An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, testing and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, rockets, or spacecraft. Aerospace is a high technology industry; the aircraft industry is the industry supporting aviation by building aircraft and manufacturing aircraft parts for their maintenance. This includes parts used for civil aviation and military aviation. Most production is done pursuant to type certificates and Defense Standards issued by a government body; this term has been subsumed by the more encompassing term: "aerospace industry". In 2015 the aircraft production was worth $180.3 Billion: 61% airliners, 14% business and general aviation, 12% Military aircraft, 10% military rotary wing and 3% civil rotary wing. The global aerospace industry was worth $838 billion in 2017: Aircraft & Engine OEMs represented 28%, Civil & Military MRO & Upgrades 27%, Aircraft Systems & Component Manufacturing 26%, Satellites & Space 7%, Missiles & UAVs 5% and other activity, including flight simulators, defense electronics, public research accounted for 7%.
The countries with the largest industry were led by the United States with $408.4 Bn followed by France with $69 Bn China with $61.2 Bn, United Kingdom with $48.8 Bn, Germany with $46.2 Bn, Russia with $27.1 Bn, Canada with $24 Bn, Japan with $21 Bn, Spain with $14 Bn and India with: the top 10 countries represent $731 Bn or 87.2% of the whole industry. In 2018, the new commercial aircraft value is projected for $270.4 billion while business aircraft will amount for $18 billion and civil helicopters for $4 billion. In September 2018, PwC ranked aerospace manufacturing attractiveness: the most attractive country was the United States, with $240 billion in sales in 2017, due the sheer size of the industry and educated workforce, low geopolitical risk, strong transportation infrastructure, a healthy economy, but high costs and average tax policy. Following were Canada, Singapore and United Kingdom. Within the US, the most attractive was Washington state, due to the best Industry, leading Infrastructure and Economy, good labor, average tax policy but is costly.
Washington is tied to Boeing Commercial Airplanes, earning $10.3 billion, is home to 1,400 aerospace-related businesses, has the highest aerospace jobs concentration. Following are Texas, Georgia and Colorado. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as Airbus, Safran, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB, Terma A/S, Patria Plc and Leonardo are participants in the global aerospace industry and research effort. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Corporation are among the major global players in this industry. In the US, the Department of Defense and NASA are the two biggest consumers of aerospace technology and products; the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States reported that the aerospace industry employed 444,000 wage and salary jobs in 2004, many of which were in Washington and California, this marked a steep decline from the peak years during the Reagan Administration when total employment exceeded 1,000,000 aerospace industry workers.
During that period of recovery a special program to restore U. S. competitiveness across all U. S. industries, Project Socrates, contributed to employment growth as the U. S. aerospace industry captured 72 percent of world aerospace market. By 1999 U. S. share of the world market fell to 52 percent. Important locations of the civil aerospace industry worldwide include Seattle, Kansas, Ohio and St. Louis in the United States and Toronto in Canada and Bordeaux in France, Seville in Spain and Hamburg in Germany, the North-West of England and Bristol in Britain, Komsomolsk-on-Amur and Irkutsk in Russia and Kharkiv in Ukraine, Nagoya in Japan, as well as São José dos Campos in Brazil where Embraer is based. Several consolidations took place in the aerospace and defense industries over the last few decades. BAE Systems is the successor company to numerous British aircraft manufacturers which merged throughout the second half of the 20th century. Many of these mergers followed the 1957 Defence White Paper.
Airbus prominently illustrated the European airliner manufacturing consolidation in the late 1960s. Between 1988 and 2010, more than 5,452 mergers and acquisitions with a total known-value of US$579 billion were announced worldwide. In 1993 United States Secretary of Defense Les Aspin and his deputy William J. Perry held the "Last Supper" at the Pentagon with contractors executives who were told that there were twice as many military suppliers as he wanted to see: $55 billion in military-industry mergers took place from 1992 to 1997, leaving Boeing, Lockheed Martin and Raytheon. Boeing bought McDonnell Douglas for US$13.3 billion in 1996. Raytheon acquired Hughes Aircraft Company for $9.5 billion in 1997. Marconi Electronic Systems, a subsidiary of the General Electric Company plc, was acquired by British Aerospace for US$12.3 billion in 1999 merger, to form BAE Systems. In 2002, when Fairchild Dornier was b
The C class was a mainline goods locomotive of the 2-8-0'Consolidation' type that ran on the Victorian Railways between 1918 and 1962. Although its original design had some key shortcomings, a number of improvements were made over the class' long career on the VR, many of which were subsequently applied to other locomotive classes on the system. Designed by Chief Mechanical Engineer W. M. Shannon, the C class was the first goods locomotive designed and built in-house by the Victorian Railways Newport Workshops, following on from the successful Dd and A2 class passenger locomotives; when class leader C 1 was introduced in 1918, it was the heaviest and most powerful steam locomotive in Australia. It had been necessary for Victorian Railways to strengthen bridges at Dudley Street, North Melbourne and along the lines to Woodend and Seymour on which the new locomotive was expected to run; the prototype locomotive C 1 was the only one of the class painted in the Victorian Railways'Canadian Red' scheme.
