The victoriatus was a silver coin issued during the Roman Republic from about 221 BC to 170 BC. The obverse of the coin featured the bust of Jupiter and the reverse featured Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy with the inscription "ROMA" in exergue; the coin weighed about 3.4 grams, meaning that it was half the value of the quadrigatus, a coin weighing 6 scruples, by this time no longer produced. The victoriatus was made of a more debased silver than the denarius, introduced at about the same time. Hoard evidence indicates that the coin circulated in southern Italy and Gaul, indicating that the coin was intended as a replacement for the drachma or half-nomos instead of as part of the normal Roman coin system; when first issued the victoriatus had a value of about 3/4 of a denarius, however when the quinarius was reintroduced in 101 BC with a similar type, it was valued at 1/2 a denarius. This indicates that victoriati that were still in circulation at this time were worn and considered to be worth only half a denarius.
The reintroduced quinarius was produced for Cisalpine Gaul, where the victoriatus and imitations were popular. The reintroduced quinarius may have continued to be called a victoriatus, although there is no written evidence of this; the name victoriatus is an ancient term, attested by inscriptions. The coin was known as a tropaikon among Greek speakers. Roman currency Michael Crawford Roman Republican coinage John Melville Jones, A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins, London 1990
The follis was a type of coin in the Roman and Byzantine traditions. In the past the word'follis' was used to describe a large bronze Roman coin introduced in about 294 at the time of the coinage reform of Diocletian, it weighed about 10 grams and was about 4% silver as a thin layer on the surface. However studies have shown that this is wrong, that this coin may have been known as a'nummus'; the word follis means bag in Latin, there is evidence that this term was used in antiquity for a sealed bag containing a specific amount of coinage. It has been suggested that the coin was named Follis because of the ancient Greek word "φολίς" meaning a thin layer of metal which covers the surface of various objects, since this coin had a thin layer of silver on top. The'follis' of Diocletian, despite efforts to enforce prices with the Edict on Maximum Prices, was revalued and reduced as time passed. By the time of Constantine, it was smaller and contained any silver. A series of Constantinian bronzes was introduced in the mid-4th century, although the specific denominations are unclear and debated by historians and numismatists.
They are referred to as AE1, AE2, AE3 and AE4, with the former being the largest and the latter the smallest in diameter. Namely: Fourth century folles represent; the follis was reintroduced as a large bronze coin in 498, with the coinage reform of Anastasius, which included a series of bronze denominations with their values marked in Greek numerals. A 40 nummi coin of Anastasius is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 50 denars banknote, issued in 1996; the fals was a bronze coin issued by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates beginning in the late 8th century as imitations of the Byzantine follis. Trifollaro, a medieval coin worth 3 folles Fals, early Umayyad coin Falus, former Moroccan coin Fils, modern subdivision of certain Arab currencies Grierson, Byzantine coinage, Dumbarton Oaks, ISBN 978-0-88402-274-9, archived from the original on 13 June 2010 Hendy, Michael F. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c.300–1450, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-24715-2 Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 A close look at a follis by Doug Smith Follis Coin Catalog information and details Article from Forum coins
As (Roman coin)
The as assarius was a bronze, copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. The Romans replaced the usage of Greek coins, first by bronze ingots by disks known as aes rude; the system thus named as was introduced in ca. 280 BC as a large cast bronze coin during the Roman Republic. The following fractions of the as were produced: the bes, quincunx, quadrans, sextans and semuncia, as well as multiples of the as, the dupondius, tressis. After the as had been issued as a cast coin for about seventy years, its weight had been reduced in several stages, a sextantal as was introduced. At about the same time a silver coin, the denarius, was introduced. Earlier Roman silver coins had been struck on the Greek weight standards that facilitated their use in southern Italy and across the Adriatic, but all Roman coins were now on a Roman weight standard; the denarius, or'tenner', was at first tariffed at ten asses, but in about 140 B. C. it was retariffed at sixteen asses. This is said to have been a result of financing the Punic Wars.
During the Republic, the as featured the bust of Janus on the obverse, the prow of a galley on the reverse. The as was produced on the libral and the reduced libral weight standard; the bronze coinage of the Republic switched from being cast to being struck. During certain periods, no asses were produced at all. Following the coinage reform of Augustus in 23 BC, the as was struck in reddish pure copper, the sestertius or'two-and-a-halfer' and the dupondius were produced in a golden-colored alloy of bronze known by numismatists as orichalcum; the as continued to be produced until the 3rd century AD. It was the lowest valued coin issued during the Roman Empire, with semis and quadrans being produced infrequently, not at all sometime after the reign of Marcus Aurelius; the last as seems to have been produced by Aurelian between 270 and 275 and at the beginning of the reign of Diocletian. The assarion appears in the Gospel of Matthew, where Jesus asks "Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground outside your Father's care."
