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In Greek mythology, Aërope was a daughter of Catreus, the king of Crete, sister to Clymene and Althaemenes. She was the wife of Atreus, by most accounts the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. Aerope's father was Catreus, the son of Minos, king of Crete. Catreus had two other daughters and Apemosyne, a son Althaemenes. According to the tradition followed by Euripides in his lost play Cretan Women, Catreus found Aerope in bed with a slave and handed her over to Nauplius to be drowned, but Nauplius spared Aerope's life and she married Pleisthenes, the king of Mycenae. Sophocles, in his play Ajax, may refer to Aerope's father Catreus finding her in bed with some man, handing her over to Nauplius to be drowned, but the corrupt text may instead refer to Aerope's husband Atreus finding her in bed with Thyestes, having her drowned. However, Apollodorus tells us that Catreus received an oracle saying that he would be killed by one of his children, so Catreus gave Aerope and her sister Clymene to Nauplius to be sold off in foreign lands.

But Nauplius kept Clymene for himself and Aerope married Pleisthenes, by whom she became the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. From Crete, Aerope was taken to Mycenae, and there she became, according to most accounts, the mother of Menelaus. Their father was either Atreus or Pleisthenes, Atreus' son, according to some. For Homer and Menelaus were the sons of Atreus and Aerope, and although in Euripides' Cretan Women, the passage by Apollodorus cited above, Aerope was the wife of Pleisthenes, with Apollodorus saying that Pleisthenes was the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus, elsewhere both Euripides and Apollodorus follow Homer. Indeed, most sources do so; however Euripides and Apollodorus were not alone in making Pleisthenes the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus. These included, so we are told, Aeschylus, "others". Bacchylides calls Menelaus both "Atreides" and "Pleisthenides"—meaning a descendant of Atreus and Pleisthenes respectively—in the same poem, it is plausible that Aerope could have first married Pleisthenes and Atreus, with Atreus adopting the children from the first marriage.

And indeed some have asserted just this, though this may be an attempt to reconcile separate traditions. While the wife of Atreus, Aerope was the lover of Atreus' twin brother Thyestes, became involved in their power struggle for the kingship of Mycenea, blood feud; the story was a popular one in Greek tragedy. Aeschylus' play Agamemnon, contains several obscure allusions to the story, which indicate that, by at least 458 BC, the story was well known. There were several other latter plays, all lost, which also dealt with the story. We hear of plays by Sophocles, with titles Atreus and Thyestes in Sicyon, by Euripides, with the titles Kressai, a Thyestes. Agathon, wrote a play titled Aerope, so did the younger Carcinus. In addition Euripides' Electra, Orestes contains significant references to the story. Atreus and Thyestes were the sons of Hippodamia, their desire for their father's throne led to the murder of their half-brother Chrysippus, because of which they were banished, sought refuge in Mycenae.

When the Perseid dynasty came to an end, the Myceneans received an oracle saying they should choose a son of Pelops as their king. Aerope and Thyestes, were lovers and Aerope stole the golden lamb from her husband Atreus and gave it to Thyestes, so that the Myceneans would choose Thyestes as their king. According to Hyginus, Aerope was the mother by Thyestes of two sons and Pleisthenes, in Euripides' Cretan Women, it may have been these children that Atreus famously fed to Thyestes. From Byzantine period annotations to Euripides' Orestes we learn that, in some unspecified Sophocles work, Atreus cast Aerope into the sea in revenge for her adultery and theft of the golden lamb; the stories told about share elements with those told about Auge and Danae. These elements include, foretold killings, sexual impurity by daughters, their subsequent punishment by their fathers, by being cast into the sea, or given away to be sold overseas. Auge was the daughter of Aleus, king of Tegea, the mother of the hero Telephus.

