Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art and Engineering" and "the profession of Aeronautics." While the term referred to operating the aircraft, it has since been expanded to include technology and other aspects related to aircraft. The term "aviation" is sometimes used interchangeably with aeronautics, although "aeronautics" includes lighter-than-air craft such as airships, includes ballistic vehicles while "aviation" technically does not. A significant part of aeronautical science is a branch of dynamics called aerodynamics, which deals with the motion of air and the way that it interacts with objects in motion, such as an aircraft. Attempts to fly without any real aeronautical understanding have been made from the earliest times by constructing wings and jumping from a tower with crippling or lethal results.
Wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of bird flight. An early example appears in ancient Egyptian texts. Medieval Islamic scientists made such studies; the founders of modern aeronautics, Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, both began their investigations with studies of bird flight. Man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques current; the Chinese constructed small hot air balloons, or lanterns, rotary-wing toys. An early European to provide any scientific discussion of flight was Roger Bacon, who described principles of operation for the lighter-than-air balloon and the flapping-wing ornithopter, which he envisaged would be constructed in the future; the lifting medium for his balloon would be an "aether". In the late fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci followed up his study of birds with designs for some of the earliest flying machines, including the flapping-wing ornithopter and the rotating-wing helicopter.
Although his designs were rational, they were not based on good science. Many of his designs, such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws, he did at least understand that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object." His analysis led to the realisation that manpower alone was not sufficient for sustained flight, his designs included a mechanical power source such as a spring. Da Vinci's work was lost after his death and did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley; the modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileo's experiments in which he showed that air has weight. Around 1650 Cyrano de Bergerac wrote some fantasy novels in which he described the principle of ascent using a substance he supposed to be lighter than air, descending by releasing a controlled amount of the substance. Francesco Lana de Terzi measured the pressure of air at sea level and in 1670 proposed the first scientifically credible lifting medium in the form of hollow metal spheres from which all the air had been pumped out.
These would be able to lift an airship. His proposed methods of controlling height are still in use today. In practice de Terzi's spheres would have collapsed under air pressure, further developments had to wait for more practicable lifting gases. From the mid-18th century the Montgolfier brothers in France began experimenting with balloons, their balloons were made of paper, early experiments using steam as the lifting gas were short-lived due to its effect on the paper as it condensed. Mistaking smoke for a kind of steam, they began filling their balloons with hot smoky air which they called "electric smoke" and, despite not understanding the principles at work, made some successful launches and in 1783 were invited to give a demonstration to the French Académie des Sciences. Meanwhile, the discovery of hydrogen led Joseph Black in c. 1780 to propose its use as a lifting gas, though practical demonstration awaited a gas tight balloon material. On hearing of the Montgolfier Brothers' invitation, the French Academy member Jacques Charles offered a similar demonstration of a hydrogen balloon.
Charles and two craftsmen, the Robert brothers, developed a gas tight material of rubberised silk for the envelope. The hydrogen gas was to be generated by chemical reaction during the filling process; the Montgolfier designs had several shortcomings, not least the need for dry weather and a tendency for sparks from the fire to set light to the paper balloon. The manned design had a gallery around the base of the balloon rather than the hanging basket of the first, unmanned design, which brought the paper closer to the fire. On their free flight, De Rozier and d'Arlandes took buckets of water and sponges to douse these fires as they arose. On the other hand, the manned design of Charles was modern; as a result of these exploits, the hot-air balloon became known as the Montgolfière type and the hydrogen balloon the Charlière. Charles and the Robert brothers' next balloon, La Caroline, was a Charlière that followed Jean Baptiste Meusnier's proposals for an elongated dirigible balloon, was notable for having an outer envelope with the gas contained in a second, inner ballonet.