Locomotive C 2 was the first new Victorian Railways locomotive to be finished in the new VR livery of plain, unrelieved black, a cost-efficiency initiative introduced by the new VR Chairman Harold Clapp. It was the first of a further 25 C class members built at Newport Workshops between 1921 and 1926; the high tractive effort of the C class locomotives enabled Victorian Railways to operate heavier goods trains with a single locomotive and thus enabled significant savings in operating costs through a reduction in train-miles for the tonnage hauled. Along with the smaller K class branch line 2-8-0, they were credited with playing a major part in the 15% reduction in overall goods and livestock train miles on Victoria Railways between 1920 and 1924, against a reduction of overall tonnage hauled of only 3% for the same years. Upon introduction, locomotive C 1 was put to work operating through goods trains on the Melbourne to Seymour line. Apart from its ability to operate a heavy train unassisted, it was found to be 5% more efficient in coal consumption per ton-mile than superheater-equipped A2 and Dd class locomotives, 25% more efficient that A2 or Dd class locomotives with saturated steam boilers.
By 1924 C class locomotives were operating on the Bendigo, North Eastern, Wonthaggi railway lines, where full trainloads of bulk goods were available. By 1925, they were operating grain trains from Ararat to Geelong via Maroona where they were able to haul 1200 ton trains unassisted, a 420-ton increase over the hauling capacity of an A2 class locomotive on the same route. In practice, the C class was a somewhat less successful design than the A2. Key shortcomings included a long, 9 feet 7 inches manually stoked firebox, difficult to fire and prone to clinkering, an undersized boiler; the locomotives tended to run out of steam. In an attempt to rectify these problems, locomotive C 5 was fitted in 1933 with a new front end, based on the Association of American Railroads design of self-cleaning smokebox, to improve steaming qualities; the results were promising and led to further experimental work, using A2 class locomotive A2 998 as a test bed and conducted under the direction of VR Rolling Stock branch engineer Edgar Brownbill, in streamlining the steam passages and other changes to reduce back pressure on the exhaust side and increase efficiency.
These changes, referred to as'Modified Front End', were such an improvement that the rest of the A2 and C classes were progressively modified, as well as all of the K, N, S and X classes. In 1929, C 5 became the first VR locomotive to be fitted with a cross-compound air compressor, subsequently adopted across other VR locomotive classes; the C class was the first goods locomotive to be fitted with Automatic Staff Exchange apparatus, given their frequent used on express goods and fruit services. As the poor quality of coal available after World War II exacerbated the problems of firing the C class and industrial action in the mines threatened supply, the entire class was converted to oil firing from 1946 onwards following an initial conversion of C 15 in 1946. Despite the success of the conversion, C class locomotives were still prone to running out of steam when pushed on long rising gradients. Whereas other VR locomotives to receive Modified Front End treatment had been equipped with smoke deflectors in the 1930s, it was not until 1947 that the VR developed a successful design of smoke deflector for the C class, based on the German "Witte" pattern.
This design was adopted for the final Newport-built N class locomotives as well as the last two steam locomotive classes on the VR, the R and J classes. In 1923, C 16 was modified with Fuller-Lehigh equipment to run on Pulverised Brown Coal, a abundant fuel in Victoria given the large brown coal reserves in the Latrobe Valley. Unlike the conversion of X class locomotive X 32 to PBC firing in 1949, this early experiment was not considered a success and C 16 was returned to black coal operation. During World War II heavy passenger trains and a shortage of suitable motive power saw the C class used as mainline passenger locomotives, a somewhat unusual assignment for a 2-8-0. To facilitate passenger working, their maximum allowable speed was raised from 50 mph to 60 mph on the key North Eastern, Ballarat and Geelong lines; the postwar rebuilding of Victorian Railways in the late 1940s and early 1950s saw the order of hundreds of new locomotives of superior design to the C class, culminating in the delivery of B class mainline diesel electric and L class mainline electric locomotives.