According to one version of the story, Aleus had received an oracle that his sons would be killed by the son of Auge, so Aleus made Auge a priestess of Athena, requiring her to remain a virgin on pain of death. She became pregnant by Heracles. By various accounts, she was either cast into the sea, or given to Nauplius to be either drowned or sold overseas, however in all these accounts she ended up in Mysia as the wife of King Teuthras. Danae was the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, the mother of the hero Perseus. An oracle told Acrisius that he would be killed by the son of Danae, so he locked her away. Danae became pregnant, by Zeus according to most accounts, was cast into the sea by her father, but survived through the intercession of Zeus. In Ovid's Ars Amatoria, Aerope is given as one of several examples showing that "women's lust", is "keener" than men's and having "more of madness": Had the Cretan woman abstained from love for Thyestes, Phoebus had not broken off in mid-career, wresting his car about turned round his steeds to face the dawn.



Lochaber is a name applied to areas of the Scottish Highlands. It consisted of the parishes of Kilmallie and Kilmonivaig, as they were before being reduced in extent by the creation of Quoad Sacra parishes in the 19th century; the town of Fort William is the main town and Lochaber was a distinct Province of Scotland in its own right. Lochaber is now used to refer to a much wider area, one of the 16 ward management areas of the Highland Council of Scotland and one of eight former local government districts of the two-tier Highland region; the ward management area is one of five comprising the Highland Council's Ross and Lochaber corporate management area, one of three Highland Council corporate management areas. The Ross and Lochaber area consists of six out of the 22 wards of the council area and the Lochaber area consists of two wards, the Caol and Mallaig ward, which elects three councillors, the Fort William and Ardnamurchan ward, which elects four councillors; each of the other wards of the corporate area is a separate ward management area.

There is a Ross and Lochaber constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, but its boundaries are not those of the council corporate management area. The constituency was created in 2005 with boundaries based on those of wards in use during the period 1999 to 2007. According to legend a glaistig, an evil woman-goat hybrid, once lived in the area. Professor W. J. Watson outlined two schools of thought on this topic, he favoured the idea that Abar came from the Pictish and Welsh for "river mouth" and that Loch Abar meant the confluence of the Lochy and Nevis as they flowed into Loch Linnhe, an Linne Dhubh in Gaelic. He conceded that abar might come from the Gaelic eabar, meaning "mud" or "swampy place", thus Lochaber could be the "loch of swamps", a historic water feature that existed on the Blàr Mòr, where the area High School and Health Centre are situated today. Other experts favour the "swamp" derivation. Traditionally, a Lochaber person is called an Abrach. Lochaber was one of the ancient Provinces of Scotland.

In the Middle Ages, it came to be covered by a sheriff based at Inverness. In the mid 19th century, local government reforms replaced the ancient provinces by new Counties, aligned to sheriffdom boundaries. Under the Local Government Act 1973, Scottish counties and burghs were abolished, creating a new system of nine two-tier regions and three islands council areas. Hence it was that Invernessshire was merged with other Highland areas, to form the new statutory region of Highland; this lasted from 1975 to 1996. Each region consisted of a number of districts; the Lochaber district was created by merging the Ardnamurchan district and the Ballachulish and Kinlochleven electoral divisions of the former county of Argyll with the burgh of Fort William and the district of Lochaber of the former county of Inverness. Therefore, the boundaries of the district included North Lorne, Glen Coe, Nether Lochaber, the western part of the Rannoch Moor, the Road to the Isles, Ardgour, Sunart and the Small Isles.

In 1994 legislation was passed which abolished the regions and districts and established a system of 32 unitary council areas covering the whole of Scotland. In 1996 the new Highland Council adopted the areas of the former districts as council management areas, created area committees to represent them; the Lochaber management area consisted of eight out of the 72 wards of the council area, each electing one councillor by the first past the post system of election. In 1999 ward boundaries were redrawn to create 80 new wards. Management area boundaries were not redrawn and therefore area committees ceased to represent the areas for which they were named and made decisions; the Lochaber committee continued to have eight members. The area manager throughout this period was John Hutchison. Ward boundaries were redrawn again in 2007 under the Local Governance Act 2004, the council abolished its eight management areas in favour of three new corporate management areas and 16 new ward management areas.

