At 16 he founded JetWare, a software company that developed and sold to consumers applications for Palm OS-powered mobile devices. JetWare's products included Studentmate, among the first mobile applications intended for use in the academic environment; the New York Times covered Malchow as innovators in mobile computing. Malchow attended Dartmouth College. At Dartmouth, Malchow led a campaign that placed four independent directors on the Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College. Malchow's involvement was profiled in a 2008 Dartmouth Alumni Magazine article by Jake Tapper. Malchow discussed this episode in an extended article coauthored with First Amendment attorney Harvey A. Silverglate. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal named Malchow a Robert L. Bartley fellow, he has continued to publish in The Wall Street Journal. After Dartmouth, Malchow worked with semiconductor pioneer T. J. Rodgers from 2008 to 2010.

In 2010 he cofounded Publir, a digital advertising exchange reaching 35 million Americans each month and focusing on providing premium programmatic advertisements to intellectual publications ranging from The Atlantic to Real Clear Politics. Because of its wide reach and influential participants, Publir is one of the largest invitation-only ad exchanges in the U. S. Digital media properties published by Malchow or monetized by companies he founded reach an average monthly audience of 35 million. Malchow was named to the board of directors of the National Civic Art Society in 2018, alongside Roger Scruton. According to Architectural Record, in January 2020, President Donald J. Trump drafted an Executive Order "to ensure that'the classical architectural style shall be the preferred and default style' for new and upgraded federal buildings." The reforms, which were addressed to the General Services Administration, were publicly connected with NCAS. Malchow is an advisor to technology companies, he is the publisher of Power Line.

In 2012, Forbes named Malchow to its 30 Under 30 list. Malchow holds an A. B. from Dartmouth College and a J. D. from Stanford Law School. Power Line Joseph Malchow's Homepage Publir LLC Joseph Malchow - Investor Profile on AngelList Quantcast Profile

Kévin Hecquefeuille

Kévin Hecquefeuille is a French professional ice hockey defenseman, playing for the Scorpions de Mulhouse in the French Ligue Magnus. Hecquefeuille has played the majority of his early career in the French Ligue Magnus for Les Gothiques d'Amiens and Les Brûleurs de Loups. In 2003, Kévin won the Jean-Pierre Graff Trophy as the best rookie in the Ligue Magnus. Beginning in 2008, he took his game abroad, playing in countries like Sweden and Switzerland in the following years, he worked out with the Vienna Capitals in November 2016, but left the Austrian club after four days due to personal reasons. On December 18, 2016, he was offered a PTO by EHC Kloten of the National League A and was signed to a short-term contract as a replacement for injured Bobby Sanguinetti, he left Kloten when his contract expired in January 2017. On January 24, 2017, he joined HC La Chaux-de-Fonds for the remainder of the 2016/17 season, he plays for the French national team. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or The Internet Hockey Database

Nashville Charter Amendment 1

Nashville Charter Amendment 1 of 2009 was a proposed amendment to the charter of Nashville, Tennessee which, if passed, would have restricted the use of foreign languages in relation to the functions of the city government. Early voting was held from January 2, 2009 to January 17, 2009. Regular voting was held on January 22, 2009; the amendment failed to pass with only 43% of voters supporting it. The referendum took place amidst a broader English-only movement in the United States. Most of the funding for the initiative came from the Virginia-based lobbying organization, ProEnglish; the text of the proposal read as follows: English is the official language of the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee. Official actions which bind or commit the government shall be taken only in the English language, all official government communications and publications shall be in English. No person shall have a right to government services in any other language. All meetings of the Metro Council and Commissions of the Metropolitan Government shall be conducted in English.

The Metro Council may make specific exceptions to protect public safety. Nothing in this measure shall be interpreted to conflict with federal or state law. Accordingly, there were five components to Proposal 1: Declaring an official language of the city and county Official actions "taken only" in English. In his statement vetoing the ordinance in February, 2007, Purcell said: If this law takes effect, this city will be engaged in years of lawsuits testing the effect and constitutionality of the ordinance; that means hundreds of thousands of dollars in legal fees whether we win or lose, for no good reason. Proponents of the proposal referred to it as "English First" while opponents called it "English Only" - each side claimed that the other side's terminology was misleading; the Associated Press called the measure a "foreign language ban". Supporters of Proposal 1 argued that government communication in only one language is simple and cost-effective and provides an incentive to non-English speakers to learn the language.