On 19 September 1784, it completed the first flight of over 100 km, between Pa
Charles and Ray Eames
Charles Ormond Eames, Jr. and Bernice Alexandra "Ray" Kaiser Eames were an American design married couple who made significant historical contributions to the development of modern architecture and furniture through the work of The Eames Office. Among their most well-known designs is the Eames Lounge Chair, they worked in the fields of industrial and graphic design, fine art, film. Charles was the mouthpiece and public face of the Eames Office but Ray and Charles worked together as creative partners and employed a diverse creative staff; the design office of Charles and Ray Eames functioned for more than four decades in the former Bay Cities Garage at 901 Washington Boulevard in Venice, Los Angeles, California. The Eames' were bolstered by the royalties from Herman Miller for their early furniture designs which enabled them to establish the Eames Office, they directed the work of a team of collaborators. Through the years, its staff included many notable designers: Henry Beer and Richard Foy, now co-chairmen of CommArts, Inc..
The Eames Office was a diversified workplace that employed local people, war veterans, housewives. The Eameses believed in "learning by doing"- before introducing a new idea at the Eames Office and Ray explored needs and constraints of the idea extensively. In 1943 Ray and Charles developed a leg splint; this was in response to medical officers serving in World War II combat zones reporting the need for emergency transport splints. The Eameses created their splints from wood veneers, which they bonded together with a resin glue and shaped into compound curves using a process involving heat and pressure. Using the material they had for the furniture in the guest bedroom of their apartment. With the introduction of plywood splints, they were able to replace problematic metal traction splints that had side effects of inducing gangrene due to impairment of blood circulation. In the late 1940s, as part of the Arts & Architecture magazine's "Case Study" program, the Eameses designed and built the groundbreaking Eames House, Case Study House #8, as their home.
Located upon a cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean and hand-constructed within a matter of days of pre-fabricated steel parts intended for industrial construction, it remains a milestone of modern architecture. Eames products were manufactured on Washington Boulevard until the 1950s. Among the many important designs originating there are the molded-plywood DCW and DCM. In the 1950s, the Eames Office continued their work in architecture and modern furniture design; as with their earlier molded plywood work, the Eameses pioneered technologies, such as fiberglass furniture, plastic resin chairs, the wire mesh chairs designed for Herman Miller. From the beginning, the Eames furniture has been listed as by Charles Eames. In the 1948 and 1952 Herman Miller bound catalogs, only Charles' name is listed, but it has become clear that Ray was involved and was an equal partner with her husband in many projects. In August 2005 Maharam fabrics reissued. Dot Pattern was conceived for The Museum of Modern Art’s “Competition for Printed Fabrics” in 1947.
The Eames fabrics were designed by Ray, as were the Time-Life Stools. In 1979, the Royal Institute of British Architects awarded Charles and Ray with the Royal Gold Medal. At the time of Charles' death they were working on what became their last production, the Eames Sofa, which went into production in 1984. Charles and Ray channeled Charles' interest in photography into the production of 125 short films. From their first film, the unfinished Traveling Boy, to Powers of Ten, to their last film in 1982, their cinematic work was an outlet for ideas, a vehicle for experimentation and education; the couple produced short films in order to document their interests, such as collecting toys and cultural artifacts on their travels. The films record the process of hanging their exhibits or producing classic furniture designs; some of their other films cover more intellectual topics. For example, one film covers the purposely mundane topic of filming soap suds moving over the pavement of a parking lot. Powers of Ten, gives a dramatic demonstration of orders of magnitude by visually zooming away from the earth to the edge of the universe, microscopically zooming into the nucleus of a carbon atom.
