Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art and Engineering" and "the profession of Aeronautics." While the term referred to operating the aircraft, it has since been expanded to include technology and other aspects related to aircraft. The term "aviation" is sometimes used interchangeably with aeronautics, although "aeronautics" includes lighter-than-air craft such as airships, includes ballistic vehicles while "aviation" technically does not. A significant part of aeronautical science is a branch of dynamics called aerodynamics, which deals with the motion of air and the way that it interacts with objects in motion, such as an aircraft. Attempts to fly without any real aeronautical understanding have been made from the earliest times by constructing wings and jumping from a tower with crippling or lethal results.

Wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of bird flight. An early example appears in ancient Egyptian texts. Medieval Islamic scientists made such studies; the founders of modern aeronautics, Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, both began their investigations with studies of bird flight. Man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques current; the Chinese constructed small hot air balloons, or lanterns, rotary-wing toys. An early European to provide any scientific discussion of flight was Roger Bacon, who described principles of operation for the lighter-than-air balloon and the flapping-wing ornithopter, which he envisaged would be constructed in the future; the lifting medium for his balloon would be an "aether". In the late fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci followed up his study of birds with designs for some of the earliest flying machines, including the flapping-wing ornithopter and the rotating-wing helicopter.

Although his designs were rational, they were not based on good science. Many of his designs, such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws, he did at least understand that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object." His analysis led to the realisation that manpower alone was not sufficient for sustained flight, his designs included a mechanical power source such as a spring. Da Vinci's work was lost after his death and did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley; the modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileo's experiments in which he showed that air has weight. Around 1650 Cyrano de Bergerac wrote some fantasy novels in which he described the principle of ascent using a substance he supposed to be lighter than air, descending by releasing a controlled amount of the substance. Francesco Lana de Terzi measured the pressure of air at sea level and in 1670 proposed the first scientifically credible lifting medium in the form of hollow metal spheres from which all the air had been pumped out.

These would be able to lift an airship. His proposed methods of controlling height are still in use today. In practice de Terzi's spheres would have collapsed under air pressure, further developments had to wait for more practicable lifting gases. From the mid-18th century the Montgolfier brothers in France began experimenting with balloons, their balloons were made of paper, early experiments using steam as the lifting gas were short-lived due to its effect on the paper as it condensed. Mistaking smoke for a kind of steam, they began filling their balloons with hot smoky air which they called "electric smoke" and, despite not understanding the principles at work, made some successful launches and in 1783 were invited to give a demonstration to the French Académie des Sciences. Meanwhile, the discovery of hydrogen led Joseph Black in c. 1780 to propose its use as a lifting gas, though practical demonstration awaited a gas tight balloon material. On hearing of the Montgolfier Brothers' invitation, the French Academy member Jacques Charles offered a similar demonstration of a hydrogen balloon.

Charles and two craftsmen, the Robert brothers, developed a gas tight material of rubberised silk for the envelope. The hydrogen gas was to be generated by chemical reaction during the filling process; the Montgolfier designs had several shortcomings, not least the need for dry weather and a tendency for sparks from the fire to set light to the paper balloon. The manned design had a gallery around the base of the balloon rather than the hanging basket of the first, unmanned design, which brought the paper closer to the fire. On their free flight, De Rozier and d'Arlandes took buckets of water and sponges to douse these fires as they arose. On the other hand, the manned design of Charles was modern; as a result of these exploits, the hot-air balloon became known as the Montgolfière type and the hydrogen balloon the Charlière. Charles and the Robert brothers' next balloon, La Caroline, was a Charlière that followed Jean Baptiste Meusnier's proposals for an elongated dirigible balloon, was notable for having an outer envelope with the gas contained in a second, inner ballonet.

On 19 September 1784, it completed the first flight of over 100 km, between Pa

Ralph M. Holman

Ralph Milo Holman was an attorney and judge in the state of Oregon, United States. He was the 74th Associate Justice of the Oregon Supreme Court, he was a circuit court judge for Clackamas County, Oregon. His great uncle was United States Senator Rufus C. Holman. A fourth generation Oregonian, Ralph Holman was born on June 7, 1914 in Portland, but grew up in Molalla, southeast of Portland. There he graduated in 1932 from Molalla High School. During the Great Depression, he worked as a clerk during the daytime. At night, he attended the Northwestern College of Law in Oregon. In 1937, he graduated from law school with a juris doctorate, passed the bar that year. Holman began practicing law in Oregon City, with the firm Butler, Jack and Holman, before joining the United States Navy during World War II, he served from 1942 to 1946. During this time, he lost his lower left leg in a forklift accident. After World War II, Holman returned to Oregon, where he was appointed to the Clackamas County Circuit Court by Governor Douglas McKay in 1950.

He served as a circuit court judge for 15 years, until 1965. While on the bench in that court, he served on the Committee on the Administration of Justice created by the Oregon Legislature, was chairman of the subcommittee on Juvenile Law. Through his efforts on this committee, the legislature passed a law which allowed for abusive parents to lose their parental rights, thereby enabling abused children to become adopted. Holman's 1960 decision in School District No. 62C, a case that allowed the use of public funds for purchasing textbooks for parochial schools, spurred an appeals process that led to the United States Supreme Court. His decision was overturned by the Oregon Supreme Court, which argued the "child benefit" theory could not be used to justify public expenditures for private causes; the United States Supreme Court left this decision intact. In 1964, Holman was elected to the Oregon Supreme Court, the state's highest court, filling the position of George Rossman whose term had expired.

During the summer of 1967, Holman was a judge in residence at New York University School of Law, a fellowship for appellate judges, awarded by the Institute of Judicial Administration. At the request of his fellow justices, Holman created the plan to establish the Oregon Court of Appeals, approved by the State Bar Association and Oregon Legislature in 1969. Holman won re-election to additional six-year terms in 1970 and 1976, his opinion in Portland Section of Council of Jewish Women vs. Sisters of Charity is cited as an example of impracticability in contract law. Before the end of his final term, he submitted his resignation to Governor Victor Atiyeh on October 16, 1979, citing his advancing age, his resignation became effective January 1980, after 30 years on the Oregon bench. In 1937, he married Louise Mariam Oesch, who died in 1989, they did not have any children. Holman was a Life Trustee at Lewis & Clark College, which honored him with the Aubrey Watzik award, the distinguished graduate award from Lewis & Clark Law School.

For many years, he served as the Chairman of the Law School budget committee. Until the end of his life, Holman served as a senior judge for the state of Oregon, in which the Chief Justice of the Oregon Supreme Court is allowed to appoint retired justices on a temporary needed basis. In 2005, at the age of 91, Holman and other family members created the Holman Family Scholarship for graduates of Molalla High School. Clackamas County Courthouse opened the Ralph M. Holman Law Center in 2007, its first expansion in 71 years, which houses offices for drug and DUII court, court reporters, jury assembly rooms, the Alden Miller Law Library. Holman was an avid fly fisherman, which led him to travel extensively throughout South America and the Pacific Northwest, he and his wife were passionate collectors of art and antiques, cultivated roses. Holman died at his home in Salem, Oregon on September 3, 2013, at the age of 99

Philippines women's national floorball team

The Philippines women's national floorball team is the women's national floorball team of the Philippines and is organized by Philippine Floorball Association. The women's national team made their debut at the 2014 Southeast Asian Floorball Championships, hosted in Singapore; the Philippines lost all its four games at its first tournament against the national teams of Indonesia and Singapore. The Philippines participated in the 2018 Asia-Oceania Floorball Competition Cup, hosted Singapore, they lost their first group stage won 12-6 over Iran. They finished 8-6 in their final classification match; the Philippines made their first attempt to qualify for the Women's World Floorball Championship in 2019. The participated in the Asia Oceania qualifiers for the 2019 edition with the intention of using the qualification tournament as preparation for the country's hosting of the floorball event of the 2019 Southeast Asian Games, they lost all their matches placing last among eight teams conceding a narrow 3–4 loss to South Korea in the 7th place play off.

The team participated in the 30th Southeast Asian Games, held in the Philippines, at the University of the Philippines College of Human Kinetics Gym. In total, there were 5 countries competing in Floorball for both men and women: Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand; the Philippines women's team did well on their first match. The team finished the tournament at 4th place, losing to Malaysia 0–1 at over time during the Bronze medal match. Updated 24 Dec 2014. Official website Philippines - Team Card at the IFF