An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be anthropogenic. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of anthropogenic aerosols are haze, particulate air pollutants and smoke; the liquid or solid particles have diameters <1 μm. In general conversation, aerosol refers to an aerosol spray that delivers a consumer product from a can or similar container. Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, combustion technology. Diseases can spread by means of small droplets in the breath called aerosols. Aerosol science covers generation and removal of aerosols, technological application of aerosols, effects of aerosols on the environment and people, other topics. An aerosol is defined as a suspension system of liquid particles in a gas. An aerosol includes both the particles and the suspending gas, air. Frederick G. Donnan first used the term aerosol during World War I to describe an aero-solution, clouds of microscopic particles in air.
This term developed analogously to the term hydrosol, a colloid system with water as the dispersed medium. Primary aerosols contain. Various types of aerosol, classified according to physical form and how they were generated, include dust, mist and fog. There are several measures of aerosol concentration. Environmental science and health uses the mass concentration, defined as the mass of particulate matter per unit volume with units such as μg/m3. Used is the number concentration, the number of particles per unit volume with units such as number/m3 or number/cm3; the size of particles has a major influence on their properties, the aerosol particle radius or diameter is a key property used to characterise aerosols. Aerosols vary in their dispersity. A monodisperse aerosol, producible in the laboratory, contains particles of uniform size. Most aerosols, however, as polydisperse colloidal systems, exhibit a range of particle sizes. Liquid droplets are always nearly spherical, but scientists use an equivalent diameter to characterize the properties of various shapes of solid particles, some irregular.
The equivalent diameter is the diameter of a spherical particle with the same value of some physical property as the irregular particle. The equivalent volume diameter is defined as the diameter of a sphere of the same volume as that of the irregular particle. Used is the aerodynamic diameter. For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number—the particle diameter—suffices to describe the size of the particles. However, more complicated particle-size distributions describe the sizes of the particles in a polydisperse aerosol; this distribution defines the relative amounts of particles, sorted according to size. One approach to defining the particle size distribution uses a list of the sizes of every particle in a sample. However, this approach proves tedious to ascertain in aerosols with millions of particles and awkward to use. Another approach splits the complete size range into intervals and finds the number of particles in each interval. One can visualize these data in a histogram with the area of each bar representing the proportion of particles in that size bin normalised by dividing the number of particles in a bin by the width of the interval so that the area of each bar is proportionate to the number of particles in the size range that it represents.
If the width of the bins tends to zero, one gets the frequency function: d f = f d d p where d p is the diameter of the particles d f is the fraction of particles having diameters between d p and d p + d d p f is the frequency functionTherefore, the area under the frequency curve between two sizes a and b represents the total fraction of the particles in that size range: f a b = ∫ a b f d d p It can be formulated in terms of the total number density N: d N = N d d p Assuming spherical aerosol particles, the aerosol surface area per unit volume is given by the second moment: S = π / 2 ∫ 0 ∞ N d p 2 d d p And the third moment gives the total volume concentration of the particles: V = π / 6 ∫ 0 ∞ N (
Onna Keirin-ō is a 1956 black-and-white Japanese film directed by Haku Komori It is a sport film about cycling. Michiko Maeda as Miki Shiino Junko Ebata as Yoshiko Konishi Sachiko Tôyama as Keiko Hara Yôichi Numata as Shinya Kuramoto Sumiko Abe as Mieko Shibui Kôtarô Sugiyama as Kenichi Igarashi - Miki's Fiance Shigeru Ogura as Genzô Igarashi Noriko Kitazawa as Masae Shiino - Miki's Sister Fumiko Miyata as Hisako Akiyama Kikuko Hanaoka as Tomoe Shiino - Miki's Mother Hiroshi Ayukawa as Eiji Konishi Ureo Egawa as Mitarai Keiko Hamano Yuriko Kinoshita as Chisako Tahara Sachiko Harada - Bicycle Racer Kyôko Hinatsu Kôji Hirose Yoshiko Katô as Kiku Kôno Ichiro Kodama as Sugawara Akemi Nishi Ritsuko Nonomura as Setsuko Murakoshi Shinji Suzuki Chiyoko Tazawa
Isidor Sârbu was a Moldavian victim of dekulakization. Isidor Sârbu was born in the village of Corjova of the Russian Empire. In the early 1930s, he had 8 hectares of orchard. During the collectivization, he was considered a kulak. On March 14, 1933, Sârbu was arrested and brought to Tiraspol prison, where he spent three months and had his property and house confiscated, he returned to Corjova, where his family rented a small room in the house of Dumitru Halippa for five rubles. In 1934, they moved to Dubăsari, but on April 10, 1935, NKVD ordered his wife to move to Pervomaisk. They brought an 8-year-old daughter, they fled from Pervomaisk and returned to Corjova, where they were arrested in January 1936. Sârbu was condemned to three years at Tiraspol prison but was liberated early, after two years and a few months. On January 26, 1938, he and his wife were arrested in Corjova and condemned for two years and 1 year of prison at Tiraspol. One of his children, died in May. On January 26, 1940, he returned to Corjova.
After Operation Barbarossa, a nephew of Isidor Sârbu, dekulakized too, became the mayor of Corjova. Vladimir Voronin Corjova, satul cu două istorii "Cartea moldoveană" no.1, 1943, "O viaţă canonită ca atâtea altele"