The Eameses conceived and designed a number of exhibitions. The first of these, Mathematica: A World of Numbers... and Beyond, was sponsored by IBM, is the only one of their exhibitions still extant. The Mathematica exhibition is still considered a model for science popularization exhibitions, it was followed by A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age and The World of Franklin and Jefferson, among others. Meyer House, Missouri, 1936-1938 St. Mary's Church, Arkansas, 1934 St. Mary’s Catholic Church, Arkansas, 1935 Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Competition, 1947 Eames House, Case Study House 8, Pacific Palisades, California, 1949 Entenza House, Case Study House 9, Pacific Palisades, California, 1949 Billy Wil
Marshmallow Love Seat #5670 known as the Marshmallow sofa, is a modernist sofa produced by the American furniture company Herman Miller, manufactured between 1956 and 1961. It is considered the most iconic of all modernist sofas; the sofa was designed by Irving Harper of George Nelson Associates. It was produced in two lengths from 1956 to 1961, it consists of a metal frame with round discs of covered foam, or "marshmallows", spread across the seat and back in a lattice arrangement. The sofa, in the smaller of the two sizes, was re-issued in the 1980s as part of the "Herman Miller Classics" line, continues in production today; the design was created in 1954 when a salesman for a Long Island plastics company presented to George Nelson's New York City studio an example of the company's ability to create round, 12-inch foam discs that became "self-skinned". The limited manufacturing costs made the item inviting, designer Irving Harper was asked to design a piece of furniture around the discs. Over a weekend Harper designed a sofa.
The invention did not live up to its promise, as covering the individual seat pads proved costly and time-consuming, turning the intended budget piece into a luxury product. Herman Miller went ahead with the sofa's production, introduced it in 1956; the Marshmallow sofa was issued by Herman Miller in 1956, appeared in their 1957 catalog. The sofa was dropped in 1961. Despite its popularity, visibility in Herman Miller publications, only 186 Marshmallow sofas were produced between 1956 and 1961; the 52" version was re-issued in the 1980s as part of the "Herman Miller Classics" line, continues in production today, though in limited numbers. Listed by Herman Miller as the Marshmallow love seat #5670, the sofa was designed for both residential and contract sales; the playful design of the Marshmallow sofa is the result of placement of circular "marshmallow" cushions at regular intervals across a metal frame. The cushions were covered in either vinyl, or leather in bright colors. All the cushions were the same color, but the sofa could be ordered with cushions of various colors for a more whimsical look.
The Marshmallow sofa was designed in the "atomistic" style seen in other classic George Nelson Associates designs, such as the "Ball clock" and the "Hang-It-All". The "atomistic" style explodes its parts into separate, brightly colored elements, in this case the seat cushions, it was an adaptation of artist's representations of the atom, which used individual, brightly colored dots to portray atomic particles. The marshmallow sofa was produced in two lengths; the 52" version incorporates 18 cushions in a pattern of 4-5-5-4. The 103" length uses 38 cushions in a 9-10-10-9 pattern; the Marshmallow sofa was designed in 1954 by Irving Harper. For decades the design of the Marshmallow sofa was attributed to George Nelson, as was the practice for designs coming out of George Nelson Associates, Inc. However, it was revealed that many of the firm's designs were those of other designers working for the firm. John Pile, a designer who worked for George Nelson Associates, Inc. in the 1950s explained, "George's attitude was that it was okay for individual designers to be given credit in trade publications, but for the consumer world, the credit should always be to the firm, not the individual.
He didn't always follow through on that policy though." Examples of the 186 produced sofas sell for $15,000 or more. The rare 103" length is offered for sale. One example, covered in white fabric and signed by Irving Harper was sold by Sotheby's in 2000 for $37,500
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hypertext, are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, he wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public in August 1991; the World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language; such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources.
In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On March 12, 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.
With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. At this point HTML and HTTP had been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test; this proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University.
The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser and the first web server; the first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a 1991 visit to UNC. Jones stored it on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext.
This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro.
An office chair, or desk chair, is a type of chair, designed for use at a desk in an office. It is a swivel chair, with a set of wheels for mobility and adjustable height. Modern office chairs use a single, distinctive load bearing leg, positioned underneath the chair seat. Near the floor this leg spreads out into several smaller feet, which are wheeled and called casters. Office chairs were developed around the mid-19th century as more workers spent their shifts sitting at a desk, leading to the adoption of several features not found on other chairs. One of the earliest known innovators to have created the modern office chair was naturalist Charles Darwin, who put wheels on the chair in his study so he could get to his specimens more quickly. With the advent of rail transport in the mid-19th century, businesses began to expand beyond the traditional model of a family business with little emphasis on administration. Additional administrative staff was required to keep up with orders and correspondence as businesses expanded their service areas.