The proponents of Proposal 1 were represented by Nashville English First, the brainchild of Nashvillians Jon Crisp and Eric Crafton, with the legal and moral support of ProEnglish out of Arlington, Virginia. Opponents argued that the measure is antagonistic toward immigrants in transition, redundant in that English was the "official and legal language" of Tennessee, that passage of the measure could damage Nashville's reputation as a welcoming city, its international economy, its budget, its safety; the most formal opposition came from Nashville for a coalition of Nashville groups. The amendment failed to pass, with 41,752 votes opposed and 32,144 votes in support

Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans

Marie Isabelle d’Orléans was born an infanta of Spain and a Princess of Orléans and became the Countess of Paris by marriage. She was born in Seville to Duke of Montpensier and Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain. Antoine was the youngest son of Louis-Philippe I, the last King of France, Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily. Infanta Luisa was the daughter of Ferdinand VII of Spain and her grandfather's fourth wife Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies. All four of her grandparents and seven of her eight great-grandparents were members of the French Royal House of Bourbon. On 30 May 1864 at St. Raphael's Church in Kingston upon Thames, when she was only fifteen, Isabelle married her cousin Philippe d'Orléans, claimant to the French throne as Philippe VII, they had eight children: Princess Amélie d'Orléans. She married Carlos I of Portugal in 1886. Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans. Married Archduchess Maria Dorothea of Austria daughter of Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria in 1896, Princess Hélène d'Orléans.

She married Emmanuel Philibert, 2nd Duke of Aosta in 1895. Prince Charles d'Orléans. Princess Isabelle d'Orléans, she married Prince Jean, Duke of Guise in 1899. Prince Jacques d'Orléans. Princess Louise d'Orléans, she married Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Infante of Spain in 1907. Through her daughter Maria Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, she was the great-grandmother of King Felipe VI of Spain. Ferdinand d'Orléans, Duke of Montpensier, he married Marie Isabelle Gonzales de Olañeta et Ibaretta, Marquesa de Valdeterrazo in 1921. As the French royal family had been in exile since their grandfather King Louis Philippe abdicated in 1848, Marie Isabelle and her husband first lived at York House, Twickenham. In 1871 the family was allowed to return to France, where they lived in the Hôtel Matignon in Paris and in the château d'Eu in Normandy; the Countess of Paris was known for her rather masculine habits of smoking cigars and participating in field sports shooting, yet could surprise people with her elegance on formal occasions.

In 1886, they were forced to leave France for a second time. In 1894, her husband died in exile at Stowe House in Buckinghamshire. Marie Isabelle lived in the Château de Randan in France, died in 1919 at her palace in Villamanrique de la Condesa, near Seville. 21 September 1848 – 30 May 1864: Her Royal Highness Princess Isabelle of Orléans, Infanta of Spain 30 May 1864 – 8 September 1894: Her Royal Highness The Countess of Paris 8 September 1894 – 23 April 1919: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Countess of Paris Généalogie des rois et des princes by Jean-Charles Volkmann Edit. Jean-Paul Gisserot "The Wandering Princess: Princess Hélène of France, Duchess of Aosta, by Edward Hanson. Fonthill, 2017. Le château d'Eu musée Louis-Philippe The museum in the château d'Eu

118 Battalion

118 South African Infantry Battalion was a motorised infantry unit of the South African Army. By the late 1970s the South African government had abandoned its opposition to arming black soldiers within the SADF. By early 1979, the government approved a plan to form a number of regional African battalions, each with a particular ethnic identity, which would serve in their homeland or under regional SADF commands. Two additional Northern Sotho Battalions were established, the 117 and the 118. Troops for 118 SA Battalion were recruited from the self-governing territory of Lebowa. 118 Battalion resorted under the command of Group 45 Group 14 from Potgietersrus. This command was changed to Group 29 with amalgamation. 118 Battalion was utilised to patrol the Lebowa and parts of the Botswana border. At some stage the unit was stationed at Mtubatuba in Kwa Zulu Natal for border patrols in that region. 2006