Each of the 22 new wards elects three or four councillors by the single transferable vote system, a system designed to produce a form of proportional representation, the total number of councillors remains the same. Various ward management areas, including the Lochaber area, cover more than one ward. Lochaber is mentioned by Adomnan of Iona in his biography of St Columba on two occasions. Both stories related to Columba using his saintly blessing to raise people out of poverty and make them wealthier. In the first story, Columba met a poor man named Nesán in Lochaber. Columba blessed the poor man's cows and his own descendants, the poor man's five cows multiplied until he had a herd of one hundred and five cows. In the second story, Columba met a beggar in Lochaber who had children. Columba asked the beggar to fetch him a stick from the forest, the poor man did so. Columba sharpened the stick into a stake and gave it to the man, telling him that it would catch game for him, but it would never harm person or cat


Darbiled was an Irish anchoress and founder of Inis Cethig, fl. 575–600. Darbiled is said to have been of the Ui Fiachrach dynasty of Connacht, her father's name is given as Cormac mac Brecc, had a brother called Triallach an ecclesiastic. The Book of Leinster names their mother as Cumman inion Dallbronach, claimed as the mother of some twenty saints, including Moninne of Armagh and Saint Senan, she founded the hermitage of Inis Cethig on Erris in County Mayo. She appears to have lived in the time of Columba of Iona, she is commemorated in the martyrologies under 16 October. Women of Ireland, K.& C. O Ceirin, 1996, p. 59. Dictionary of Irish Biography, pp. 40–41, Cambridge, 2010


Kurdology or Kurdish studies is an academic discipline centered on the study of Kurds and consists of several disciplines such as culture and linguistics. Throughout the 17th and the 18th centuries, most works on the Kurds attempted to ascertain the origins of the Kurdish people and their language. Different theories existed including the beliefs that Kurdish was related to Turkic languages, that it was a rude and uneducated Persian dialect or that Kurds were Chaldeans. Early Kurdology is characterized by the lack of an institutionalized approach and tended to lack critical contextualization. In a sanctioned trip by Russian Academy of Sciences from 1768 to 1774, naturalist Johann Anton Güldenstädt travelled to the southern border of the Russian Empire to explore the Caucasus and the Kurds in Georgia. In his travel notes published between 1787 and 1791, Güldenstädt erroneously claimed that Kurds were Tatars and his translations had inaccuracies because of communication issues with his informants.

His claim that Kurdish was related to Turkic languages was rejected by German librarian Johann Adelung who argued that Kurds were related to Corduene basing his argument on Xenophon and his work Anabasis from around 370 BC. The Spanish Jesuit Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro examined the Kurdish language in his Vocabolario poligloto in 1787 and argued that: the Kurdistani is more akin to Persian than Turkish. Kurds became known for the first time in Europe through Dominican Order. In the beginning, it was Italians. A monk, Domenico Lanza, lived between 1753 and 1771 near Mosul and published a book titled Compendiose realizione istorica dei viaggi fatti dal Padre Domenico Lanza dell'Ordine dei Predicatori de Roma in Oriente dall'anno 1753 al 1771; the missionary and traveler Maurizio Garzoni spent 20 years with the Kurds of Amadiya and Mosul and wrote an Italian-Kurdish dictionary with around 4,500 words between 1764 and 1770. This work was published in Rome in 1787 under the name Grammatica e Vocabolario della Lingua Kurdi.

With the growing interest in Europe about the Ottoman Empire, other people became aware of the Kurds. Garzoni's book was reissued in 1826; the first European book dealing with the religion of the Kurds appeared in Naples in 1818. It was called Storia della regione Kurdistan e delle sette di religio ivi esistenti and was written by Giuseppe Campanile; the Italian missionary and researcher Alessandro de Bianchi published in 1863 a book on Kurdish culture and history. The earliest mention of the Kurds in a German work comes from Johann Schitberger from the year 1473. In 1799, Johann Adam Bergk mentions Kurds in his geography book. During his stay in the Ottoman Empire, Helmuth von Moltke reported about Kurds in his work letters about the events in Turkey; the Kurds were mentioned in the German literature, the most prominent example being Karl May's in 1892 published Durchs wilde Kurdistan. The period from 1840 to 1930 was the most productive period of Kurdology in Germany. Germany was at the time the center of Kurdish studies in Europe.