While office work was expanding, an awareness of office environments and equipment became part of the cultural focus on increasing productivity. This awareness gave rise to chairs designed for these new administrative employees: office chairs; this caught the attention of Otto von Bismarck, credited with popularizing the office chair by distributing them throughout parliament during his time in office. American inventor Thomas E. Warren, designed the Centripetal Spring Armchair in 1849, produced by the American Chair Company in Troy, New York, it was first presented at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London. The office chair was strategically designed to increase the productivity of clerical employees by making it possible for them to remain sitting at their desks for long periods of time. A swiveling chair with casters allowed employees to remain sitting and yet reach a number of locations within their work area, eliminating the time and energy expended in standing; the wooden saddle seat was designed to fit and support the body of a sitting employee, the slatted back and armrests provided additional support to increase the employee’s comfort.
Like modern chairs, many of these models were somewhat adjustable to provide the maximum comfort and thus the maximum working time. There are multiple kinds of office chairs designed to suit different needs; the most basic is the task chair, which does not offer lumbar support or a headrest. These chairs cannot be sat in for more than a couple hours at a time without becoming uncomfortable, though they offer more room to move than higher-end chairs. Mid-back chairs offer fuller back support, with the right ergonomic design, can be sat in for four hours at a time or longer. High-end chairs in this category, such as the Herman Miller Aeron, are comfortable for long periods. Executive or full-back chairs offer head support. Many executive chairs are designed to be sat in for eight or more hours at a time; these are the most expensive office chairs. In the 1970s, ergonomics became an important design consideration. Today, office chairs have adjustable seats, backs, back supports, heights to prevent repetitive stress injury and back pain associated with sitting for long periods.
Fit an individual's needs and provide support where the individual needs it. Standards for the design and testing of office chairs include: EN 1335:2012 EN 1728:2012 ANSI/BIFMA X 5.1 DIN EN 1335 DIN 4551 AS/NZS 4438 Over time office chairs wear out and break. Seat cushions are not repairable. Casters carve grooves into the floor; these can be re-lubricated or replaced inexpensively. The gas cylinder used for height adjustment may provide no support; this can be repaired using a replacement gas cylinder or by providing support through other means. The chair armrests may come loose. Centripetal Spring Armchair Coccydynia List of chairs Standing desk A Short History of the Birth and Growth of the American Office
The Mirra chair is a Herman Miller product designed in 2003 by Studio 7.5 in Berlin, Germany. According to the manufacturer the chair is made from 42% of recycled materials, at the end of its useful life it is 96% recyclable by weight; the ergonomics of this chair are improved thanks to the nine available adjustments: seat height, seat depth, tilt tension, tilt limiter, forward tilt, arm height, arm width, arm angle, lumbar tension. Mirra holds an Ergonomics Excellence Award by the Furniture Industry Research Association, a silver Industrial Design Excellence Award by the Industrial Designers Society of America, and a silver Cradle to Cradle certification among other awards. List of chairs Herman Miller Seating Page
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published since 2009 by Bloomberg L. P. Businessweek, founded in 1929, aimed to provide information and interpretation about events in the business world; the magazine is headquartered in New York City. Megan Murphy served as editor from November 2016; the magazine is published 47 times a year. Businessweek was first published in September 1929, weeks before the stock market crash of 1929; the magazine provided information and opinions on what was happening in the business world at the time. Early sections of the magazine included marketing, finance and Washington Outlook, which made Businessweek one of the first publications to cover national political issues that directly impacted the business world. Businessweek was published to be a resource for business managers. However, in the 1970s, the magazine shifted its strategy and added consumers outside the business world; as of 1975, the magazine was carrying more advertising pages annually than any other magazine in the United States.
Businessweek began publishing its annual rankings of United States business school MBA programs in 1988. Stephen B. Shepard served as editor-in-chief from 1984 until 2005 when he was chosen to be the founding dean of the CUNY Graduate School of Journalism. Under Shepard, Businessweek's readership grew to more than six million in the late 1980s, he was succeeded by Stephen J. Adler of The Wall Street Journal. In 2006, Businessweek started publishing annual rankings of undergraduate business programs in addition to its MBA program listing. Businessweek suffered a decline in circulation during the late-2000s recession as advertising revenues fell one-third by the start of 2009 and the magazine's circulation fell to 936,000. In July 2009, it was reported that McGraw-Hill was trying to sell Businessweek and had hired Evercore Partners to conduct the sale; because of the magazine's liabilities, it was suggested that it might change hands for the nominal price of $1 to an investor, willing to incur losses turning the magazine around.
In late 2009, Bloomberg L. P. bought the magazine—reportedly for between $2 million to $5 million plus assumption of liabilities—and renamed it Bloomberg BusinessWeek. It is now believed McGraw-Hill received the high end of the speculated price, at $5 million, along with the assumption of debt. In early 2010, the magazine title was restyled Bloomberg Businessweek as part of a redesign; as of 2014, the magazine was losing $30 million per year, about half of the $60 million it was reported losing in 2009. Adler resigned as editor-in-chief and was replaced by Josh Tyrangiel, deputy managing editor of Time magazine. In 2016 Bloomberg announced changes to Businessweek, losing between $20 and $30 million. Nearly 30 Bloomberg News journalists were let go across the U. S. Europe and Asia and it was announced that a new version of Bloomberg Businessweek would launch the following year. In addition, editor in chief Ellen Pollock stepped down from her position and Washington Bureau Chief Megan Murphy was named as the next editor in chief.
International editions of Businessweek were available on newsstands in Europe and Asia until 2005 when publication of regional editions was suspended to help increase foreign readership of customized European and Asian versions of Businessweek's website. However, the same year the Russian edition was launched in collaboration with Rodionov Publishing House. At the same time, Businessweek partnered with InfoPro Management, a publishing and market research company based in Beirut, Lebanon, to produce the Arabic version of the magazine in 22 Arab countries. In 2011, Bloomberg Businessweek continued the magazine's international expansion and announced plans to introduce a Polish-language edition called Bloomberg Businessweek Polska, as well as a Chinese edition, relaunched in November 2011. Bloomberg Businessweek launched an iPad version of the magazine using Apple's subscription billing service in 2011; the iPad edition was the first to use this subscription method, which allows one to subscribe via an iTunes account.
There are over 100,000 subscribers to the iPad edition of Businessweek. On October 4, 2018, Bloomberg Businessweek published a report claiming that China had hacked dozens of technology corporations including Amazon and Apple by placing an extra integrated circuit on a Supermicro server motherboard during manufacturing; the claim has been questioned. The report was refuted by Amazon and Supermicro; the United States security department DHS and UK's GCHQ put out statements that they saw no reason to question those refutations. NSA claims to have no knowledge of the attack. FBI, named by Bloomberg to be investigating the alleged attack, is prevented from commenting on it, but notes that it would have an obligation to inform US companies of attacks like these, should they occur. Experts describe the attack as implausible and in technical details impossible. One source quoted in the Bloomberg text claims that several details of the attack as described by Bloomberg are identical to hypothetical scenarios that he presented to Bloomberg.
No other media organization has, by the end of October, corroborated the story. None of the 30 companies that Bloomberg claims were hit by the infiltration have confirmed this. Apple's CEO and Amazon's CTO have demanded. In the year 2011, Adweek named Bloomberg Businessweek as the top business magazine in the country. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek won the general excellence award for general-interest magazines at the National Magazine Awards. In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek editor Josh