Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100 km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, myanmar, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired scientists and engineers like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere. World War II inspired Wernher von Braun to create the V2 rockets; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts".
Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work. For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code; these codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation (encompassing Mikoyan, Ily
Zeng Jinyan, is a Chinese blogger and human rights activist. The wife of AIDS and environmental activist Hu Jia, Zeng became famous for a blog she had maintained throughout the disappearance of her husband, believed to be the working of China's secret police. Zeng was put under house arrest in August 2006 and the blog that details her life under constant surveillance and police harassment has been subsequently blocked in China. Zeng continued to update her blog until July 2008, before her disappearance. Zeng Jinyan and Hu Jia made a 31-minute documentary, "Prisoners of Freedom City," of their seven-month house arrest from August 2006 to March 2007; the couple was placed under house arrest again, two months on May 18, 2007 for harming state security. Zeng Jinyan is dubbed "Tiananmen 2.0." and selected as TIME Magazine's 100 People Who Shape Our World in 2007 as a hero and a pioneer. One day before the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Zeng Jinyan was forcibly disappeared along with her baby daughter.
She used to live in Hong Kong. She is an Oak Human Rights Fellow at Colby College. Zeng Jinyan's blog Clip of documentary, "Prisoners of Freedom City" on YouTube The full documentary, "Prisoners of Freedom City" on the WITNESS Hub - Part 1, Part 2 & Part 3
In corporate finance, a listing refers to the company's shares being on the list of stock that are traded on a stock exchange. Some stock exchanges allow shares of a foreign company to be listed and may allow dual listing, subject to conditions; the issuing company is the one that applies for a listing but in some countries an exchange can list a company, for instance because its stock is being traded via informal channels. Stocks whose market value and/or turnover fall below critical levels may be delisted by the exchange. Delisting arises from a merger or takeover, or the company going private; each stock exchange has its own listing rules. Initial listing requirements include supplying a history of a few years of financial statements; the listing requirements imposed by some stock exchanges include: New York Stock Exchange: the New York Stock Exchange requires a company to have issued at least a million shares of stock worth $100 million and must have earned more than $10 million over the last three years.
NASDAQ Stock Exchange: NASDAQ requires a company to have issued at least 1.25 million shares of stock worth at least $70 million and must have earned more than $11 million over the last three years. London Stock Exchange: the main market of the London Stock Exchange requires a minimum market capitalization, three years of audited financial statements, minimum public float and sufficient working capital for at least 12 months from the date of listing. Bombay Stock Exchange: Bombay Stock Exchange requires a minimum market capitalization of ₹250 million and minimum public float equivalent to ₹100 million. Delisting refers to the practice of removing the stock of a company from a stock exchange so that investors can no longer trade shares of the stock on that exchange; this occurs when a company goes out of business, declares bankruptcy, no longer satisfies the listing rules of the stock exchange, or has become a private company after a merger or acquisition, or wants to reduce regulatory reporting complexities and overhead, or if the stock volumes on the exchange from which it wishes to delist are not significant.
Delisting does not mean a change in company's core strategy. In the United States, securities which have been delisted from a major exchange for reasons other than going private or liquidating may be traded on over-the-counter markets like the OTC Bulletin Board or the Pink Sheets. Nasdaq listing standards and fees