The term assarion is variously translated as "penny," "halfpenny", "farthing" or "copper coin" in English translation. It appears in Luke 12:6 where the same speech is recounted, except that now Jesus asks "Are not five sparrows sold for two assarions?" The as, under its Greek name assarion, was re-established by the Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and minted in great quantities in the first half of the 14th century. It was a low-quality flat copper coin. 3–4 grams and forming the lowest denomination of contemporary Byzantine coinage, being exchanged at 1:768 to the gold hyperpyron. It appears that the designs on the assarion changed annually, hence they display great variations; the assarion was replaced in 1367 by the tournesion and the follaro. Roman currency Roman finance
The miliarense was a large silver coin, introduced to the late Roman monetary system in the early 4th century. It was struck with variable fineness with a weight between 3.8 and 6.0 grams, a diameter of c. 23–24 mm. The miliarense was struck first under Constantine the Great. There were two kinds of miliarense coins: heavy, it took 14 heavy miliarensia and 18 light miliarensia to equal one gold solidus. Miliarensia are desired by numismatists of the present day, due to both the rarity of the denomination and the exquisite execution of both bust and reverse types, which led to many being used as pendants or mounted in antiquity. A variant of the original denomination was revived in the Byzantine silver coinage from the 8th to the 11th centuries. Roman currency Byzantine coinage
The uncia was a Roman currency worth 1/12 of an as. By derivation, it was the name of a bronze coin valued at one-twelfth of an as produced during the Roman Republic; the uncia started as a Roman-Oscan weight of about 23 grams for a 273 gram pound, with Attic weight issues of about 27 grams under the libral standard for a 327 gram pound and was produced towards the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage. Obverse types of the uncia include a knucklebone, a barleycorn, the helmeted bust of Roma. In imperial times the uncia was revived under Trajan and Hadrian; this coin weighed about 0.8 -- 1.2 grams. It featured the bust of the emperor on the obverse with no inscription and "SC" in a wreath on the reverse. If this issue belonged to the imperial system, meaning it was not a provincial piece, it would be an uncia; this issue may have been made only for circulation in the East. Duella Roman currency Roman Republican coinage
Aes signatum consisted of cast ingots of bronze of measured quality and weight, embossed with a government stamp, used as currency in Rome and central Italy before the introduction of aes grave in the mid 4th century BC. When they were first made is uncertain. Popular tradition ascribes them to Servius Tullius, but due to the high quality of art found on the earliest specimens, this seems unlikely. A date in the midst of the 5th century BC is agreed on. Designs featured are that of a bull, an eagle, other religious symbols; the earliest aes signatum was not cast in Rome proper, but in central Italy, Etruria and Reggio Emilia. It bore the image of a branch with side branches radiating from it, was called Ramo Secco; the bars did not adhere to a set weight standard, varying from about 600 to 2500 grams when complete. They were broken into subdivisions, few complete specimens survive today; the surviving ramo secco bars are quarter, half or three quarter bars, or minor smaller pieces which could be classified as rough bronze.
The same fragmentation into smaller change applies to aes signatum issued by the city of Rome, which did correspond to the Roman heavy standard for the as. They weighed 5 asses when whole, they could technically be termed a quincussis. The Roman aes signatum conforms more to size and weight standards because they are an official issue, where the ramo secco bars were more of a recognizable item of barter exchange that would be weighed, rather than taken at a face value. Ramo secco bars were not issued by governing bodies, could have been made at any foundry facility. 3. Italo Vecchi, Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, London 2013
Quincunx (Roman coin)
The quincunx was an ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. It was not part of the standard Roman monetary system, it was only produced during the Second Punic War, by mints at Luceria, Teate and northern Apulia. A coin with the same value was minted in Capua, during the Second Punic War, after the defeat of Cannae; the word quincunx comes from Latin quinque which means "five" and uncia which means "one twelfth", because the coin was valued at five-twelfths of an as. Its value was sometimes represented by a pattern of five dots arranged like the points of a die, so this pattern came to be called quincunx