Due to its good relations with the Ottoman Empire, German researchers were able to access to the Ottoman lands and its inhabitants with relative ease. At the present time Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Vienna, University of Göttingen, University of Erfurt and Free University of Berlin offer Kurdish oriented courses in Germany, either as a sole study or as a part of wider Iranian studies. During its expansion Russia was in contact with the Ottoman Empire, that resulted in conflicts. Russia's access to Black Sea and the Caucasus brought the country in contact with eastern part of the Ottoman Empire, where they began their research on the Kurds. In 1879 Russian-Polish diplomat from Erzurum August Kościesza-Żaba published a Franco-Kurdish dictionary with the help of Mahmud Bayazidi; the center of Kurdish studies was the University of St. Petersburg. Żaba and other diplomats like Basil Nikitin collected Kurdish manuscripts and recorded oral histories. Among other things, the Sharafnama was translated into Russian for the first time.

Due to the Turkish state policy, the Kurdish people and their culture were not deemed as a research topic for decades. Some early works on Kurds, such as by Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu, portrayed the Kurds as a Turkic or Turanian population group and were consistent with the state backed Turkish History Thesis. First studies that deviated from the state view were published by İsmail Beşikçi, it was only after the relaxation of Turkish-Kurdish relations that academic papers on the Kurds appeared. At the Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi, founded in 2007, a chair for Kurdish language and literature was established as a part of the Institute of Living Languages. Maurizio Garzoni Johann Christoph Adelung Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro Peter Simon Pallas Johann Anton Güldenstädt Giuseppe Campanile ) Julius Klaproth François Bernard Charmoy August Kościesza-Żaba Aleksander Chodźko Ilya Berezin Peter Lerch Ferdinand Justi Albert Socin Nikolai Jakowlewitsch Marr Basil Nikitin Arab Shamilov Emînê Evdal Heciyê Cindî Roger Lescot Mohammad Mokri Margarita Borissowna Rudenko Celile Celil İsmail Beşikçi Marti

Consumer credit risk

The following article is based on UK market, other countries may differ. Consumer credit risk is the risk of loss due to a consumer's failure or inability to repay on a consumer credit product, such as a mortgage, unsecured personal loan, credit card, overdraft etc.. Most companies involved in lending to consumers have departments dedicated to the measurement and control of losses due to credit risk; this field is loosely referred to consumer/retail credit risk management, the word management is dropped. A common method for predicting credit risk is through the credit scorecard; the scorecard is a statistically based model for attributing a number to a customer which indicates the predicted probability that the customer will exhibit a certain behaviour. In calculating the score, a range of data sources may be used, including data from an application form, from credit reference agencies or from products the customer holds with the lender; the most widespread type of scorecard in use is the application scorecard, which lenders employ when a customer applies for a new credit product.

The scorecard tries to predict the probability that the customer, if given the product, would become "bad" within a given timeframe, incurring losses for the lender. The exact definition of what constitutes "bad" varies across different lenders, product types and target markets, examples may be "missing three payments within the next 18 months" or "default within the next 12 months"; the score given to a customer is a three or four digit integer, in most cases is proportional to the natural logarithm of the odds of the customer becoming "bad". In general, a low score indicates a high score indicates the opposite. Other scorecard types may include behavioural scorecards - which try to predict the probability of an existing account turning "bad". Credit strategy is concerned with turning predictions of customer behavior into a decision whether to accept their business. To turn an application score into a Yes/No decision, "cut-offs" are used. A cut-off is a score at and above which customers have their application accepted and below which applications are declined.