With these new locomotives entering service, the ageing C class locomotives were progressively withdrawn from service, commencing with C 20 in J
United in Europe was a British single-issue pro-European political party formed to only contest European Parliament elections, though it never stood. The party advocated continued membership of the UK in the European Union, with stronger ties and deeper political representation within the European Parliament. United in Europe was founded by Charles Cormack in early January 2014 and registered on 3 April 2014, as a response to the rise of the UK Independence Party and the influence it was exerting on other political parties; the party believed that UKIP's newfound prominence caused other political parties within the UK to alter their policies and become Eurosceptic, which the party criticised. The party did not stand in the European Parliament elections and was deregistered in November 2015. United in Europe's overriding policy was Britain's continued membership of the EU; the party argued that Britain's future should be at the heart of the EU, as a leader that "spearheads European initiatives".
The party described its general ethos as for British youth, who are not represented by the older established political class seen as corrupt and unaccountable. United in Europe described itself as social liberal party, supporting social equality, social justice, the free movement of people and resources, a common market, reducing barriers and borders. Campaigning in Scotland for the 2014 European elections, the party considered itself a British party with aspirations to become a European-wide movement, their stance on the Scottish independence referendum was neutral as the party believed that a strong pro-EU voice was vital, whether Scotland became independent or not
Sergeant James McKinley Hargreaves was a Scottish World War I flying ace. Despite being an observer, he became one of the first flying aces in history while flying with Lionel Rees. Hargreaves joined the Royal Flying Corps in early 1913, aged 30, receiving service number 1232, he was assigned No. 11 Squadron, the first British flying squadron to be equipped with a purpose-built fighter aircraft, the pusher Vickers Gunbus. The squadron arrived in France on 25 July 1915, at the time Adolphe Pegoud became the first ace in history. Three days Hargreaves scored his first aerial victory while teamed with Rees in Gunbus Serial No. 1649, driving a Fokker Eindekker down out of control. On 31 August, they destroyed an LVG two-seater reconnaissance plane. Hargreaves' third victory came on 21 September, when he drove down an AGO reconnaissance aircraft over Herbecourt; the next day, he repeated the feat. On the 30th, they forced down another Albatros, this one from the German artillery cooperation squadron, Feld-Flieger-Abteilung 23.
The dying crew crash-landed behind British lines, the aircraft was captured. Hargreaves was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for his valour, his citation reading: 1232 Flight-Serjeant J. Hargreaves, No. 11 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. For conspicuous gallantry and skill on several occasions, notably the following: On 21 September 1915, when in a machine armed with one machine-gun and piloted by Captain Rees, a large German Biplane armed with two machine-guns was sighted 2,000 feet below. Our machine spiralled down and engaged the enemy, being faster, manoeuvred to get broadside on and opened fire; the attack, was pressed, the engine of the enemy's biplane was struck, for after a quick turn it glided down some distance and fell just inside the German lines. On 31 August Captain Rees, with Flight-Serjeant Hargreaves, fought a powerful German machine for three-quarters of an hour, they returned for more ammunition and went out again to the attack. The enemy's machine was brought down wrecked.
Rees received the Military Cross. Hargreaves trained a pilot, being granted Royal Aero Club Aviators' Certificate No. 1887 after soloing in a Maurice Farman biplane at the British Flying School at Le Crotoy, France on 13 October 1915. Citations Bibliography
Mark S. Polhemus nicknamed "Humpty Dumpty", was a Major League Baseball player. Polhemus started the 1887 season with Haverhill of the New England League, he hit.456 in 51 games and was acquired by the major league Indianapolis Hoosiers. However, he fielded poorly and only saw action in 20 games for the Hoosiers. In 1888, he went back to the New England League with the Lowell Chippies, he led the Chippies with 14 home runs in just 75 games. In 1889, he played for the New Orleans Pelicans of the Southern League. New Orleans won the pennant. Polhemus played in various other minor leagues through the 1898 season. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference
The 1984 Cal State Fullerton Titans baseball team represented California State University, Fullerton in the 1984 NCAA Division I baseball season. The Titans played their home games at Titan Field; the team was coached by Augie Garrido in his 12th season at Cal State Fullerton. The Titans won the College World Series. Kirk BatesAll-SCBA First TeamBob CaffreyAll-SCBA First Team College World Series All-Tournament TeamEddie DelzerCollege World Series All-Tournament TeamJohn FishelCollege World Series Most Outstanding Player College World Series All-Tournament Team All-America Second Team All-SCBA First TeamBlaine LarkerCollege World Series All-Tournament TeamJose MotaAll-SCBA First TeamTodd SimmonsAll-America First Team All-SCBA First TeamTom ThomasAll-SCBA First TeamScott WrightAll-America First Team SCBA Player of the Year All-SCBA First Team The following members of the Cal State Fullerton Titans baseball program were drafted in the 1984 Major League Baseball Draft