The placement of the cut-off is linked to the price that the lender is charging for the product. The higher the price charged, the greater the losses the lender can endure and still remain profitable. So, with a higher price the lender can accept customers with a higher probability of going "bad" and can move the cut-off down; the opposite is true of a lower price. Most lenders charge low scoring customers a higher APR than high scoring customers; this compensates for the added risk of taking on poorer quality business without affecting the lender's place in the market with better quality borrowers. In the UK, lenders must advertise a typical rate. Application score is used as a factor in deciding such things as an overdraft or credit card limit. Lenders are happier to extend a larger limit to higher scoring customers than to lower scoring customers, because they are more to pay borrowings back. Alongside scorecards lie policy rules which apply other lending policy. Credit Strategy is concerned with the ongoing management of a customer's account with revolving credit products such as credit cards and flexible loans, where the customer's balance can go up as well as down.

Behavioural scorecards are used to provide an updated picture of the credit-quality of the customer/account. As the customer's profile changes, the lender may choose to extend or contract the customer's limits. Not all decisions can be made automatically through the methods mentioned above; this may be for a number of reasons. In such cases trained professionals called underwriters manually review the case and make a decision. Sometimes this is done in conjunction with the "cut-offs" mentioned above and the data provided by scoring; this is more common in regulated products such as mortgages when large sums are involved. However, the application of advanced probability of default expert systems integrate all data sources and eliminate human error through the use of fuzzy logic. Credit scorecards Credit risk Murray Bailey, Consumer Credit Quality: Underwriting, Fraud Prevention and Collections David Lawrence and Arlene Solomon, Managing a Consumer Lending Business Anthea Wynn and Helen McNab and Practice of Consumer Credit Risk

Bill Simas

William Anthony Simas was a former professional baseball pitcher. He played for the Chicago White Sox from 1995-2000, he is the pitching coach for the AAA Oklahoma City Dodgers. Simas played amateur ball at Fresno City College, he was drafted by the California Angels in the 6th round of the 1992 MLB Draft. He remained with the Angels organization through 1995, playing with the Boise Hawks, Cedar Rapids Kernels & Lake Elsinore Storm, Midland Angels and Vancouver Canadians. On July 27, 1995 he was traded to the Chicago White Sox for Tim Fortugno. After starting in AAA with the Nashville Sounds, Simas made his Major League debut on August 15 against the Angels, pitching a scoreless inning of relief, he made 14 relief appearances for the White Sox in 1995, with a 2.57 ERA. Simas became a solid member of the White Sox bullpen through 2000, had an 18-19 record and 3.83 ERA in 308 Major League games, including saving 23 games. He missed the entire 2001 season, he was signed as a minor league free agent by the Detroit Tigers on February 20, 2002 but was not recovered from his surgery and did not appear in any games in the system before he was released on May 23.

He was re-signed by the White Sox on May 25 and pitched in 28 games with the Charlotte Knights in AAA. He signed a minor league contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers on February 21, 2003 that contained a spring training invitation, he appeared in 26 games for the Las Vegas 51s with a 1.96 ERA. He started 3 games, the first time he had started since 1992 with Boise, he pitched for the Long Island Ducks of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball in 2004 before he was picked up in August by the Seattle Mariners and got into 9 late season games for the Tacoma Rainiers. After spending 2005 in the Mexican League he was out of baseball until 2009-2010 when he returned to pitch for the Ducks again, he retired from baseball in 2011 and became the pitching coach for the Ogden Raptors, the Dodgers rookie-class team in the Pioneer Baseball League. He was promoted to pitching coach for the Class-A Great Lakes Loons in 2013 and to the advanced-A Rancho Cucamonga Quakes in 2015. In 2016, he was named pitching coach for the AA Tulsa Drillers of the Texas League.

For the 2018 season he was promoted to the pitching coach for the AAA Oklahoma City Dodgers of the Pacific Coast League. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference